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In this chapter, I examine the populism of the Northern League and Berlusconi. I attempt to provide an institutional explanation as to why Italy, more so than other…
In this chapter, I examine the populism of the Northern League and Berlusconi. I attempt to provide an institutional explanation as to why Italy, more so than other Western European democracies, has experienced such diverse forms of populism. Stated in full, the thesis advanced is that the rise and persistence populism in Western European democracies, such as Italy, is an indication of an institutional crisis of representation.
This chapter provides a list and a brief description of files and documents where the name of Piero Sraffa is mentioned and are currently kept at the Archivio Centrale…
This chapter provides a list and a brief description of files and documents where the name of Piero Sraffa is mentioned and are currently kept at the Archivio Centrale dello Stato and at the Archivio Storico Diplomatico. For each file or document we provide indication of the reference number where it is conserved and a transcription of one or two of the relevant documents out of more than 500 which have been located. The purpose of the chapter is to illustrate the results of archival research of the last decade, including more recent findings, and furnish a groundwork for further research, which may throw further light on documents already known to us, and lead to the discovery of new documents or information, so as to provide a better basis for the reconstruction of the biography of Piero Sraffa and of people whose lives entwined with his – Antonio Gramsci certainly ranking high among them.
Whenever capitalism in the West appears to be dragging with unresolved problems, then quite a few people, including professional economists, begin to think that perhaps…
Whenever capitalism in the West appears to be dragging with unresolved problems, then quite a few people, including professional economists, begin to think that perhaps socialism is a better alternative. Conversely, in the East even a larger number of people, including economists (who are not activists), seriously believe that in view of their shortages and meagre incomes capitalism would be a better alternative.
The chapter analyzes the characteristics of a new political subject, the Five Star Movement, which arose in Italy in 2005 (as local civil lists), was officially…
The chapter analyzes the characteristics of a new political subject, the Five Star Movement, which arose in Italy in 2005 (as local civil lists), was officially constituted in 2009, and became the most voted-for party in the 2013 general election, when the country was hit by a strong surge of populism. This party was founded by the Italian comedian Beppe Grillo and launched via his Internet blog. The chapter will be divided into five parts: a brief introduction about the general context and a description of the Italian political framework and the general crisis of traditional parties, setting the scene from which the discussion will develop. Then, in Section “‘People against the Parties’: The Five Star Movement’s Populist Messages,” I will describe the global characteristics of the Five Star Movement, with an analysis of Grillo’s party communication style, especially its use of social media, its people call (with its enemies), and its mobilization strategies. In Section “Inside the Movement: The Party’s Structural Characteristics,” I will describe the party’s internal organization, in order to underline some controversial elements. In the conclusion I will hazard some hypotheses about the party’s destiny, compared to other populist examples.
This paper aims to analyze the problematic relationship between the Left, the commercial revolution and the progressive growth of mass consumption during the Italian…
This paper aims to analyze the problematic relationship between the Left, the commercial revolution and the progressive growth of mass consumption during the Italian economic miracle.
Taking for example the city of Bologna, the most important city run by the Italian communist party, the paper problematizes the socio-economic and political – institutional processes connected with the emergence of “American-like” commercial and distribution strategies, and of consumerist identities.
Bologna’s administrators governed the commerce through a rationalization supported by urban planning, including the establishment of a chain of “associated supermarkets”, built on municipal areas and financed by a mixed-capital company set up for that purpose. At the same time, they sought to protect small retailers to gain their political consensus and to contain crisis-related anxieties among the consumers, a category which has still an uncertain identity in Italy.
Much remains to be seen in the characteristics of the Italian miracle, and in the manner it was ruled. The case of Bologna illuminates an important piece of the Italian Left’s attempt to interpret and to lead the modernization of the country.
Noting the failure of social economists to appreciate the “context” of Marxist philosopher Antonio Gramsci′s writings, attention is brought to the historical context of Gramsci′s writings by detailing his early life and work. Gramsci′s thoughts on worker ascendancy, labour unions, and political organisation are also received. Gramsci′s plans for the realisation of his ideas are presented as exemplary of worker movements in post‐First World War Italy. The fate of Gramsci′s factory council movement is also discussed.
Drawing on ethnographic research among far-right youth movements, this chapter discusses the view of a “new Europe” as manifested in young activists' discourses and…
Drawing on ethnographic research among far-right youth movements, this chapter discusses the view of a “new Europe” as manifested in young activists' discourses and practices. In arguing that it is necessary to better understand local contexts of political mobilization, it simultaneously foregrounds the transnational orientation of young far-right militants and the interplay of local and translocal factors in shaping their activism. In so doing, this chapter seeks to shed light on the background and the main rationale for their alternative conceptualizing of Europe and to situate it in a long tradition of thinking about Europe, recognizing similarities with the developments in the early twentieth century.
It is shown that the destination of communists can never bereached. The goal of the perfect society is one which lies beyond thepowers of human nature. The analytical…
It is shown that the destination of communists can never be reached. The goal of the perfect society is one which lies beyond the powers of human nature. The analytical teachings of Marxism were accepted by Lenin who devoted himself to the implementation of them in a Russian setting and thereby creating a socialist society. The Party was the dictatorship of the proletariat and not averse to the use of force. Stalin sought to create the centrally planned economy with a mailed fist and became a self‐appointed dictator at the same time as he paid lip service to the Marxist‐Leninist ideology. Solzhenitsyn decries the evils of the USSR and attributes them to the evils of the Marxist‐Leninist ideology. Gorbachev, alive to the shortcomings of the socialist society and the dangers of a nuclear war has, unlike his predecessors, assumed the role of diplomat and peacemaker. Communism is still bent on world domination.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the emergence and development of public relations in Italy between 1945 and 1960. Its aim is to examine the main actors (corporate…
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the emergence and development of public relations in Italy between 1945 and 1960. Its aim is to examine the main actors (corporate and political) involved in the process, how they were influenced by the USA and the emergence of professional associations devoted to expanding the field
The paper is based on research conducted in US and Italian archives and libraries. It analyzes primary sources concerning corporations, government agencies and professional associations involved in promoting public relations in post‐war Italy, such as the United States Information Service, Standard Oil (NJ), Fiat, Piaggio, Olivetti, Pirelli, Intersind.
This paper argues that the introduction of public relations in postwar Italy was strongly influenced by US companies and government agencies, which had a considerable impact on the emergence of professional associations. It also looks at the specific Italian definitions of public relations and points out that in Italy the field of public relations emphasized the importance of “style” and culture over that of marketing, and was often carried out by an array of “humanists” (poets, graphic designers, and writers).
This paper is one of the first studies about the history of public relations in Italy. It points out the peculiarity of the Italian case, by showing the intersection between the terms “propaganda” and “public relations” in a country that had experienced 20 years of Fascist rule.
The main aim of our study is to demonstrate that the Italian way to marketing included not only the “advertising artists” but also what can be labelled as the social…
The main aim of our study is to demonstrate that the Italian way to marketing included not only the “advertising artists” but also what can be labelled as the social network approach, which was mainly used by cooperative enterprises. Focussing on the case study of the Granarolo co-operative, the paper discusses the social network method of marketing as it emerged during the 1950s and 1960s in Italy.
The research draws on different types of primary sources, including co-operative business records, interviews, publications, newspaper articles and advertisements.
In the age of mass consumption, the Granarolo co-operative developed an original marketing strategy based on social networks. This strategy can be considered a kind of community brand based on shared values pre-existing to the brand itself and a kind of viral marketing put in place before the electronic revolution.
The research focusses on the Granarolo case study. It can be extended to other co-operative enterprises. However, it is unknown whether the anticipation of viral marketing has also been used by private enterprises.
The marketing strategies analyzed in the paper could be a interesting solution for undertakings strictly connected and rooted in their local community or in their Web community.
In today’s world of the Web, this physical constraint no longer exists, and the social method of marketing exceeds the regional and even the national level. In conclusion, this was an innovative method of marketing and advertising that came into being, ahead of its time, about a half a century before modern Web-based social networks were conceived, yet uses the same concepts, hence its extraordinary originality.
This study is the result of an original research which tries to highlight what we could label the Italian way to marketing. Taking into consideration the first two decades of the Granarolo history and focussing on the marketing strategy, our contribution seeks to examine how the social networks approach worked and in what it differs from today brand community and viral marketing.