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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2004

Isobel McDonald

In pre‐industrial times women managed, not only the household, but aspects of agricultural work such as the dairy, milking, butter and cheese‐making, often disposing of…

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Abstract

In pre‐industrial times women managed, not only the household, but aspects of agricultural work such as the dairy, milking, butter and cheese‐making, often disposing of any surplus through trade or commerce. In the nineteenth century women could be found running businesses such as lodging houses and shops. By 1911 women constituted 19 per cent of employers and proprietors and 20 per cent of managers and administrators and higher professionals. Many of today's women managers are “organization” women, part of the professional managerial class which emerged, in the UK, in the immediate post‐war period and it is on these women that the literature concentrates, in an effort to explain why, despite almost 30 years of equality legislation, women remain under represented in management, tend to be occupationally segregated and are paid less than male managers. This paper explores the experiences of today's women managers and compares them with those of their foremothers.

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Employee Relations, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1997

John Hall, Michael Shaw and Isobel Doole

This paper investigates the influence of ethnologically based cultural factors on the motives and occasions for wine consumption both in Australia and overseas. As the…

Abstract

This paper investigates the influence of ethnologically based cultural factors on the motives and occasions for wine consumption both in Australia and overseas. As the international market for wine expands, global marketers have begun searching for new ways to define trans‐national segments. In particular, the success of Australian wines in the UK has provided a strong base for expansion into the competitive European market One key decision must involve what degree of differentiation the marketing program for each country will contain. Because many marketing theorists see ethnic or cultural background as one of the major underlying determinants of consumer behaviour this decision becomes quite critical. Others argue that consumption of wine is not culturally dependent but based on either a common set of motivations or is determined solely by the occasion in which wine will be consumed. To study this hypothesis a questionnaire was administered to approximately 500 respondents from a variety of Australian and European backgrounds. A single cross‐sectional design was employed. Respondents were primarily selected using a random sampling procedure with quotas boosted for some cultural groups by a convenience sampling process. The four chosen for analysis were Italian, Greek, German and Australian. It was found using an occasion‐based segmentation approach that there were significant differences between wine consumers of different cultural backgrounds. It is concluded that cultural factors do impact on the consumption process of wine and should be considered in any proposals for trans‐national segmentation strategies. However it is also shown that there are some motivational factors that are not culturally dependent. These factors are prime reasons for general wine consumption behaviour and could be used if an undifferentiated global! approach to wine segmentation is the most efficient for the marketer.

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International Journal of Wine Marketing, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-7541

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Article
Publication date: 14 October 2010

Jenny Collins

This article examines the national and international connections made by women graduates of the School of Home Science in their efforts to develop the scholarly expertise…

Abstract

This article examines the national and international connections made by women graduates of the School of Home Science in their efforts to develop the scholarly expertise and professional capacity that would enable them to pursue academic careers and to improve the position of women in universities. It argues that despite the obstacles, many women were able to pursue academic pathways and to establish their own authority. By undertaking a transnational analysis, this article examines webs of influence that linked women scholars in New Zealand, Australia, Canada and the United States as well as those in the so called “centre” (Europe and the United Kingdom). It explores the networks formed by a select number of middle class women ‐ scholars such as Ann Gilchrist Strong, Elizabeth Gregory and Neige Todhunter ‐ as they attempted to expand the range of their scholarly work beyond national borders. It considers the influence of appointments of women academics from the United States and the United Kingdom on; the significance of post graduate study opportunities for home science graduates; and the role of scholarships and awards that enabled two way travel between the southern and northern hemispheres. A number of tensions are evident in the way women scholars located their work in new and emerging fields of academic knowledge within the university. This article explores interrelationships between women academics and graduates from the School of Home Science at the University of Otago and academic women in the United Kingdom and the United States. The final section of the paper examines the academic and scholarly life of Catherine Landreth who exemplifies the experience of a select group of women who gained personally, culturally and professionally from their international opportunities, experiences and networks. It considers Landreth’s transnational travels in search of scholarly expertise, the influence of her personal and professional networks, the significance of her pioneering work in the emerging field of early childhood education and the constraints experienced in a highly gendered academic enclave. To begin however it gives a brief overview of the introduction of Home Science at the University of New Zealand and the influence of initial international appointments on the expansion of women’s academic work at the University of Otago.

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History of Education Review, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0819-8691

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1938

OUR various accounts of the Portsmouth Conference, and the official record of it which is now in the hands of readers shows that it may be regarded as a successful one. It…

Abstract

OUR various accounts of the Portsmouth Conference, and the official record of it which is now in the hands of readers shows that it may be regarded as a successful one. It was specially notable for the absence of those bickerings and differences which must inevitably come to the surface at times. There may be something in the suggestion of one of our writers that the weather was a main factor. However that may be, there was uniform good temper, and we came away with the belief that a good week's work for librarianship had been done.

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New Library World, vol. 41 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

Article
Publication date: 1 August 1951

IN an article in The Economist for February 17th, entitled “Facts about Fiction,” the writer refers to “this useful but unobtrusive social service” (the public libraries…

Abstract

IN an article in The Economist for February 17th, entitled “Facts about Fiction,” the writer refers to “this useful but unobtrusive social service” (the public libraries) and the unaccustomed limelight in which they were bathed by the Centenary. The adjectives, congenial as they are and, indeed, as is the tone of the whole article, merit further examination; but the main subject discussed is the library which lends books for money profit. It may be that there will never be a condition of affairs in which the supply of fiction—however it is given—will not be called into question. It is, we are convinced, desirable that it should be reviewed from time to time by the public librarian. It is hoped that this number may be a useful instance. The writer, we notice, has memories of libraries which were “jolted” out of the cast‐iron system of the indicator method of issue by the increase of reading between the two wars. We know that this freedom was won before the first world war. The other point that concerns us is the assertion that a general opinion of light reading in public libraries is based on a wrong view. “In even the biggest and most liberally provided public libraries the addict of one class of novel—be it ‘typist‐marries‐boss’ or ‘riding the range’—can only find enough of them to whet his appetite”; he must soon turn to a circulating library. We think it is probable, on reflection, that most librarians would agree.

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New Library World, vol. 53 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

Article
Publication date: 1 November 1937

THE question of display in libraries becomes more important with the days. It is therefore a peculiar pleasure to us to publish a fine article by Mr. Savage on this. From…

Abstract

THE question of display in libraries becomes more important with the days. It is therefore a peculiar pleasure to us to publish a fine article by Mr. Savage on this. From his earliest days the ex‐President has been deeply and practically interested in book‐display. We believe that nearly forty years ago he and Mr. Jast worked out many experiments in it which are occasionally revived by those who have quite forgotten their origin. He was, we think, the first librarian here to take an ordinary shop as a branch library and dress its window as if it were a bookshop. Before him few English libraries used colour to any extent, or were aware of the aesthetic value of plants, flowers, curtains and well‐shaped furniture.

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New Library World, vol. 40 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

Article
Publication date: 1 September 1986

MELINDA RILEY, BRIAN LANTZ, MIKE CORNFORD, TONY WARSHAW, JANE LITTLE, EDWIN FLEMING, ALLAN BUNCH and WILFRED ASHWORTH

The idea for this hugely successful event at the Crucible Theatre on 7 June, came first from the pages of New Library World, believe it or not. Reading one of Jane…

Abstract

The idea for this hugely successful event at the Crucible Theatre on 7 June, came first from the pages of New Library World, believe it or not. Reading one of Jane Little's articles advertising Feminist Book Fortnight, I noticed that there was not going to be a feminist book fair in this country this year, and that the main fair was to be in Oslo. It seemed an ideal opportunity to alter Sheffield's image as the macho snooker playing capital of the North and the idea for the First Sheffield Women's Book Fair was born.

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New Library World, vol. 87 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

Article
Publication date: 1 July 1930

WE write on the eve of an Annual Meeting of the Library Association. We expect many interesting things from it, for although it is not the first meeting under the new…

Abstract

WE write on the eve of an Annual Meeting of the Library Association. We expect many interesting things from it, for although it is not the first meeting under the new constitution, it is the first in which all the sections will be actively engaged. From a membership of eight hundred in 1927 we are, in 1930, within measurable distance of a membership of three thousand; and, although we have not reached that figure by a few hundreds—and those few will be the most difficult to obtain quickly—this is a really memorable achievement. There are certain necessary results of the Association's expansion. In the former days it was possible for every member, if he desired, to attend all the meetings; today parallel meetings are necessary in order to represent all interests, and members must make a selection amongst the good things offered. Large meetings are not entirely desirable; discussion of any effective sort is impossible in them; and the speakers are usually those who always speak, and who possess more nerve than the rest of us. This does not mean that they are not worth a hearing. Nevertheless, seeing that at least 1,000 will be at Cambridge, small sectional meetings in which no one who has anything to say need be afraid of saying it, are an ideal to which we are forced by the growth of our numbers.

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New Library World, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1931

OWING to the comparatively early date in the year of the Library Association Conference, this number of THE LIBRARY WORLD is published so that it may be in the hands of…

Abstract

OWING to the comparatively early date in the year of the Library Association Conference, this number of THE LIBRARY WORLD is published so that it may be in the hands of our readers before it begins. The official programme is not in the hands of members at the time we write, but the circumstances are such this year that delay has been inevitable. We have dwelt already on the good fortune we enjoy in going to the beautiful West‐Country Spa. At this time of year it is at its best, and, if the weather is more genial than this weather‐chequered year gives us reason to expect, the Conference should be memorable on that account alone. The Conference has always been the focus of library friendships, and this idea, now that the Association is so large, should be developed. To be a member is to be one of a freemasonry of librarians, pledged to help and forward the work of one another. It is not in the conference rooms alone, where we listen, not always completely awake, to papers not always eloquent or cleverly read, that we gain most, although no one would discount these; it is in the hotels and boarding houses and restaurants, over dinner tables and in the easy chairs of the lounges, that we draw out really useful business information. In short, shop is the subject‐matter of conference conversation, and only misanthropic curmudgeons think otherwise.

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New Library World, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1941

STAFF problems in libraries are likely to become very severe within the next few months. That “best seller” among publications, the official schedule of reserved…

Abstract

STAFF problems in libraries are likely to become very severe within the next few months. That “best seller” among publications, the official schedule of reserved occupations, permits no reservation of librarians over the age of 35 after the middle of July, 1941. The effect of this will be that many libraries will be left almost entirely without male staffs. A number of libraries come to mind immediately where the chief librarian himself is under 35, and it is very unlikely that he will have assistants older than himself. It is true that we have never seen an emergency so severe, and perhaps there is nothing that can be done about it. It has been suggested in one quarter that librarians of neighbouring districts should undertake the supervision of any library which is to be deprived of its chief. We are quite sure that such work would gladly be undertaken in spite of the difficulties which the older librarians will experience and are already experiencing seeing that many of them are involved in Food or Civil Defence services. Each librarian must consider very carefully how his system may be preserved and be made to function during his absence: it will require much ingenuity not to lose ground. On the other hand, the use of libraries by the public, even in blitzed areas, is still so great that they are obviously an integral part of the life of our people.

Details

New Library World, vol. 43 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

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