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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2022

Edar da Silva Añaña, Gustavo da Rosa Borges and Jonas Fernando Petry

This study aims to evaluate the factors influencing certain negative feelings, such as social isolation disorder and loneliness, on consumers’ intentions to travel for tourism.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to evaluate the factors influencing certain negative feelings, such as social isolation disorder and loneliness, on consumers’ intentions to travel for tourism.

Design/methodology/approach

This quantitative research used a survey questionnaire composed of eight interval evaluation questions and six demographic variables for the data collection. A total of 290 usable responses were gathered from social networks. The evaluation of the Measurement Model adjustment and the verification of the research hypothesis was done by a structural equations modeling.

Findings

The results reveal that social isolation is not a monolithic construction; instead of that, it is a construct formed by two interrelated factors, the social isolation itself, involving the individual and her/his personality, and the social integration, a factor of situational order, referring to the relations of the individual with his reference group. Factors are influenced by the ease/difficulty of the individual, in cultivating relationships with other people and significantly influence the intention to travel for tourism.

Practical implications

The study contributes to tourism management by breaking the phenomenon down into two dimensions and evaluating the impact of each of them on consumer attitudes, which should be very useful for the segmentation and positioning of tourism products.

Originality/value

Results support the evidence reported by Murphy, who found that people tend to want to make friends, but that this tendency did not appear to be evident about travel and supported Hawthorne’s findings, that the more socially isolated people are, the less they will want to interact with others, demonstrating that social isolation is indeed an inhibitor of social interaction.

Details

Consumer Behavior in Tourism and Hospitality, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2752-6666

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 November 2022

Xinying Yu and Yuwen Liu

With the spread of COVID-19, governments have initiated lockdown procedures and forced organizations to switch to remote working. Employees working remotely in isolated…

Abstract

Purpose

With the spread of COVID-19, governments have initiated lockdown procedures and forced organizations to switch to remote working. Employees working remotely in isolated and confined situations are experiencing great stress and uncertainty. This study aims to investigate how remote workers perform during lockdowns.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on social information processing theory, this study developed and tested hypotheses linking professional isolation, cynicism and task performance. This study was comprised of 497 remote workers in the financial industry in China.

Findings

The findings revealed that professional isolation is positively related to cynicism, and cynicism is negatively related to task performance. Cynicism mediates the relationship between professional isolation and task performance. The results indicated that psychological hardiness moderated the mediation effect of professional isolation on task performance through cynicism.

Practical implications

This research offers implications for managers and practitioners on reducing employees' feeling of isolation through effective communication, collaboration and support via online platforms and preventing and reducing cynicism by introducing clear organizational policy and practice to balance job demands and job resources. Meanwhile, managers can develop commitment, control and challenge components of employees' psychological hardiness to enhance job performance.

Originality/value

This study extends the remote working literature in a crisis situation and fills the gap in the cynicism literature by understanding the role played by cynicism for remote workers. The current study also adds to the literature by highlighting the importance of psychological hardiness for remote workers during the pandemic.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 10 February 2012

Keramet Ann Reiter

Supermaxes across the United States detain thousands in long-term solitary confinement, under conditions of extreme sensory deprivation. Almost every state built a…

Abstract

Supermaxes across the United States detain thousands in long-term solitary confinement, under conditions of extreme sensory deprivation. Almost every state built a supermax between the late 1980s and the late 1990s. This chapter examines the role of federal prisoners’ rights litigation in the 1960s and 1970s in shaping the prisons, especially supermaxes, built in the 1980s and 1990s in the United States. This chapter uses a systematic analysis of federal court case law, as well as archival research and oral history interviews with key informants, including lawyers, experts, and correctional administrators, to explore the relationship between federal court litigation and prison building and designing. This chapter argues that federal conditions of confinement litigation in the 1960s and 1970s (1) had a direct role in shaping the supermax institutions built in the subsequent decades and (2) contributed to the resistance of these institutions to constitutional challenges. The history of litigation around supermaxes is an important and as-yet-unexplored aspect of the development of Eighth Amendment jurisprudence in the United States over the last half century.

Details

Studies in Law, Politics, and Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-622-5

Article
Publication date: 7 July 2022

Rishi Kappal and Dharmesh K. Mishra

This paper aims to explore the interlinkage and association of executive isolation at the workplace faced by Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of a not-for-profit…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the interlinkage and association of executive isolation at the workplace faced by Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of a not-for-profit organizations (NPOs) and its impact on the attrition at the C-Suite Professionals (CXO), Direct reports of CEO levels.

Design/methodology/approach

Executive isolation at top management with reference to the CEO level has emerged as a major challenge that is faced by NPOs with the effect being multiplied by the pandemic and remote working. This paper intends to examine the relevance of the impact of executive isolation experienced by top management leading to increase in the attrition at the CXO levels in NPOs due to their increasing dissatisfaction. To make a thorough study, a detailed literature review has been done followed by qualitative research methods of individual interviews, group interviews and surveys to ascertain the implications of CXO-level executive isolation on the CXOs attrition in NPOs.

Findings

The executive isolation experienced by CEOs makes them develop certain preconceived set of beliefs. By being isolated from the direct report CXOs and action on the ground and working from a remote location, they tend to inculcate their own decisions into the direct reports, thereby depriving them of authority and autonomy. This starts leading to the high level of CXO attrition.

Research limitations/implications

This paper has tried to study the linkage of the executive isolation at top management with the levels of CXO dissatisfaction leading to attrition at NPOs. This topic appears to be much-needed to be understood, especially when the new normal of work is being redefined.

Practical implications

The paper enumerates that the NPOs can attempt to deal with the challenges of engaging CXOs through virtual working; however, the mindfulness can be impacted by the experiences of executive isolation at management levels. This, in turn, can lead to lower morale, compromised performance resulting in CXO-level dissatisfaction and attritions.

Originality/value

With the limited awareness about executive isolation and its multiplier effect due to the pandemic, NPOs, like other enterprises, had to resort to virtual working. However, executive isolation at management levels apparently leads to reduction in the CXO-level engagement with the teams under them and with the CEO to which they report. This aspect can lead to the NPOs not being able to achieve their impact objectives during the outward turbulence and inward challenges of CXO-level attritions because of the CXO-level dissatisfaction.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 April 2022

Souraya Sidani, Melissa Northwood, Bharati Sethi, Zhixi Cecilia Zhuang and Konain Edhi

The stay-at-home orders were necessary to contain the spread of COVID-19 but have worsened social isolation and loneliness among older persons. Strategies to maintain…

Abstract

Purpose

The stay-at-home orders were necessary to contain the spread of COVID-19 but have worsened social isolation and loneliness among older persons. Strategies to maintain social connections have been proposed. It is unclear if the reported experiences of social isolation and loneliness are comparable for older immigrants and if the proposed strategies are relevant to this vulnerable population. This study aimed to address this knowledge gap.

Design/methodology/approach

This scoping review addressed two questions: What evidence exists on the experience of social isolation and loneliness in older immigrants? What strategies can be beneficial to keep older immigrants socially connected during the COVID-19 pandemic? The search for relevant articles was done in several databases covering the scientific and gray literature, using keywords that reflect the diversity of terminology referring to the main concepts (isolation and loneliness) and target population (older immigrants). Discussion papers and research studies were reviewed, and the main points or findings were documented on data abstraction forms and summarized in a table. The information in the table was compared and contrasted to identify common themes.

Findings

Only six articles (four discussion papers and two studies) met the scoping review’s eligibility criteria. Concerns about interruptions of older immigrants’ social connection during the pandemic were partially corroborated with the studies’ results. Most participants shifted the medium of their contacts from in-person to telephone or social media, and perceived no change in the experience of loneliness. Those with high levels of loneliness reported heightened anxiety and depression. The proposed strategies entailed the use of technology to connect with others and to deliver services, outdoor group activities within the constraints of containment measures and provision of culturally tailored social programs or services.

Research limitations/implications

The acceptability, feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed strategies should be examined to determine the best practices aimed to promote social connection among older immigrants within and outside the context of the pandemic.

Originality/value

The scoping review identified strategies that can be used to address social isolation and loneliness among older immigrants during the pandemic.

Details

International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 December 2022

Rajat Kumar Behera, Pradip Kumar Bala, Prabin Kumar Panigrahi and Nripendra P. Rana

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was declared as a pandemic since COVID-19's widespread outbreak and the hospitality industry has been the hardest hit due to lockdown…

Abstract

Purpose

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was declared as a pandemic since COVID-19's widespread outbreak and the hospitality industry has been the hardest hit due to lockdown. Consequently, hospitality workers are suffering from the negative aspects of mental health. In the event of such a crisis, this study aims to explore the link between unemployment and home isolation to the willingness to choose electronic consultation (e-consultation) by exploiting psychological ill-being and behavioural intention (BI) with marital status as a moderator.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative methodology is applied to primary data collected from 310 workers from the hospitality industry through an online survey.

Findings

Findings of this study suggest that the usage of the e-consultation service can be adopted using three levels. There are valid reasons to conclude unemployment and home isolation are linked to higher rates of psychological health behaviours, which can result in stigma, loss of self-worth and increased mortality. The adverse effect is higher for single individuals than for married people.

Originality/value

The study focussed on e-consultation, BI coupled with the Fishbein scale and a classification model for the prediction of willingness to choose e-consultation with the extension of Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB).

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 July 2021

Arun Kumar Gande, Souma Guha Mallick, Bijit Biswas, Sayan Chatterjee and Dipak Ranjan Poddar

This paper aims to present a compact, broadband substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) three-way power divider with improved isolation based on six-port SIW coupler.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a compact, broadband substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) three-way power divider with improved isolation based on six-port SIW coupler.

Design/methodology/approach

The power coupling among the three output ports occurs due to short openings in the narrow walls of the central SIW channel. Performance improvement in the isolation and return loss among ports is achieved using matching posts placed at the input and output ends of the coupling region. This enhances the coupling between TE10 and TE30 modes. The input matching ports enhance the return loss, whereas the isolation is alleviated by both the input and output matching posts. The bandwidth enhancement is achieved by optimizing the outer SIW channel widths.

Findings

The measured fractional bandwidth of 27.3% with over 15 dB of isolation and return loss is achieved. The coupling length is 1.55 λg at the centre frequency. The power divider achieves better than 15 dB isolation between non-adjacent output ports. The measured reflection and isolation coefficients are in close agreement with simulated results over 8.2 to 10.8 GHz.

Practical implications

Isolation between the adjacent and non-adjacent ports is an important parameter as the reflections from these ports will interfere with signals from other ports reducing the fractional bandwidth of the power divider and affecting the overall performance of the transmitters and receivers.

Originality/value

The authors present the enhancement of isolation between the output non-adjacent ports by optimizing the SIW channel width and matching post in the coupling region to reduce the reflected signals from non-adjacent ports entering into other ports. To the author’s knowledge, this is the only SIW three-way power divider paper showing non-adjacent port isolation among six-port couplers based three-way power dividers.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 48 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 17 May 2021

Ruth Gray, Barry Rooney and Clare Connolly

The purpose of this study was to capture the experience of people after completing their period of COVID-19 14-day isolation in prison. This study used in-depth interviews…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to capture the experience of people after completing their period of COVID-19 14-day isolation in prison. This study used in-depth interviews to assess the impact of the restricted regime.

Design/methodology/approach

This was a cross-sectional qualitative study using an adapted regional survey to record people’s experiences of COVID-19 isolation on entry into prison. This study began in April 2020 and continued to run over eight months. A weekly capture of people’s stories was conducted using a convenience sample. A total of 168 people participated in the study, with in-depth interviews conducted by the health-care team. Content conceptual analysis was used to quantify and analyse the themes of impact of COVID-19 isolation. This information was then used to shape iterative health-care service development.

Findings

A number of key themes have emerged from the experiences of COVID-19 isolation, including connection, communication and support. Stories highlighted how isolation had exacerbated depression, anxiety or feelings of self-harm. This was amplified by the uncertainty of the pandemic and lack of information about accessing services in the altered prison regime. A priority for people in COVID-19 isolation was contact with family. Telephone calls and virtual visits were cited as mitigating the mental health impact of social isolation. People who felt supported by health-care or prison staff reported coping with their time in isolation better. Timely, accessible information was pivotal in support, leading to development of Engagement Lead check-ins on the isolation landings. It is crucial that a public health approach is core to the COVID-19 response in prisons. The thematic analysis of the experiences has enabled a focused understanding of the impact of COVID-19 isolation and an accountability of care provision through organisational collaboration and iterative improvements to service delivery.

Originality/value

There is a paucity of real-time evidence of the impact of restricted regimes in prison owing to COVID-19. This study gives an important insight.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 September 2021

Xiuyun Zhu, Rong Pan, Jianbo Li and Gao Lin

In recent years, three-dimensional (3D) seismic base isolation system has been studied extensively. This paper aims to propose a new 3D combined isolation bearing (3D-CIB…

225

Abstract

Purpose

In recent years, three-dimensional (3D) seismic base isolation system has been studied extensively. This paper aims to propose a new 3D combined isolation bearing (3D-CIB) to mitigate the seismic response in both the horizontal and vertical directions.

Design/methodology/approach

The new 3D-CIB composed of laminated rubber bearing coupled with combined disk spring bearing (CDSB) was proposed. Comprehensive analysis of constitution and theoretical derivation for 3D-CIB were presented. The advantage of CDSB is that the constitution can be flexibly adjusted according to the requirements of the bearing capacity and vertical stiffness. Hence, four different combinations of CDSB were designed for the 3D-CIB and employed to isolate nuclear reactor building. A comparative study of the seismic response in terms of seismic action, acceleration floor response spectra (FRS), peak acceleration and relative displacement response was carried out.

Findings

3D-CIB can effectively reduce seismic action, FRS and peak acceleration response of the superstructure in both the horizontal and vertical directions. Overall, the horizontal isolation effectiveness of 3D-CIB was slightly influenced by vertical stiffness. The decrease in the vertical stiffness of the 3D-CIB can reduce the vertical FRS and shift the peak values to a lower frequency. The vertical peak acceleration decreased with a decrease in the vertical stiffness. The superstructure exhibited a rocking effect during the earthquake, and the decrease in the vertical stiffness may increase the rocking of the superstructure.

Originality/value

Although the advantage of 3D-CIB is that the vertical stiffness can be flexibly adjusted by different constitutions, the vertical stiffness should be designed by properly accounting for the balance between the isolation effectiveness and displacement response. This study of isolation effectiveness can provide the technical basis for the application of 3D-CIB into real engineering of nuclear power plants.

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2000

Gina Vega and Louis Brennan

Management control over production has often meant control over one means of production: people. There is evidence of the use of social isolation to control human behavior…

5197

Abstract

Management control over production has often meant control over one means of production: people. There is evidence of the use of social isolation to control human behavior throughout recorded history. Traces the development of social isolation through the multiple lenses of management, economics, psychology, sociology, engineering technology, social psychology, and communication science and presents a taxonomy of perspectives for discussion. The taxonomy is further elucidated through the assignment and distribution of 13 organizational factors for both the objective state and subjective feelings of social isolation as linked to advances in telecommuting and other off‐site “open collar” work.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 13 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

Keywords

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