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Article
Publication date: 30 April 2018

Izabela I. Szymanska and Beth A. Rubin

This research aims to investigate the differences in evaluations of job performance between male and female managers by those managers’ immediate bosses and peers.

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Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to investigate the differences in evaluations of job performance between male and female managers by those managers’ immediate bosses and peers.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on gender structure theory, along with ideas about status characteristics, the authors use hierarchical regression to test the hypotheses that male and female bosses and peers deferentially evaluate the male and female manager’s global job performance. The authors hypothesize significant two-way interactions (gender of the manager by gender of evaluator) in predicting a manager’s job performance.

Findings

The results suggest that while male peers rate female managers’ job performance significantly lower than that of male managers, female peers do not discriminate between genders in their performance evaluations. Also, managers’ bosses were found not to discriminate between genders of their subordinates.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations of this study have to do primarily with the data. While the data are rich on some dimensions, they are weak on others, especially with regard to the detail about the jobs the respondents did, detailed level of familiarity with the evaluated managers, as well as racial background. The data also do not provide information on the different facets of job performance, the evaluation of which could potentially be impacted by managerial gender; this study is focused exclusively on global job performance.

Practical implications

The authors discuss various theoretical explanations of this pattern of results, as well as its possible influence on female managers’ careers. Although the effect size of the negative bias that male peers exhibit toward female managers is relatively small, it may be argued that lower performance assessments can accumulate over years in multiple job evaluations, negatively affecting the career of female leaders.

Originality/value

The evaluations supplied by different organizational members gain importance with the increased use of 360-degree feedback instruments not just for developmental but also for the job performance appraisal purposes. While the job evaluations of managers’ bosses have been investigated in the past with regard to the possible gender bias, this study provides the first known to the authors’, evidence. Also, this study points to a direct bias in performance assessments, rather than a potentially more subtle, non-performance-based bias that affects the disparities in wages and promotions of female managers. Thus, this study helps to fill a significant gap in the literature on organizations and it may have practical implications for the advancement of female managers. In addition to this contribution, this study also provides data that may be useful in resolving the ongoing debate whether female bosses act more as cogs in the machine or as change agents in organizations.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 September 2022

Anna Motylska-Kuzma, Izabela Szymanska and Krzysztof Safin

This paper investigates the impact of family influence measured by the F-PEC scale on private enterprise (both family firms and lone founders) leadership succession strategy.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper investigates the impact of family influence measured by the F-PEC scale on private enterprise (both family firms and lone founders) leadership succession strategy.

Design/methodology/approach

The research dataset is comprised of 390 private enterprises whose head offices were situated in the voivodeships of Lower Silesia and Wielkopolska in Poland. The authors collected data through CAPI (computer-assisted personal interviewing) method, as well as through comprehensive, structured interviews with company owners. Data were analysed using hierarchical logistic regression for each type of succession strategy.

Findings

The results suggest that increased family influence does not necessarily lead to intra-family leadership succession in private enterprises. Importantly, a range of findings contradicted authors' predictions. The relationship between the overall F-PEC scale values signifying the multi-faceted family influence over the business and the choice of internal successor was weakly negative for the total sample; also, the higher the overlap between family and business values and the higher the commitment to family business, as evidenced by the Culture subscale, the lower was the occurrence of intra-family successor choice in the population of lone founders. The Culture subscale also increased the prevalence of lack of succession planning in the sample of lone founders.

Originality/value

While several studies suggests that family firms may be more prone to choose an intra-family succession scenario, it remains unclear how lower levels of business and succession experience, may influence the successor choice. Indeed, some studies suggest that a strong family influence over a business, may stimulate family firms to choose a family outsider as a business leader. Therefore, the key contribution of this study is contextualizing the response to an ongoing succession debate. This study investigates the strategic choices of companies in the first generation of ownership operating in Poland, which serves as an example of a post-transition economy. While the characteristics of this economic environment may be unique, the authors discuss how the surprising findings may add to the understanding of the general succession processes present in private enterprises.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 June 2019

Izabela Szymanska, Anita Blanchard and Kaleigh Kuhns

The purpose of this paper is to focus on efforts of a large department store to increase its business advantage by boosting innovation. The first broad research question of this…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on efforts of a large department store to increase its business advantage by boosting innovation. The first broad research question of this study investigated how the family and non-family members influence the process of organizational change aimed at greater innovativeness in a successful retail family business. The second research question was how the family enterprise handles the tension between change stemming from innovation and progress and the need for stability continuity tradition and maintenance of family control.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is an in-depth inductive analysis (Glaser and Strauss, 1967) of an important and unique case (Yin, 1994).

Findings

The results of the study indicate that the push toward innovation was initiated by family members and that it was focused largely on creating structural support for the innovation activity keeping this activity tightly under monitoring and control by upper management. The attempts at equipping employees with innovation-relevant decision-making authority or consulting the clients in designing novel projects were absent, while the move to change the organizational culture was measured.

Originality/value

This study makes several contributions to the academic literature. It offers an empirical assessment of the effects of emotional attachment and ownership concentration on innovation management, a phenomenon postulated by Kotlar et al. (2016). These two characteristics pulled innovation-boosting initiative in opposite directions creating a unique dynamics. This research also provides an example of organizational identity that hinders the innovation process in the context of a family business that survived and developed over generations.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 10 December 2012

Elżbieta Sawa-Czajka

This chapter describes the situation of Polish women in the process of democratic transition in Poland. Its analysis includes the participation of women in political life, the…

Abstract

This chapter describes the situation of Polish women in the process of democratic transition in Poland. Its analysis includes the participation of women in political life, the activities of women's organizations, and the social situation of Polish women. The first part of this work concerns the period of real socialism; analyzes the main points of the media discussion about the problems of women in processes of democratization in 1989; the political system after 1989, including a possible guarantee in achieving the quota of female representation on electoral lists, which certainly will increase the political representation of women in Polish political institutions.

Details

Linking Environment, Democracy and Gender
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-337-7

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