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Article
Publication date: 23 January 2007

Fikriyah Abdullah, Taufiq Hassan and Shamsher Mohamad

One of the implications of Islamic investment principles is the availability of Islamic financial instruments in the financial market. The main aim of this research is to…

Abstract

Purpose

One of the implications of Islamic investment principles is the availability of Islamic financial instruments in the financial market. The main aim of this research is to observe the differences in terms of performance between Islamic and conventional mutual fund in the context of Malaysian capital market.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve the major objectives of this paper standard methods wereused for evaluating the mutual funds performance, for example, Sharpe index and adjusted Sharpe index, Jensen Alpha, Timing and selectivity ability. The scope of the paper is to measure the relative quantitative performance of funds which was managed based on two different approaches.

Findings

The basic finding of the paper is that Islamic funds performed better than the conventional funds during bearish economic trends while, conventional funds showed better performance than Islamic funds during bullish economic conditions. In addition to that finding, both conventional and Islamic funds were unable to achieve at least 50 per cent market diversification levels, though conventional funds are found to have a marginally better diversification level than the Islamic funds. The results also suggest that fund managers are unable to correctly identify good bargain stocks and to forecast the price movements of the general market.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation is that the samples of conventional and Islamic mutual funds were from one developing market. The findings could be better validated if the sample included the mutual funds from other developed and developing economies, where both Islamic and conventional funds are available.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that having Islamic mutual funds in an investment portfolio helps to hedge the downside risk in an adverse economic situation.

Originality/value

So far there is no published evidence on the relative performance of Islamic and conventional mutual funds in Malaysia as well as other developing countries. Therefore, this paper adds new knowledge to the mutual funds literature.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2020

Farrukh Naveed and Syed Zain Ul Abdin

This study aims to analyze the impact of corporate governance characteristics on the risk exposure of Islamic mutual funds prevailing in different Islamic countries…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyze the impact of corporate governance characteristics on the risk exposure of Islamic mutual funds prevailing in different Islamic countries (Pakistan and Malaysia).

Design/methodology/approach

This study used dynamic panel regression model for analysis and estimated the results using system generalized method of moment technique. A sample of 185 Islamic funds is used in the current research, which is selected using judgmental sampling. The data span of this study consists nine years from 2009 to 2017.

Findings

The results showed that the corporate governance characteristics such as board independence, directors and institutional ownership and overall governance quality are helpful in reducing the total and downside risk exposure of Islamic mutual funds. The findings also suggest that board size and Chief Extractive officer duality play no role in mitigating the risk of Islamic funds prevailing in both countries.

Practical implications

This study has implication for industry practitioners and fund managers. This study showed that the corporate governance characteristics are helpful in reducing the risk exposure of Islamic mutual funds. Therefore, this study provides input to the investment firms to improve the quality of corporate governance for lowering the risk exposure of mutual funds.

Originality value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first attempt to analyze the impact of corporate governance characteristics on the risk exposure of Islamic mutual funds and hence provides significant contribution in the literature of mutual funds.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 11 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 30 April 2020

Farrukh Naveed, Idrees Khawaja and Lubna Maroof

This study aims to comparatively analyze the systematic, idiosyncratic and downside risk exposure of both Islamic and conventional funds in Pakistan to see which of the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to comparatively analyze the systematic, idiosyncratic and downside risk exposure of both Islamic and conventional funds in Pakistan to see which of the funds has higher risk exposure.

Design/methodology/approach

The study analyzes different types of risks involved in both Islamic and conventional funds for the period from 2009 to 2016 by using different risk measures. For systematic and idiosyncratic risk single factor CAPM and multifactor models such as Fama French three factors model and Carhart four factors model are used. For downside risk analysis different measures such as downside beta, relative beta, value at risk and expected short fall are used.

Findings

The study finds that Islamic funds have lower risk exposure (including total, systematic, idiosyncratic and downside risk) compared with their conventional counterparts in most of the sample years, and hence, making them appear more attractive for investment especially for Sharīʿah-compliant investors preferring low risk preferences.

Practical implications

As this study shows, Islamic mutual funds exhibit lower risk exposure than their conventional counterparts so investors with lower risk preferences can invest in these kinds of funds. In this way, this research provides the input to the individual investors (especially Sharīʿah-compliant investors who want to avoid interest based investment) to help them with their investment decisions as they can make a more diversified portfolio by considering Islamic funds as a mean for reducing the risk exposure.

Originality/value

To the best of the author’s knowledge, this study is the first attempt at world level in looking at the comparative risk analysis of various types of the risks as follows: systematic, idiosyncratic and downside risk, for both Islamic and conventional funds, and thus, provides significant contribution in the literature of mutual funds.

Details

ISRA International Journal of Islamic Finance, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0128-1976

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 29 January 2020

Abul Hassan, Abdelkader Chachi and Mahfuzur Rahman Munshi

The purpose of this study is to update the investment literature by providing latest evidence of performance of Islamic mutual funds by using global sample mutual funds

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to update the investment literature by providing latest evidence of performance of Islamic mutual funds by using global sample mutual funds data to support with empirical facts.

Design/methodology/approach

This study analyzes the comparative performance of Islamic and conventional mutual funds by using capital asset pricing model, Fama & French’s three-factor model and Carhart’s four-factor model. Further, the study tested the coskenwness effect by using data envelopment analysis approach.

Findings

The authors find evidence that when size of the funds is controlled, Islamic investment underperform the conventional mutual funds in four out of six models. The size of underperformance varies from model to model: from 32 basis points in the Carhart’s four-factor model with the skewness factor to two basis points at the Fama and French’s three-factor model. Also the study finds that alpha(s) are only insignificant for conventional mutual funds when the skewness factor is included in the regression. While comparing the loading on Islamic mutual funds, results show that Islamic mutual funds are less risky than conventional mutual funds when they are controlled for skewness.

Originality/value

This study uses the different factor models of performance evolution which help in overcoming weakness of measuring the Islamic mutual funds’ performance.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 11 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2012

Dodik Siswantoro

The purpose of this paper is to discuss some unique phenomena on Islamic fixed (sukuk) mutual fund price during financial global crisis in Indonesia. It aims to show that…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss some unique phenomena on Islamic fixed (sukuk) mutual fund price during financial global crisis in Indonesia. It aims to show that the sukuk mutual fund did not adopt the actual price of sukuk which may contradict Islamic teaching with regards to transparency and could cause investors to make wrong decisions. In addition the paper also aims to analyse correlation analysis, dependency of sukuk price to conventional bond and proposed recommendations.

Design/methodology/approach

The study applies benchmarking graph analysis, Pearson correlation as well as Correlogram Granger Causality test and Response to Cholesky. To show that sukuk did not adopt the actual price, benchmarking analysis and correlation analysis were conducted as additional tools.

Findings

The paper finds that the sukuk price movements were affected by the conventional bond and have a strong correlation, while the Islamic fixed mutual fund did not apply the actual price, which was unstabler. This has caused the fund to remain in a steadily increasing trend and stable; in addition, this has brought about good performance which actually did not show the real price.

Practical implications

This research is practically of benefit because it helps to show the correlation of price movement in sukuk and conventional bond. Fund managers should be transparent in marking the real price and prudent in managing the liquid reserve of the sukuk mutual fund.

Originality/value

This case may only occur in Indonesia as decreasing price of stocks and bonds in the USA has habitually caused the same to be seen as very expensive in some countries. Thus, bond price in Indonesia was affected significantly; this was actually caused by panic action. Foreign investors withdrew their funds because of liquidity and currency depreciation. On the other hand, an Islamic market that might be based on a conventional system was indirectly affected with benchmarking price problems. Sukuk mutual fund performance would look nice and stable as it did not adopt the actual price, this could mislead the performance analysis of the fund.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2015

Mustafa Dah, Monzurul Hoque and Song Wang

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of Shariah guidelines on the performance of the Dow Jones Islamic Index (DJIM-US). Shariah or Islamic law is a set of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of Shariah guidelines on the performance of the Dow Jones Islamic Index (DJIM-US). Shariah or Islamic law is a set of rules that determines Islamic allowed activities including socially and ethically acceptable investments.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors apply four risk-adjusted methodologies and co-integration analysis to investigate whether limited asset universe Shariah investments limit investment opportunities and impose an opportunity cost on investors given the prediction of conventional portfolio theories.

Findings

In contrast to the prediction of conventional portfolio theories, the findings suggest no apparent opportunity cost for Shariah compatible investments. In particular, Dow Jones Islamic Mutual Funds do not under-perform the broader market US benchmarks nor do they have any co-integration with the broader indexes. Moreover, the authors find similar evidence in the studies of Islamic mutual funds in Saudi Arabia, Malaysia and Kuwait.

Research limitations/implications

The findings will be reinforced when the authors will look into long run performance of Shariah compliant funds in future. Using non-linear approach will add further clarity to the findings.

Practical implications

The results provide an insight suggesting that successful mutual fund managers are able to overcome Shariah restrictions and constraints through creative investment strategies. In the data set, the Amana Trust Growth fund and the Amana Trust Income fund were always the best performers with a highly significant abnormal return, no matter what the methodology was.

Social implications

The performance of Islamic funds during the approximately seven-year period covered by the study is very promising. Popularity of Islamic Investment is expected to grow as Muslim population represents about 25 percent of the world population and the possibility for the Muslim funds to be considered as viable alternative by non-Shariah abiding or non-Muslim investors. The empirical results in the paper provide evidence that lack in diversification did not constrain the performance of Islamic funds.

Originality/value

This paper applied comprehensive risk-adjusted methodologies and co-integration analysis to Islamic Funds for a seven-year period for multiple countries. The findings confirm previously obtained results and highlight the fact that constrained Islamic Funds may not under-perform as per conventional portfolio theories.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 41 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2019

Fadillah Mansor, Naseem Al Rahahleh and M. Ishaq Bhatti

The purpose of this paper is to compare the return performance and persistence of ethical and conventional mutual funds during two extreme events, the Asian and the global…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare the return performance and persistence of ethical and conventional mutual funds during two extreme events, the Asian and the global financial crises under Shariah constraints.

Design/methodology/approach

The overall sample comprises of 129 Islamic mutual funds (IMFs) and 350 conventional mutual funds (CMFs) in Malaysia, and the average monthly data cover two periods of market cycles, before and during a financial crisis. The net of all expenses data is obtained from the Morningstar Database. This study employs various market risk-adjusted performance measures (ratios) to estimate the funds’ overall performance during the crises, and then it uses CAPM model to estimate the parameters via panel data approach. Moreover, paper employs the two persistence performance measures on IMFs and CMFs through contingency tables. It tests for the performance persistence effects for IMFs, CMFs using repeat winner and the cross-product ratio (CPR) tests proposed by Malkiel (1995) and Brown and Goetzmann (1995), respectively.

Findings

The main findings of the paper are: on average, both funds IMF and the CMF outperform the market return during the entire sample period; none of the funds is better than the “others” during the financial crises and the pre-crisis periods; the ethical fund – IMF outperforms the CMF over the study period. This outcome also indicates that ethical funds are more persistent especially during and the pre-crisis AFC and the GFC periods.

Research limitations/implications

The finding of this study is limited to only Malaysian data because the objective was to guideline investors and market players in Malaysia to prefer investing in Islamic ethical funds to diversify their investment portfolio.

Practical implications

Cautions to use existing ratio measures and CAPM model rather persistence measures may be used with existing methodologies in light of extreme events which influenced investor decision making for better returns at lower risks.

Social implications

A class of ethical funds consists of religious sustainable, socially responsible and impact-investing (SRI) funds but Shariah implications of halal investment must be observed to avoid prohibited practices within the class of SRI funds.

Originality/value

The work done in this paper are original in the sense that the authors employed various ratios to measure fund performance in conjunction with CAPM model and then tested for two persistence performance measures; the repeat winner and CPR tests.

Details

International Journal of Managerial Finance, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1743-9132

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Article
Publication date: 22 July 2020

Farrukh Naveed, Muhammad Kashif Khurshid and Shahnawaz Saqib

This study aims to analyze the impact of different governance characteristics on the ratings of both Islamic and conventional mutual funds.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyze the impact of different governance characteristics on the ratings of both Islamic and conventional mutual funds.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used panel data ordered probit regression model. Furthermore, to capture the mutual funds rating persistence effect and address the issue of endogeneity dynamic panel model is used and the results are estimated using the generalized method of the moment (GMM) technique.

Findings

The results indicated that amongst the corporate governance characteristics, board size, the board independence, directors and institutional ownership, and overall governance quality positively affect the ratings of both Islamic and conventional funds. However, chief executive officer (CEO) duality and board gender diversity did not show a significant impact on the ratings of these funds.

Practical implications

The current research provides input to the asset management firms as to how they can increase the fund ratings by implementing strong governance practises. Furthermore, the study also provides input to the rating agencies to account for governance characteristics along with financial indicators, when issuing the rating of any fund.

Originality/value

To the best of the author’s knowledge, this study is the first attempt to analyze the impact of corporate governance characteristics on the rating of both Islamic and conventional mutual funds and hence provides a significant contribution to the literature.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 13 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 29 January 2020

Esther Castro, M. Kabir Hassan, Jose Francisco Rubio and Zairihan Abdul Halim

This paper updates the literature regarding the performance of constrained US mutual funds by looking at the relative performance of Christian mutual funds, socially…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper updates the literature regarding the performance of constrained US mutual funds by looking at the relative performance of Christian mutual funds, socially responsible funds and Islamic funds. This paper aims to rank the performance of religious and ethical investment funds.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses monthly returns from 2005 to 2015 to perform traditional asset pricing models as well as data envelopment analysis to determine rank.

Findings

Islamic mutual funds outperform socially responsible funds, which then outperform Christian-based mutual funds; these results are also consistent during the latest 2007-2008 crisis period. The results are robust to different performance metrics and benchmarks. Moreover, this paper reports a significant amount of money “left on the table” by investing in constraint funds and disregarding the sin industry which shows an ethical dilemma for investors.

Practical implications

Investors who seek to invest morally/ethically can be informed of the cost of doing so. They can also compare portfolio with others that have similar holdings and constraints.

Originality/value

This paper not only includes Christian mutual funds in the research but also provides the performance of all constrained assets. It also compares religious funds with “SIN” industry, and thus quantifies the cost of “doing right.”

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 11 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

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Case study
Publication date: 19 October 2020

Saqib Sharif, Sarwat Ahson and Hina Noor

This case serves as a useful backdrop for discussing a few important conceptual frameworks in the field of finance. The dilemmas are still evolving for Sharīʿah-compliant…

Abstract

Learning outcomes

This case serves as a useful backdrop for discussing a few important conceptual frameworks in the field of finance. The dilemmas are still evolving for Sharīʿah-compliant asset management company (AMC); i.e. Al Meezan, and may seem complex to the students – particularly in the Pakistan’s financial structure – but framing the discussion from a market perspective ought to help the students of finance.

Case overview/synopsis

This case study focuses on Al Meezan Investment Management Limited (Al Meezan) journey since inception. Al Meezan is a full-fledged Sharīʿah-compliant AMC and one of the major players in the mutual funds industry of Pakistan. Al Meezan offers a comprehensive range of Sharīʿah-compliant investment solutions especially designed to meet the financial goals of their existing and potential clients. The case study covers all the key events before the inception of Al Meezan, from late 1990s till March 2020. The case is based on interview with chief executive officer (CEO) (the protagonist) of Al Meezan. The case also covers various challenges faced by Mohammad Shoaib, CEO and his senior team, to make Al Meezan a vibrant institution offering Islamic financial services.

Complexity academic level

This case is aimed at undergraduate students in their final year (i.e. taking electives in the field of Finance/Islamic Finance) or graduate students majoring in Finance/Islamic Finance.

Supplementary materials

Teaching notes are available for educators only.

Subject code

CSS1: Accounting and Finance.

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