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Article
Publication date: 19 November 2018

Izabela Kowalik and Lidia Danik

One of the approaches to study entrepreneurial marketing (EM) is the EMICO framework. The extant studies have not yet explored the application of this framework by…

Abstract

Purpose

One of the approaches to study entrepreneurial marketing (EM) is the EMICO framework. The extant studies have not yet explored the application of this framework by international new ventures (INVs). To address this research gap, four Polish INVs from medium-tech sector have been studied to check whether this tool can be applied to investigate the companies from Central and Eastern European Countries and identify the hierarchy of elements in the EMICO framework.

Design/methodology/approach

Using semi-structured interviews and the card game method, the understanding and importance of the EM concept elements by the Polish entrepreneurs have been explored. The collected text has been analyzed using qualitative data analysis software.

Findings

The studied INVs in their international marketing activity attributed most importance to understanding and responsiveness toward customers, networking, innovation introductions based on gathering of information and on the constant communication with clients. Most of the EMICO framework dimensions were confirmed; however, the concepts of “exploiting markets” and “integration of business processes” had minor importance for marketing.

Research limitations/implications

Research findings are relevant mainly for the B2B companies.

Originality/value

The paper recommends a modified list of EMICO elements for use in future studies concerning the small- and medium-sized enterprise internationalization.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Izabela Kowalik, Lidia Danik and Tomasz Sikora

The purpose of this paper is to develop the international entrepreneurship theory, by examining the entrepreneurial characteristics of international new venture (INV…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop the international entrepreneurship theory, by examining the entrepreneurial characteristics of international new venture (INV) originating in Poland. Furthermore, it is assessed in the study whether these characteristics relate to the performance of INVs, considering the role of the age of the company.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected via a CATI survey of 105 Polish small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), conforming to the early internationalization criteria, and 128 gradually internationalized SMEs. Student’s t-tests, correlation and, regression analysis were applied for group comparisons and relationship testing.

Findings

The Polish INVs are characterized by higher innovativeness and risk propensity than gradual exporters. Moreover, medium-strength correlations between entrepreneurial orientation (EO) elements and performance were found. The regression analysis proved that new product introduction, risk taking, and experience influence INV performance.

Research limitations/implications

The sample includes Polish SMEs from one sector. Moreover, most of the analyzed companies admitted being successful abroad, which may have influenced the study results.

Practical implications

Fast launching of new products and product development are important for quick expansion. A conciliatory approach to competitors is associated with better performance. Regarding the policy makers, the development of “breakthrough innovations” might not be as important as assisting the INVs in product launches.

Originality/value

An under-researched topic of EO of SMEs from a post-transformation market and its relationships with performance is explored. Moreover, the correlation of the company’s age and experience with success is studied.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 25 January 2011

Izabela Kowalik

Over the past few years there have been several attempts to reform the structure and functioning of the Polish local government units (LGU). Therefore, it is worth…

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Abstract

Purpose

Over the past few years there have been several attempts to reform the structure and functioning of the Polish local government units (LGU). Therefore, it is worth analyzing the application of the marketing concept in this context. More specifically the purpose of this paper is to determine the present level of market orientation (MO) of the Polish LGU, and indicate some factors stimulating the MO development.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey with use of CATI technique was conducted among 450 local government officials in Poland. Based on the gathered data a set of hypotheses related to MO level and its antecedents was examined by multiple regression analysis and analysis of variance procedures.

Findings

The overall MO level of the Polish LGU is moderate, 21 percent of the units can be considered as truly market‐oriented according to Western standards. The MO scores are diversified with respect to LGU types. Especially, they are significantly lower in smaller municipalities and districts as opposed to town municipalities and cities. Also, the scores for intelligence response are significantly higher than those concerning intelligence generation and intelligence dissemination. The results regarding antecedents of MO suggest that its IG and ID dimensions are positively related to the organization size, professional training of managers, and revenues in the medium‐sized units.

Practical implications

The survey results are valuable to local government managers, indicating areas where measures should be taken to increase the MO.

Originality/value

The paper represents a first application of the well‐known MARKOR scale to the Polish public sector.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2015

Adam F. Kola and Anna Maria Kola

Poland’s political and economic transformation after 1989 brought the logic of the neoliberal market into the educational system. These changes, however, were far from the…

Abstract

Purpose

Poland’s political and economic transformation after 1989 brought the logic of the neoliberal market into the educational system. These changes, however, were far from the real liberal free market and instead relied on bureaucratic and technocratic local-level apparatus as well as supranational supports (the EU). Moreover, instead of enhancing post-socialist education to bring them up to the level of the core territories, this process pushed education out to the (semi?)periphery. The purpose of this paper is to present selected examples of alternative non-mainstream models of education.

Design/methodology/approach

Elements analyzed include: non/academic discourses, with particular emphasis on academic texts, media material and public debates concerning the topic in question.

Findings

Two related fields and levels ought to be distinguished: the descriptive level, focused on presenting non-mainstream educational institutions and initiatives, within the socioeconomic context of Poland’s post-socialist transformation; the normative level, with recommendations for policymakers, NGOs and educational activists.

Practical implications

Appreciation of systems parallel and alternative to the neoliberal and technocratic mainstream education system in Poland, with a view to encouraging both policymakers to recognise and develop such initiatives, and members of Polish civil society to create and participate in such forms of education.

Originality/value

Most scholars focus on mainstream education, with a number of exceptions, largely those engaged in the parallel models. This neoliberal model of education is accepted or critically examined, but its technocratic base is not recognised. This text is therefore ground-breaking in that it describes the real mechanisms of the Polish educational system in transition and provides a normative account and recommendations.

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