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The purpose of this paper is to analyse the process of social and technical change that took place between 1997 and 2007 through which Samsø, a rural island of 4,000…
The purpose of this paper is to analyse the process of social and technical change that took place between 1997 and 2007 through which Samsø, a rural island of 4,000 inhabitants, became Denmark’s Renewable Energy Island (REI).
Building on ethnographic fieldwork conducted on Samsø in 2013 and 2014, the paper takes as its starting point a citizens’ meeting in which a new renewable energy project is proposed by a municipal coordinator. This meeting, in which the municipal coordinator exhibits a “change management” attitude, fails to win the citizens’ support and becomes an entry point into an investigation of how the REI project developers managed to get the island community to actively support the project. A gateway to the past, the meeting allows the author to ethnographically describe the unobserved events of 1997-2007.
The argument is that the REI project developers practised management through hope or “hope management”, in contrast to “change management”, creating a project that succeeded in accomplishing its goals of changing the island due to its openness, its rootedness in the island community’s past, and the project developers’ ability to speak to a down-to-earth variety of hope.
The paper makes use of an ethnographic study of the present to investigate an unobserved past in which a REI was built. Taking up the “hope debate” in anthropology and Science and Technology Studies (Stengers, 2002; Miyazaki, 2004; Jensen, 2014), the paper contributes with an empirical analysis of the role of hope in the management of change processes.
“When James Boswell returned from a tour of Corsica in 1765 he wrote: ‘It is indeed amazing that an island so considerable, and in which such noble things have been doing…
“When James Boswell returned from a tour of Corsica in 1765 he wrote: ‘It is indeed amazing that an island so considerable, and in which such noble things have been doing, should be so imperfectly known.’ The same might be said today of Puerto Rico.” Thus began Millard Hansen and Henry Wells in the foreword to their 1953 look at Puerto Rico's democratic development. Four decades later, the same could again be said about the island.
This chapter draws on the concept of orders of worth to generate understanding into how sustainable, good markets might be enabled at the bottom of the pyramid (BoP)…
This chapter draws on the concept of orders of worth to generate understanding into how sustainable, good markets might be enabled at the bottom of the pyramid (BoP). Through an ethnographic study of the efforts of a non-government organisation (NGO) to create spaces where values and value at the BoP are unearthed, articulated, contested and translated into market-making practices. Insights are generated into how interventions to make-markets in sites of extreme poverty become ‘worth the effort’. In keeping with the market studies literature, the authors explore how multiple, contested and reframed needs generate insights into the efforts (and practices) that shape orders of worth in economic life. Orders of worth are the everyday practice of social values that constitute economic value and are framed through the moral values of social worlds as these values are put to work to calculate economic value. This work provides a contribution to the market studies literature through our understanding of the relationship between social and economic values in the creation of orders of worth, by showing how this happens at the BoP. Second, the authors contribute to the BoP literature by showing how places and spaces can be created and used to enable markets to unfold and happen. Finally, the findings contribute to our understanding of the types of practices and market-making devices that interventions might adopt and adapt in order to prod potential actors into action. The chapter identifies three types of enabling practices that make markets possible: connecting, integrating and reclassifying.
The purpose of this paper is to look at the physical tourism impacts experienced by the communities of Redang Island and Perhentian Island – two tourist islands located…
The purpose of this paper is to look at the physical tourism impacts experienced by the communities of Redang Island and Perhentian Island – two tourist islands located close to the coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The physical tourism impacts are examined via environmental and infrastructure related attributes (19 attributes), which are further categorized into sustainability, environment, greenhouse effects, public and tourist facilities maintenance, sewage system management, rural areas and deforestation. All of these indicators indirectly measure the impact of climate change in these island destinations.
The paper uses a questionnaire survey with an instrument based on prior work by Ap and Cromptom (1998) with regard to air pollution, deforestation and land fertility; Tetlow and Hanusch (2012) in relation to biodiversity; Sunlu (2003) in line with greenhouse effects, water quality, natural landscape and solid waste; and Cessford and Dingwall (1999), corresponding to physical impacts.
Results for Perhentian Island indicate serious physical impacts resulting from tourism development, compared with less serious impacts on Redang Island. Both islands were observed to experience tourism development progress that is well-blended with their natural environment, and the level of physical impact dependency on tourism development can be assessed using the environmental and infrastructure variables.
While the paper reports on findings from both Perhentian and Redang Islands, results from this paper could well represent other communities in many other Malaysian island locations (or perhaps the wider region), facing a similar phenomenon.
The paper contributes to an understanding of how to investigate each variable independently, as each island is undergoing a different lifecycle phase, regardless of the fact that some islands may be mirroring each other. In addition, the paper envisages the importance of integrating social exchange theory and integrated threat theory, when it comes to evaluating how people judge the consequences of their actions.
The purpose of this study is to synthesize the published works about tourism in the island. Island destinations, especially smaller ones, suffer the negative effects of…
The purpose of this study is to synthesize the published works about tourism in the island. Island destinations, especially smaller ones, suffer the negative effects of tourism more than other destinations. This is because of the characteristics of island destinations and the negative impacts arising from their inadequate management by different stakeholders. For these reasons, and conversely because tourism favors the social and economic development of islands, there has been a great deal of research published on insular tourism in the literature at a global level. Despite the number of studies carried out from different approaches, none have synthesized this scientific production. Thus, the main contribution of this paper is the use of a bibliometric and descriptive approach to carry out a thorough review of studies published on tourist development in island destinations.
The authors use a bibliometric and descriptive approach to carry out a comprehensive review of the published studies on tourism development in island destinations in the past decade with special emphasis on the items analyzed, places of analysis and scientific journals that have addressed this topic.
The results of the analysis of the literature show the interest of the study of tourism in island destinations. This interest is partly due to the attraction that tourists have for this type of destinations and the need to promote their sustainable management as tourism destinations (Cusick, 2009, Hall, 2011, Cave and Brown, 2012, López, Orgaz, Marmolejo and Alector, 2016). In addition, tourism in island destinations constitutes an opportunity for economic development and benefits both the local population and its visitors (Fabinyi, 2010; Porter et al., 2015).
The main limitation of this paper is the great diversity of tourist destinations made up of islands, the complex nature of these destinations and tourism and the quantity and diversity of research carried out into them. This aspect has already been highlighted by other authors and makes it complex to determine which research should be included or excluded in this review.
Importantly, the results allow researchers and decision-makers to identify the main areas of interest in the study of island tourism and the reasons for this interest. They also indicate new areas of interest and in-depth studies. Thus, professionals have a map that shows the most relevant factors in tourism development for this type of destination and the variables that, both from a positive and a negative point of view, influence its development.
This research shows that the main areas of interest is island destination are the quality of life of the local community, stakeholder collaboration, sustainability, diversification and seasonality, marketing, consumer behavior/perception and segmentation, planning of tourism activity, information and technology, competitiveness and efficiency.
As evidenced by the amount of research carried out, there is a great deal of interest in tourism in island destinations. This interest arises from the specific characteristics and the interest of tourists themselves in this type of destination, as well as from the negative impacts and opportunities generated by island tourism. Nevertheless, the number of references obtained for tourism in island destinations (N = 949) represents only 0.2 per cent of the total number of studies referring to only “island” in the SCOPUS consultation (339,607 studies). Thus, one of the contributions of this paper has been to highlight the need to continue studying and reviewing in greater depth research on insular tourism.
This chapter discusses the Maldives information culture as observed and defined from the results of a research project undertaken as a Master of Philosophy at Curtin…
This chapter discusses the Maldives information culture as observed and defined from the results of a research project undertaken as a Master of Philosophy at Curtin University in Australia. A survey of one rural Maldives community and one urban Maldives community collected data on their information use, access and awareness. Additional qualitative in-depth interviews with key information stakeholders in the Maldives sought supplementary information on the prevailing information situation. We present a conceptual model of the Maldives information culture including seven key elements: indigenous knowledge, ICTs, information literacy, research and publication, libraries and information services, mass media and information policies. The Maldives information culture is ‘paperless’, not in the modern online sense, but more in terms of the Maldives population's high reliance on verbal information interchange for their everyday information needs. In the Maldives, broadcast media and verbal information exchange predominate over print media. In the Maldives, reading as a leisure activity is present to some degree, but reading as an intellectual activity is limited. Libraries are not commonly used as an information source. Adoption of ICTs is swift and promising. However, even if the Maldives population is literate in the local language, a significant group lacks the English language literacy to benefit from the online information environment. There are no major differences in the use of information between the rural and urban community; the difference is in the level of access to information sources and the respondents' information literacy skills.
This qualitative case study provides a detailed description of the ways a Kindergarten/Grade 1 teacher in a Gulf Islands school, located on Canada’s west coast, integrated…
This qualitative case study provides a detailed description of the ways a Kindergarten/Grade 1 teacher in a Gulf Islands school, located on Canada’s west coast, integrated place-based education in her practice with young learners. The teacher’s integration of place-based knowledge over a school year, and her incorporation of traditional knowledge linked to local Coast Salish ways of knowing, was in response to the British Columbia Ministry of Education’s mandate to include local Indigenous ways of knowing in all classrooms. This study also reveals the ways an Indigenous educator affiliated with the school district and local community members provided the teacher and students with deeper understandings of Salt Spring Island from a historical, place-based, and Indigenous knowledge perspective. Specifically, the Indigenous educator and community members shared their knowledge on the vegetation on the island and shared information about the animals that lived on or near the island. Throughout the study, the teacher drew on a “critical pedagogy of place,” which focuses on the ecological aspects of place and the tenets of critical pedagogy. This study documented the ways the teacher included local Indigenous knowledge in her practice in culturally relevant and appropriate ways – primarily through outdoor learning experiences. The children also shared their perspectives on these learning experiences. In this study, the place-based learning opportunities provided to the children enabled them to acquire rich insight on the history and ecology of their community and island.
The aim of this chapter is to reflect on some of the implications in doing fieldwork in a small and relatively isolated island community. In 2009, a Danish island in the…
The aim of this chapter is to reflect on some of the implications in doing fieldwork in a small and relatively isolated island community. In 2009, a Danish island in the Wadden Sea National Park, only reachable by motor vehicles when the tide is out, was selected to host one of the many events taking place during the biannual Wadden Sea Festival. The aim of the project was to create vanishing art depicting the quality of life (QoL) on the island by use of materials found in the island's natural environment. Prior to the implementation of the event and as a part of the project, the authors were invited to qualitatively investigate the QoL among island residents, specifically focusing on subjective well-being. Through a description of stakeholder connections and conflicts, a number of lessons are discerned and pondered upon. In addition to applying the case to demonstrate and discuss how researchers can investigate QoL in tourism and how research(ers) impact small communities, we also reflect on the unforeseen consequences and entanglements of a seemingly (because of its size) ‘straightforward’ field of research. It is argued that field studies in very small communities more easily expose not only ‘outside’ interference, but also controversies and conflicts between neighbours, within families and between dwellers and professions of multiple sorts. Consequently we argue that researchers must continuously reflect on their own role in and relations to the places and communities – the ‘cases’ – which they investigate.