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The production of glycerol derivatives by the esterification process is subject to many constraints related to the yield of the production target and the lack of process…
The production of glycerol derivatives by the esterification process is subject to many constraints related to the yield of the production target and the lack of process efficiency. An accurate monitoring and controlling of the process can improve production yield and efficiency. The purpose of this paper is to propose a real-time optimization (RTO) using gradient adaptive selection and classification from infrared sensor measurement to cover various disturbances and uncertainties in the reactor.
The integration of the esterification process optimization using self-optimization (SO) was developed with classification process was combined with necessary condition optimum (NCO) as gradient adaptive selection, supported with laboratory scaled medium wavelength infrared (mid-IR) sensors, and measured the proposed optimization system indicator in the batch process. Business Process Modeling and Notation (BPMN 2.0) was built to describe the tasks of SO workflow in collaboration with NCO as an abstraction for the conceptual phase. Next, Stateflow modeling was deployed to simulate the three states of gradient-based adaptive control combined with support vector machine (SVM) classification and Arduino microcontroller for implementation.
This new method shows that the real-time optimization responsiveness of control increased product yield up to 13 percent, lower error measurement with percentage error 1.11 percent, reduced the process duration up to 22 minutes, with an effective range of stirrer rotation set between 300 and 400 rpm and final temperature between 200 and 210°C which was more efficient, as it consumed less energy.
In this research the authors just have an experiment for the esterification process using glycerol, but as a development concept of RTO, it would be possible to apply for another chemical reaction or system.
This research introduces new development of an RTO approach to optimal control and as such marks the starting point for more research of its properties. As the methodology is generic, it can be applied to different optimization problems for a batch system in chemical industries.
The paper presented is original as it presents the first application of adaptive selection based on the gradient value of mid-IR sensor data, applied to the real-time determining control state by classification with the SVM algorithm for esterification process control to increase the efficiency.
This study investigated factors in the retail supply chains that were disrupted by the flow of the product distribution process from suppliers to retail stores and finally…
This study investigated factors in the retail supply chains that were disrupted by the flow of the product distribution process from suppliers to retail stores and finally to consumers during the COVID-19 pandemic.
This qualitative study involved 12 key informants from two manufacturing industries and three retail industries in Indonesia. Meanwhile, the analysis of empirical conditions employed qualitative content analysis to discover facts of the inbound and outbound supplies in retail supply chains.
This study revealed high demands for certain products and a shift in consumer purchase trends during the pandemic screwed merchandising planning in retail stores. These conditions have brought continuous impacts on the production processes of manufacturing industries that also faced constrained raw material supplies. Container shortage in the global supply chain has increasingly aggravated the crisis of retail supply chains. 10;
Retailers and all related parties are ready to anticipate the changing of the supply chain by preparing strategies to overcome the crisis.
A contribution is made to the global retail supply chain in times of crisis and can serve as a framework for further research in each region.