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Book part
Publication date: 1 March 2021

Giovanni Ruggieri and Patrizia Calò

Local development is becoming increasingly dependent on the tourism industry, especially in fragile contexts such as islands, where tourism makes it possible to overcome…

Abstract

Local development is becoming increasingly dependent on the tourism industry, especially in fragile contexts such as islands, where tourism makes it possible to overcome, at least in part, the obstacles linked to geo-morphological characteristics. The relevance of the sector for the economy is documented by the international literature and underscored in various studies (Balaguer & Cantavella-Jorda, 2002; Croes & Vanegas Sr, 2008; Dritsakis, 2004; Durbarry, 2004; Eugenio-Martin, Martin-Morales, & Sinclair, 2008; Eugenio-Martin, Morales, Scarpa, 2004; Hazari & Sgro, 1995; Maloney & Montes Rojas, 2005; Pigliaru & Lanza, 2000; Sequeira & Maçãs Nunes, 2008), which explain why tourism is attributed a leading role and even recognized as a driving force for the local economy. It is capable of creating new economic opportunities, especially, as mentioned, for island contexts, and even more so for those of modest size, which require special attention given the specific characteristics that distinguish them from the mainland. Islands are, indeed, a unique cluster despite belonging to individual states, and, being located in different regions of the world and featuring different stages of economic development and tourism, they are the beneficiaries of development policies focused on the economy of services and culture. This is essentially due to reasons linked to specific territorial features in terms of morphology and geographical location, primarily associated with the condition of isolation from the mainland. The result is a particular condition that characterizes them both materially, with effects on transport and logistics, and therefore on their economic and production autonomy, and ideally, i.e. in relation to the place that islands have in the collective imagination. They are associated with the desire to escape, to get in touch with nature, to slow down the pace and break patterns, and to attract a large number of visitors who, however, are concentrated mainly during the summer months. This leads to many difficulties and has several implications, in terms of pressure and quality, and requires careful management from very early on, from the stage of discovery of the destination by the first tourists, in order to guide development by limiting the drawbacks.

Details

Tourism in the Mediterranean Sea
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-901-6

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Article
Publication date: 30 December 2021

Sarah T. Ryan, Katharina Elisabeth Kariippanon, Anthony D. Okely, Rebecca M. Stanley, Gade Waqa and Melanie Randle

Social marketing has been widely used to effectively and voluntarily change behaviours worldwide. The social marketing benchmark criteria offer a framework to apply this…

Abstract

Purpose

Social marketing has been widely used to effectively and voluntarily change behaviours worldwide. The social marketing benchmark criteria offer a framework to apply this approach. This paper aims to examine the extent of use and predictors of success of social marketing benchmark criteria in changing the health behaviours of Pacific Islands populations.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic review of studies designed to change health behaviours among Pacific Islands populations. Studies were assessed against the social marketing benchmark criteria to determine the extent to which the reported intervention used a social marketing approach; and whether the use of the social marketing benchmark criteria led to more effective interventions.

Findings

In total, 22 studies were included. In total, 13 were conducted within the Pacific Islands and 9 were aimed at Pacific Islands populations living in America, New Zealand or Hawaii. The most common criteria used were behaviour change, insight and customer orientation. Theory criterion was least commonly used. There was no clear indication of which criterion or combination of criteria, resulted in more effective interventions.

Research limitations/implications

Further empirical evaluations of social marketing interventions within the Pacific Islands context are required to appropriately assess effective predictors of success for this population group. Studies of social marketing interventions targeting non-Pacific Islands populations in non-Pacific Island countries and territories may have limited applicability to Pacific Islanders living in Pacific Island countries and territories.

Originality/value

While similar studies have been conducted, this is the first study to review all behaviour change interventions by applying a social marketing lens in the Pacific Islands. While globally this may have been reviewed, the Pacific Islands has a unique context that needs to be considered, rather than assuming a one size fits all approach. This study offers a comprehensive overview of existing health behaviour change interventions in the Pacific Islands and a call to action to move social marketing forward within the Pacific Islands.

Details

Journal of Social Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6763

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 24 December 2021

Kuncheng Zhang, Shi-Zheng Tian, Benshuo Yang, Xin-Chang Guo and Yi-Fang Zhang

The island areas, in particular, are characterized by a more fragile ecological carrying capacity and higher value of resources and environment, which requires us to take…

Abstract

Purpose

The island areas, in particular, are characterized by a more fragile ecological carrying capacity and higher value of resources and environment, which requires us to take Xi Jinping's green ecological development view as the theoretical basis and adhere to the high-quality development path of gradual development and ecological environment priority. Taking Shengsi and Daishan counties as examples, on the basis of their high-quality development evaluation and identification of the main influencing factors, this study explores the specific path of Xi Jinping's ecological development view in the high-quality development of typical island counties in China.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper applies the interpretative structural model to construct an evaluation index system for the high-quality development of the island. In determining the factor weights of the index layer, the AHP hierarchical analysis method was combined with the Delphi method to increase the objectivity of the assignment process as much as possible. This study used the technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution to calculate island high quality development index. To measure the main obstacle factors, the index factor contribution rate, the index factor deviation, and the index factor obstacle degree were applied in this research.

Findings

The study is supported by Guangxi Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Guangxi Academy of Sciences (GXKLHY21-04), Special Funds for Fundamental Scientific Research Operation of Central Universities (202113011), Shandong Provincial Social Science Planning Research Youth Project (21DSHJ2) and Tianjin Philosophy and Social Science Planning Project of China (No. TJKS20XSX-015).

Originality/value

The connotation and extension of Xi Jinping's view of ecological development should be continuously studied in depth and enriched, with green development as the core idea to guide the correct direction of the high-quality development of the island. In this paper, it is suggested that researchers are supposed to focus on these problems, such as the changes of sea water quality, the reduction of urban greening, the continuous negative growth of population in island areas, the decline of forestry added value and air quality protection, so as to ensure the sustainable high-quality development of example islands.

Details

Marine Economics and Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-158X

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 20 October 2021

Kun-cheng Zhang, Xin-chang Guo, Shi-zheng Tian, Qi Cui, Mao-chong Shi and Pei-fang Guo

Many experts suggest that the human being explore marine resources and marine new energy sources to alleviate the shortage of land resources and the ecological…

Abstract

Purpose

Many experts suggest that the human being explore marine resources and marine new energy sources to alleviate the shortage of land resources and the ecological degradation. However, island coastal zones are considered to be fragile ecosystems; their geographical location and natural characteristics, their biodiversity and associated ecosystems, and their exposure to diverse land and sea conditions all make them highly vulnerable to environmental changes and human activities. Therefore, it is necessary to achieve the goals of environmental protection and sustainable development on the basis of a comprehensive evaluation and understanding of islands.

Design/methodology/approach

Due to the importance of island groups, this paper conducts evaluation studies on them. Using the Delphi, AHP and TOPSIS methods, this study evaluated quantitatively the comprehensive development level and comprehensive development potential of island groups in terms of resources, natural environment, economy and society. Innovatively using them as two subsystems, the present study combined the coupling coordination model and the obstacle factor calculation method.

Findings

The prospective index of comprehensive development was applied to the Changdao Island Group in Yantai, Shandong Province as an example, and the final evaluation revealed that the comprehensive development prospect of this island group had an upward trend from 2010 to 2017. Future efforts should be made to improve its economic and social conditions and economic development status, apart from promoting its comprehensive development by improving human resources management, increasing the GDP growth rate, and improving fresh water and electricity supply.

Originality/value

This study takes the integrated development level of the island and the integrated development potential of the island as two subsystems, and the innovative application of the coupling coordination degree model is used to calculate the integrated development index of the island to understand the development status of the island area. On the basis of this model, the obstacle factor identification method is designed to identify the main obstacle factors, and on the basis of evaluation and identification, specific measures to ensure the sustainable development of the island area are effectively proposed.

Details

Marine Economics and Management, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-158X

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Article
Publication date: 17 November 2021

Andrew James Perkins

This paper aims to contend that when tackling financial crimes such as money laundering and terrorist financing, international regulators are seeking to hold offshore…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to contend that when tackling financial crimes such as money laundering and terrorist financing, international regulators are seeking to hold offshore jurisdictions such as the Cayman Islands to higher standards and that this detracts from the pursuit of detecting and prosecuting money launders.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper will deal with the following perceived issues: firstly, to offshore jurisdictions as a concept; secondly, to outline the efforts made by the Cayman Islands to combat money laundering and to rate these changes against Financial Action Task Forces’ (FATAF’s) technical criteria; thirdly, to demonstrate that the Cayman Islands is among some of the world’s top jurisdictions for compliance with FATAF’s standards; and finally, to examine whether greylisting was necessary and to comment upon whether efforts by international regulators to hold offshore jurisdictions to higher standards detracts from the actual prosecution of money laundering within the jurisdiction.

Findings

Greylisting the Cayman Islands in these authors’ view was something that should have never happened; the Cayman Islands is being held to standards far beyond what is expected in an onshore jurisdiction. There is a need for harmonisation in respect of international anti money laundering rules and regulations to shift the tone to prosecution and investigation of offences rather than on rating jurisdictions technical compliance with procedural rules where states have a workable anti-money laundering (AML) regime.

Research limitations/implications

The implications of this research are to show that offshore jurisdictions are being held by FATAF and other international regulators to higher AML standards than their onshore counterparties.

Practical implications

The author hopes that this paper will begin the debate as to whether FATAF needs to give reasons as to why offshore jurisdictions are held to higher standards and whether it needs to begin to contemplate higher onshore standards.

Originality/value

This is an original piece of research evaluating the effect of FATAF's reporting on offshore jurisdictions with a case study involving primary and secondary data in relation to the Cayman Islands.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

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Article
Publication date: 15 November 2021

Eduardo Krawietz Ramos, Rosa María Aguilar Chinea and Pedro Juan Baquero Pérez

This paper aims to study the competition problems and market failures in the Canary Islands and propose an alternative management model for the telecommunication…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the competition problems and market failures in the Canary Islands and propose an alternative management model for the telecommunication transmission network. This model is based on a wholesale-only open-access transmission network, available to all the retail service providers of this region, and managed by a unique entity subject to regulation with cost-based prices. The proposal hopefully will help to debate about the implementation of certain regulatory models in the network industries, concerning telecommunication submarine cables connecting archipelagos.

Design/methodology/approach

An empirical approach has been used, based on the observation and analysis of the regulatory policies applied to the wholesale transmission networks in the Canary Islands, Azores and Madeira archipelagos.

Findings

Results show a persistent margin squeeze situation on the retail broadband market in the Canary Islands, due to the pricing strategy on the Spanish mainland-Canaries wholesale market, which is, in turn, delaying the entry of alternatives and the level of development and efficiency of competition. The risk of duopoly collusion is also present on this wholesale market. Additionally, public aids will be needed to replace the systems connecting with the non-capital islands and to provide redundancy to El Hierro. The alternative proposal might help preventing the above. Eventually, several insights are considered for further investigation.

Originality/value

Little attention has been paid to this topic in the literature, regarding the analysis of regulatory policies applied over fiber optic submarine cable infrastructures in fragmented territories like archipelagos. Consequently, an empirical analysis has been accomplished to emphasize this research work, based on the regulatory policies adopted.

Details

Digital Policy, Regulation and Governance, vol. 23 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-5038

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Book part
Publication date: 8 February 2021

Ila Maltese, Luca Zamparini and Clarissa Amico

While tourism is mostly considered a crucial driver for local development, its impact in terms of sustainability and attractiveness of local destinations must also be

Abstract

While tourism is mostly considered a crucial driver for local development, its impact in terms of sustainability and attractiveness of local destinations must also be taken into account. This is especially true for small islands, where tourism may determine detrimental effects in the long term to the limited space and resources. The “sustainable tourism” approach considers this phenomenon and proposes possible solutions to problems such as the loss of public space, waste management, energy and water over-consumption, traffic congestion, air, water, and visual pollution. This chapter presents and discusses the results of a survey that has been carried out in Ischia, a small Mediterranean island located in the Gulf of Naples in order to explore the propensity toward sustainable mobility of both tourists and residents. In particular, the mobility patterns of the respondents have been deeply investigated both at home (domestic behavior) and on holiday (tourist behavior). The results suggest that the promotion of a higher level of cooperation among different stakeholders and local governments is of paramount importance in order to achieve sustainable tourism on islands. This may also generate important effects in terms of destination attractiveness.

Details

Sustainable Transport and Tourism Destinations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-128-5

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Book part
Publication date: 22 November 2017

T. Elon Dancy, Bryan K. Hotchkins, Crystal A. deGregory and Stevie Johnson

This chapter discusses the sociohistories that shape the current existential realities for HBCU education in the Caribbean, particularly the University of the Virgin…

Abstract

This chapter discusses the sociohistories that shape the current existential realities for HBCU education in the Caribbean, particularly the University of the Virgin Islands. The distinction, Anglophone Caribbean (also commonly referred to as the British West Indies), is a way of naming the intentional displacement and conquering of the indigenous people of the islands. Following a theorization of colonization, the chapter discusses the politics of higher education in the Anglophone Caribbean that influence the existence of the only HBCU outside the continental US, The University of the Virgin Islands. This context is essential to understanding the university’s founding and modern existence.

Details

Black Colleges Across the Diaspora: Global Perspectives on Race and Stratification in Postsecondary Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-522-5

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Book part
Publication date: 30 December 2004

Rebecca Scott Bray

When historical visibility has faded, when the present tense of testimony loses its power to arrest, then the displacements of memory and the indirections of art offer us…

Abstract

When historical visibility has faded, when the present tense of testimony loses its power to arrest, then the displacements of memory and the indirections of art offer us the image of our psychic survival. To live in the unhomely world, to find its ambivalencies and ambiguities enacted in the house of fiction, or its sundering and splitting performed in the work of art, is also to affirm a profound desire for social solidarity: ‘I am looking for the join…I want to join…I want to join’ (Bhabha, 1994, p. 18).This chapter follows points and practices of cultural and legal suture. My aim is to trace a thematic excursion into the unremarked or culturally unseen spaces that repeatedly inter dead bodies. This task is rewarded by aesthetic practice excavating a site of repression, a site that confesses our flight from, but necessary management of, dead bodies within cultural spaces. To achieve this, my attention turns to a State-owned graveyard on Hart Island, located in Long Island Sound, New York. Hart Island is a graveyard for New York’s poor, unclaimed or unknown dead – what is commonly known as a “potter’s field.”1 It is a place where law and art intersect in remarkable absence of any significant cultural claim on the island, and it is a landscape where the failings of forensic conclusion are now mingling with an aesthetic revelation.

Details

Aesthetics of Law and Culture: Texts, Images, Screens
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-304-4

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Book part
Publication date: 15 January 2010

Eleni Kitrinou, Amalia Polydoropoulou and Denis Bolduc

This paper introduces a behavioral framework to model residential relocation decision in island areas, at which the decision in question is influenced by the…

Abstract

This paper introduces a behavioral framework to model residential relocation decision in island areas, at which the decision in question is influenced by the characteristics of island regions, policy variables related to accessibility measures, and housing prices at the proposed island area, as well as personal, household (HH), job, and latent characteristics of the decision makers.

The model framework corresponds to an integrated choice and latent variable (ICLV) setting where the discrete choice model includes latent variables that capture attitudes and perceptions of the decision makers. The latent variable model is composed of a group of structural equations describing the latent variables as a function of observable exogenous variables and a group of measurement equations, linking the latent variables to observable indicators.

An empirical study has been developed for the Greek Aegean island area. Data were collected from 900 HHs in Greece contacted via telephone. The HHs were presented hypothetical scenarios involving policy variables, where 2010 was the reference year. ICLV binary logit (BL) and mixed binary logit (MBL) relocation choice models were estimated sequentially. Findings suggest that MBL models are superior to BL models, while both the policy and the latent variables significantly affect the relocation decision and improve considerably the models' goodness of fit. Sample enumeration method is finally used to aggregate the results over the Greek population.

Details

Choice Modelling: The State-of-the-art and The State-of-practice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-773-8

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