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Local development is becoming increasingly dependent on the tourism industry, especially in fragile contexts such as islands, where tourism makes it possible to overcome…
Local development is becoming increasingly dependent on the tourism industry, especially in fragile contexts such as islands, where tourism makes it possible to overcome, at least in part, the obstacles linked to geo-morphological characteristics. The relevance of the sector for the economy is documented by the international literature and underscored in various studies (Balaguer & Cantavella-Jorda, 2002; Croes & Vanegas Sr, 2008; Dritsakis, 2004; Durbarry, 2004; Eugenio-Martin, Martin-Morales, & Sinclair, 2008; Eugenio-Martin, Morales, Scarpa, 2004; Hazari & Sgro, 1995; Maloney & Montes Rojas, 2005; Pigliaru & Lanza, 2000; Sequeira & Maçãs Nunes, 2008), which explain why tourism is attributed a leading role and even recognized as a driving force for the local economy. It is capable of creating new economic opportunities, especially, as mentioned, for island contexts, and even more so for those of modest size, which require special attention given the specific characteristics that distinguish them from the mainland. Islands are, indeed, a unique cluster despite belonging to individual states, and, being located in different regions of the world and featuring different stages of economic development and tourism, they are the beneficiaries of development policies focused on the economy of services and culture. This is essentially due to reasons linked to specific territorial features in terms of morphology and geographical location, primarily associated with the condition of isolation from the mainland. The result is a particular condition that characterizes them both materially, with effects on transport and logistics, and therefore on their economic and production autonomy, and ideally, i.e. in relation to the place that islands have in the collective imagination. They are associated with the desire to escape, to get in touch with nature, to slow down the pace and break patterns, and to attract a large number of visitors who, however, are concentrated mainly during the summer months. This leads to many difficulties and has several implications, in terms of pressure and quality, and requires careful management from very early on, from the stage of discovery of the destination by the first tourists, in order to guide development by limiting the drawbacks.
Accessibility is critical in tourism planning for protected islands, especially when balancing tourism and conservation interests. This study aims to explore the…
Accessibility is critical in tourism planning for protected islands, especially when balancing tourism and conservation interests. This study aims to explore the dimensions of accessibility that impact tourists’ decisions to visit protected islands and encourage tourism. The accessibility dimension is essential in designing sustainable tourism management of protected islands.
This study was conceptualized by integrating the concept of accessibility in the context of transport accessibility, accessible tourism, protected areas and protected islands. In a sample of 487 surveys, factor analysis and structural equation model-partial least squares were used to examine the physical and nonphysical accessibility dimensions.
The primary objective of this study is to build a conceptual framework for the tourism accessibility of protected islands. This study confirms that accessibility is perceived in three dimensions: destination accessibility, individual accessibility and protected island accessibility. It is also found that all three accessibility dimensions have a significant influence on the decision to visit, with protected island accessibility as the lowering factor. This study demonstrates that, theoretically, tourism accessibility in protected islands should be treated as a convenience and restriction to balance the function of protected areas and tourism.
The findings of this study can be generalized because the notion of accessibility dimensions is derived from a theoretical investigation of several contexts (transport accessibility, accessible tourism, protected areas and island characteristics) to identify more particular aspects. In addition, the results of the theoretical investigation were tested using quantitative methods with high statistical power (80%). However, saturation has not been reached, because thorough research on tourism accessibility on this protected island is still scarce. Within the same framework, application and duplicate research are required to increase the generalizability of the proposed concept. Therefore, the authors recommend further studies to validate the protected islands’ accessibility concept in a broader context by replicating the study in a more diversified timeline, sample and destination setting.
This study concludes that all dimensions of accessibility in protected islands must be considered from two perspectives: convenience and constraints. Conveniences can be constructed through tourists’ perceptions of accessibility. Destination accessibility should be designed with a “back to nature” mindset, excluding hedonistic elements. Individual accessibility is achieved by applying high safety, hygiene and health standards as well as environmental ethics standards that are consistent with the natural characteristics of the environment. This balance between constraint and convenience demonstrates that, while tourism accessibility must be made as comfortable as possible for all individuals, there are particular areas whose accessibility must be controlled to preserve them. The convenience of accessibility for universal access should not be allowed to lead to mass tourism that affects the ecosystem in protected areas.
The novelty of this study lies in the finding that the tourism accessibility of protected islands can be divided into three types: destination accessibility, individual accessibility and protected island accessibility. This study also demonstrates the significant influence of accessibility on tourists’ decisions to visit. Accordingly, the protected island accessibility dimension can create a perception of difficult accessibility and lower tourists’ decisions to visit. This study concludes that all elements influencing the perception of tourism accessibility on a protected island must be considered to sustainably manage convenience and restrictions to avoid mass tourism. Therefore, it is recommended that these three dimensions be considered in visitor management programs.
这项研究的概念是通过将交通可达性、可达性旅游、保护区和受保护岛屿的背景下的可达性概念结合起来。在 487 次调查的样本量中, 因子分析和 偏最小二乘结构方程模型法采用于检查物理和非物理可访问性维度。
可访问性在受保护岛屿的旅游规划中至关重要, 尤其是在平衡旅游和保护利益时。 本研究探讨了影响游客决定访问受保护岛屿并最终鼓励旅游业的可达性维度。 因此, 探索受保护岛屿的旅游可达性维度是设计可持续旅游管理的基础。
这项研究的主要目的是为受保护岛屿的旅游可达性建立一个概念框架。 本研究证实, 可达性被认为是三个维度, 即目的地可达性、个人可达性和受保护岛屿的可达性。 研究还发现, 所有三个可达性维度对访问决定都有显着影响, 受保护岛屿的可达性是降低因素。 从理论上讲, 本研究表明, 保护岛屿的旅游可达性应被视为便利和限制, 以平衡保护区和旅游的功能。
本研究的成果易于概括, 因为可达性维度的概念源自对几种背景（交通可达性、可达性旅游、保护区和岛屿特征）的理论研究, 以确定更具体的方面。 此外, 理论研究的成果已经采用定量方法进行了检验, 具有很高的统计功效（80%）。 然而, 由于对这个受保护岛屿的旅游可达性的深入研究仍然很少, 因此尚未达到饱和。 在同一框架下, 需要应用和重复研究来增加所提出概念的普遍性。 因此, 作者建议进一步研究, 通过在更多样化的时间线、样本和目的地设置中复制研究, 在更广泛的背景下验证受保护岛屿的可达性概念。
本文章的结尾是, 必须从两个角度考虑保护岛屿的所有方面的可达性：便利性和约束性。 便利性可以通过游客对可达性的感知来构建。 目的地可达性应以“回归自然”的心态进行设计, 不包括享乐主义元素。 通过应用高安全、卫生和健康标准以及与环境自然特征相一致的环境伦理标准来实现个人无障碍。 约束和便利之间的这种平衡表明, 虽然必须使所有个人的旅游可达性尽可能舒适, 但必须控制某些特定区域的可达性以保护它们。 不要让普遍访问的便利性导致影响保护区生态系统的大众旅游。
本文章的新颖之处在于发现保护岛屿的旅游可达性分为三种类型：目的地可达性、个人可达性和保护岛可达性。 本研究还证明了可达性对游客访问决策的显着影响。 因此, 受保护岛屿的可达性维度可以产生一种难以进入的感觉, 并降低游客的访问决定。 本研究的理论反思得出结尾, 必须考虑影响受保护岛屿旅游可达性感知的所有因素, 以可持续地管理便利和限制, 以避免大众旅游。 因此, 建议在访客管理程序中考虑上述三个维度。
Este estudio se conceptualizó integrando el concepto de accesibilidad en el contexto de la accesibilidad del transporte, el turismo accesible, las áreas protegidas y las islas protegidas. En una muestra de 487 encuestas, se utilizó el análisis factorial y el PLS-SEM para examinar las dimensiones de accesibilidad física y no física.
La accesibilidad es fundamental en la planificación turística de las islas protegidas, especialmente cuando se trata de equilibrar los intereses del turismo y la conservación. Este artículo explora las dimensiones de la accesibilidad que influyen en la decisión de los turistas de visitar las islas protegidas y fomentar el turismo. Por lo tanto, la dimensión de la accesibilidad es esencial para diseñar una gestión turística sostenible de las islas protegidas.
El objetivo principal de esta investigación es construir un marco conceptual para la accesibilidad turística de las islas protegidas. Este estudio confirma que la accesibilidad se percibe en tres dimensiones: la accesibilidad del destino, la accesibilidad individual y la accesibilidad de la isla protegida. También se constata que las tres dimensiones de la accesibilidad influyen significativamente en la decisión de visitar `la isla, siendo la accesibilidad de la isla protegida el factor que más influye. Este estudio demuestra que, teóricamente, la accesibilidad turística en las islas protegidas debe ser tratada como una conveniencia y restricción para equilibrar la función de las áreas protegidas y el turismo.
Limitaciones e implicaciones de la investigación
Los resultados de este estudio pueden generalizarse porque la noción de dimensiones de accesibilidad se deriva de una investigación teórica de varios contextos (accesibilidad del transporte, turismo accesible, áreas protegidas y características de las islas) para identificar aspectos más particulares. Además, los resultados de la investigación teórica se comprobaron mediante métodos cuantitativos con una elevada potencia estadística (80%). Sin embargo, no se ha alcanzado la saturación, ya que la investigación exhaustiva sobre la accesibilidad turística en esta isla protegida sigue siendo escasa. Dentro del mismo marco, se requiere una aplicación y una duplicación de la investigación para aumentar la generalizabilidad del concepto propuesto. Por lo tanto, los autores recomiendan la realización de nuevos estudios para validar el concepto de accesibilidad de las islas protegidas en un contexto más amplio, replicando el estudio en un marco temporal, una muestra y un destino más diversificados.
Este estudio concluye que todas las dimensiones de la accesibilidad en las islas protegidas deben considerarse desde dos perspectivas: la conveniencia y las limitaciones. Las conveniencias pueden construirse a través de las percepciones de los turistas sobre la accesibilidad. La accesibilidad del destino debe diseñarse con una mentalidad de “vuelta a la naturaleza”, excluyendo los elementos hedonistas. La accesibilidad individual se consigue aplicando elevadas normas de seguridad, higiene y salud, así como normas de ética medioambiental que sean coherentes con las características naturales del entorno. Este equilibrio entre restricción y conveniencia demuestra que, si bien la accesibilidad turística debe hacerse lo más cómoda posible para todos los individuos, hay zonas particulares cuya accesibilidad debe controlarse para preservarlas. La conveniencia de la accesibilidad para el acceso universal no debe conducir a un turismo de masas que afecte al ecosistema de las zonas protegidas.
La novedad de este artículo radica en la constatación de que la accesibilidad turística de las islas protegidas puede dividirse en tres tipos: accesibilidad del destino, accesibilidad individual y accesibilidad de la isla protegida. Este estudio también demuestra la importante influencia de la accesibilidad en la decisión de los turistas de visitarlas. Así, la dimensión de la accesibilidad de las islas protegidas puede crear una percepción de difícil accesibilidad y disminuir la decisión de los turistas de visitarlas. La reflexión teórica de este estudio concluye que todos los elementos que influyen en la percepción de la accesibilidad turística en una isla protegida deben ser considerados para gestionar de forma sostenible la conveniencia y las restricciones para evitar el turismo de masas. Por lo tanto, se recomienda tener en cuenta estas tres dimensiones en los programas de gestión de visitantes.
Domestic tourism has been a prominent form of tourism in the archipelagos. Its dominance has at times been considered to be a limitation causing seasonality. The pandemic…
Domestic tourism has been a prominent form of tourism in the archipelagos. Its dominance has at times been considered to be a limitation causing seasonality. The pandemic has changed many things in this regard. Travelling closer to home and domestic tourism have become even more the norm, and domestic tourism is now seen as a blessing. The role of domestic tourism to restart island tourism was investigated by using a group of islands in the central Mediterranean region. Interviews held with stakeholders and secondary data have shown that island to island domestic tourism was key for such destinations to restart tourism – a major economic sector on such islands. As the pandemic rages on, domestic tourism is expected to increase. This is galvanised by the safe environment found on islands where local populations have been fully vaccinated, the pristine natural environment which is highly sought after following a long period of staying indoors, opportunities of self-catering accommodation with full amenities as well as connections gained between islands. Domestic tourism might be also favoured due to its potential to contribute in reducing emissions which is key for the tourism sector to contribute to the European Green Deal targets. However, several challenges need to be addressed. These include addressing seasonality by targeting domestic tourists also off season through adequate packages focusing on diverse niches comprising ecotourism, ensuring reliable and sustainable sea transport services and better management of the natural environment.
While tourism is mostly considered a crucial driver for local development, its impact in terms of sustainability and attractiveness of local destinations must also be…
While tourism is mostly considered a crucial driver for local development, its impact in terms of sustainability and attractiveness of local destinations must also be taken into account. This is especially true for small islands, where tourism may determine detrimental effects in the long term to the limited space and resources. The “sustainable tourism” approach considers this phenomenon and proposes possible solutions to problems such as the loss of public space, waste management, energy and water over-consumption, traffic congestion, air, water, and visual pollution. This chapter presents and discusses the results of a survey that has been carried out in Ischia, a small Mediterranean island located in the Gulf of Naples in order to explore the propensity toward sustainable mobility of both tourists and residents. In particular, the mobility patterns of the respondents have been deeply investigated both at home (domestic behavior) and on holiday (tourist behavior). The results suggest that the promotion of a higher level of cooperation among different stakeholders and local governments is of paramount importance in order to achieve sustainable tourism on islands. This may also generate important effects in terms of destination attractiveness.
This chapter discusses the sociohistories that shape the current existential realities for HBCU education in the Caribbean, particularly the University of the Virgin…
This chapter discusses the sociohistories that shape the current existential realities for HBCU education in the Caribbean, particularly the University of the Virgin Islands. The distinction, Anglophone Caribbean (also commonly referred to as the British West Indies), is a way of naming the intentional displacement and conquering of the indigenous people of the islands. Following a theorization of colonization, the chapter discusses the politics of higher education in the Anglophone Caribbean that influence the existence of the only HBCU outside the continental US, The University of the Virgin Islands. This context is essential to understanding the university’s founding and modern existence.
When historical visibility has faded, when the present tense of testimony loses its power to arrest, then the displacements of memory and the indirections of art offer us the image of our psychic survival. To live in the unhomely world, to find its ambivalencies and ambiguities enacted in the house of fiction, or its sundering and splitting performed in the work of art, is also to affirm a profound desire for social solidarity: ‘I am looking for the join…I want to join…I want to join’ (Bhabha, 1994, p. 18).This chapter follows points and practices of cultural and legal suture. My aim is to trace a thematic excursion into the unremarked or culturally unseen spaces that repeatedly inter dead bodies. This task is rewarded by aesthetic practice excavating a site of repression, a site that confesses our flight from, but necessary management of, dead bodies within cultural spaces. To achieve this, my attention turns to a State-owned graveyard on Hart Island, located in Long Island Sound, New York. Hart Island is a graveyard for New York’s poor, unclaimed or unknown dead – what is commonly known as a “potter’s field.”1 It is a place where law and art intersect in remarkable absence of any significant cultural claim on the island, and it is a landscape where the failings of forensic conclusion are now mingling with an aesthetic revelation.
This paper introduces a behavioral framework to model residential relocation decision in island areas, at which the decision in question is influenced by the…
This paper introduces a behavioral framework to model residential relocation decision in island areas, at which the decision in question is influenced by the characteristics of island regions, policy variables related to accessibility measures, and housing prices at the proposed island area, as well as personal, household (HH), job, and latent characteristics of the decision makers.
The model framework corresponds to an integrated choice and latent variable (ICLV) setting where the discrete choice model includes latent variables that capture attitudes and perceptions of the decision makers. The latent variable model is composed of a group of structural equations describing the latent variables as a function of observable exogenous variables and a group of measurement equations, linking the latent variables to observable indicators.
An empirical study has been developed for the Greek Aegean island area. Data were collected from 900 HHs in Greece contacted via telephone. The HHs were presented hypothetical scenarios involving policy variables, where 2010 was the reference year. ICLV binary logit (BL) and mixed binary logit (MBL) relocation choice models were estimated sequentially. Findings suggest that MBL models are superior to BL models, while both the policy and the latent variables significantly affect the relocation decision and improve considerably the models' goodness of fit. Sample enumeration method is finally used to aggregate the results over the Greek population.
The aim of this chapter is to reflect on some of the implications in doing fieldwork in a small and relatively isolated island community. In 2009, a Danish island in the…
The aim of this chapter is to reflect on some of the implications in doing fieldwork in a small and relatively isolated island community. In 2009, a Danish island in the Wadden Sea National Park, only reachable by motor vehicles when the tide is out, was selected to host one of the many events taking place during the biannual Wadden Sea Festival. The aim of the project was to create vanishing art depicting the quality of life (QoL) on the island by use of materials found in the island's natural environment. Prior to the implementation of the event and as a part of the project, the authors were invited to qualitatively investigate the QoL among island residents, specifically focusing on subjective well-being. Through a description of stakeholder connections and conflicts, a number of lessons are discerned and pondered upon. In addition to applying the case to demonstrate and discuss how researchers can investigate QoL in tourism and how research(ers) impact small communities, we also reflect on the unforeseen consequences and entanglements of a seemingly (because of its size) ‘straightforward’ field of research. It is argued that field studies in very small communities more easily expose not only ‘outside’ interference, but also controversies and conflicts between neighbours, within families and between dwellers and professions of multiple sorts. Consequently we argue that researchers must continuously reflect on their own role in and relations to the places and communities – the ‘cases’ – which they investigate.