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Article

Murad Mohammed Al-Nashmi and Abdulkarim Abdullah Almamary

In an effort to build a useful conceptual framework that enhances understanding and permits practical application of ethics, this paper aims to understand the relationship…

Abstract

Purpose

In an effort to build a useful conceptual framework that enhances understanding and permits practical application of ethics, this paper aims to understand the relationship and impact of Islamic marketing ethics on brand credibility. Nowadays, recognizing the ethical dilemmas associated with business is an important aspect of marketing strategy (Murphy et al. 2012). As known, the pharmaceutical industry has access to a deep pool of resources with the potential to maintain an esteemed reputation for offering innovative products that improve the public’s health and well-being (Kim and Ball, 2013). However, recent years have yielded several high-profile safety issues associated with particular medications along with a growing perception that pharmaceutical companies are unethical and drive up healthcare costs by prioritizing profits over consumer needs (USA Today/KFF/Harvard SPH, 2008). Therefore, the reputation of the pharmaceutical industry has been damaged with only 11 per cent of individuals considering pharmaceutical companies to be trustworthy (Harris Interactive Poll, 2010). Thus, the pharmaceutical industry in Yemen is the target of this paper and the relationship between its brands’ credibility and Islamic marketing ethics has been highlighted.

Design/methodology/approach

In a study of 106 respondents, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis were conducted to understand the relationship, between brand credibility and Islamic marketing ethics. Correlation and regression analyses were performed to evaluate the hypothesized relationships between the variables.

Findings

Significant and positive relationships were confirmed between brand credibility and Islamic marketing ethics, namely, Annasihah, Al-Istiqamah, Al-E’etedal, Al-Ihsan, As-Sidq, Attaqwa and Al-Amanah. The eighth Islamic marketing ethic, Attasamoh, has been rejected.

Originality/value

The paper evaluates brand credibility in relation to Islamic marketing ethics in the pharmaceutical industry in Yemen. Islamic marketing ethics have been confirmed as a new variable that correlates with brand credibility and helps in boosting the level of credibility.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

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Article

Jonathan A.J. Wilson, Russell W. Belk, Gary J. Bamossy, Özlem Sandikci, Hermawan Kartajaya, Rana Sobh, Jonathan Liu and Linda Scott

The purpose of this paper is to bring together the thoughts and opinions of key members of the Journal of Islamic Marketing's (JIMA) Editorial Team, regarding the recently…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to bring together the thoughts and opinions of key members of the Journal of Islamic Marketing's (JIMA) Editorial Team, regarding the recently branded phenomenon of Islamic marketing – in the interests of stimulating further erudition.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors adopted an “eagle eye” method to investigate this phenomenon: Where attempts were made to frame general principles and observations; alongside a swooping view of key anecdotal observations – in order to ground and enrich the study. The authors participated in an iterative process when analysing longitudinal and contemporary phenomenological data, in order to arrive at a consensus. This was grounded in: triangulating individual and collective researcher findings; critiquing relevant published material; and reflecting upon known reviewed manuscripts submitted to marketing publications – both successful and unsuccessful.

Findings

The authors assert that a key milestone in the study and practice of marketing, branding, consumer behaviour and consumption in connection with Islam and Muslims is the emergence of research wherein the terms “Islamic marketingandIslamic branding” have evolved – of which JIMA is also a by‐product. Some have construed Islam marketing/branding as merely a niche area. Given the size of Muslim populations globally and the critical importance of understanding Islam in the context of business and practices with local, regional and international ramifications, scholarship on Islamic marketing has become essential. Western commerce and scholarship has been conducted to a limited extent, and some evidence exists that research is occurring globally. The authors believe it is vital for “Islamic marketing” scholarship to move beyond simply raising the flag of “Brand Islam” and the consideration of Muslim geographies to a point where Islam – as a way of life, a system of beliefs and practices, and religious and social imperatives – is amply explored.

Research limitations/implications

An “eagle eye” view has been taken, which balances big picture and grassroots conceptual findings. The topic is complex – and so while diverse expert opinions are cited, coverage of many issues is necessarily brief, due to space constraints.

Practical implications

Scholars and practitioners alike should find the thoughts contained in the paper of significant interest. Ultimately, scholarship of Islam's influences on marketing theory and practice should lead to results which have pragmatic implications, just as research on Islamic banking and finance has.

Originality/value

The paper appears to be the first to bring together such a diverse set of expert opinions within one body of work, and one that provides a forum for experts to reflect and comment on peers' views, through iteration. Also the term Crescent marketing is introduced to highlight how critical cultural factors are, which shape perceptions and Islamic practises.

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Article

Djavlonbek Kadirov

– The purpose of the article is to propose and develop a distinct perspective in Islamic marketing research through fusing the Islamic paradigm and the macromarketing theory.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the article is to propose and develop a distinct perspective in Islamic marketing research through fusing the Islamic paradigm and the macromarketing theory.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a conceptual article that is based on intellectualising and reflecting on differences in understanding what marketing is and what role it plays in society.

Findings

The article reveals some commonality of purpose between the macromarketing discipline and Islamic macromarketing, while the latter field of inquiry offers a unique outlook to a number of domain-specific issues.

Research limitations/implications

The characterisation of Islamic macromarketing will open new avenues for future research and will make researchers more theoretically sensitive to ontological and epistemological assumptions that underlie marketing investigations. The limitation of the present discussion is that Islamic macromarketing may not have yet emerged as a separate discipline. Additionally, research on genuinely macromarketing issues in Islamic contexts is very sparse.

Practical implications

Muslim practitioners and managers are to realise that the means and ends of marketing are better understood if viewed from a broader perspective of marketing's impact and consequences on society. By adopting the Islamic macromarketing perspective, public, societal institutions, business stakeholders, and managers will find a better platform to cooperate on maximising the realisation of hasanah (excellence) for all.

Originality/value

This article contributes to the discipline by introducing and characterising a potentially new field of marketing inquiry.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

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Article

Salem Harahsheh, Rafa Haddad and Majd Alshorman

The purpose of this paper is to build a better understanding of the concept of Halal tourism as expressed by Muslim Jordanian tourists who want to comply with the Islamic

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to build a better understanding of the concept of Halal tourism as expressed by Muslim Jordanian tourists who want to comply with the Islamic law. The study also examines Jordan as a Halal tourism destination as perceived by those tourists. Implications of marketing Jordan as a Halal tourism destination are among the research questions.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is empirical and quantitative in nature with a survey type. The sample of the study is Muslim Jordanians in the cities of Amman and Irbid. Respondents were chosen randomly in shopping malls, gardens and public places. A self-completion questionnaire was administered to collect the data for the research and 920 questionnaires were returned. The data were analysed using descriptive and reliability and explanatory factor analysis in addition to certain tests such as one sample t test and two samples chi-square tests.

Findings

Halal tourism in Jordan is established but needs more enhancements and promotion. Jordan was evaluated positively in 14 Halal services and was unsuccessful in ten others. The motives for Jordanian Muslim tourists who want to comply with the Islamic law, to travel to Halal destinations were destinations that offer Halal-friendly services; to know Islamic religious sites; and to learn about Islamic history. Jordanian tourists were knowledgeable of local and international Halal destinations (78.2 and 67%, respectively). More than half of the sample experienced Halal destinations in Jordan and only 26.4% abroad. From a marketing point of view, the results of this study reveal good awareness of potential Jordanian tourists towards Halal tourism and Halal services. The study revealed that Jordanian Muslim tourists who want to comply with the Islamic law showed significant positive motives to travel Halal tourism destinations. In addition, the study showed statistically significant knowledge and experiences in local Halal destinations, but not in foreign Halal destinations.

Research limitations/implications

The lack of research on Halal tourism in Jordan gives limited in-depth discussion. In addition, the study sample was chosen from two major cities in Jordan; therefore, further research is needed to include a representative sample of the whole country.

Practical implications

The paper includes marketing implications on Halal tourism in Jordan. The authors suggest marketing strategies should be launched to emphasise the importance of Halal tourism and marketing Jordan as Halal tourism destination. The recommendations of this study provide positive and negative results on Jordan as a Halal tourism destination. The negative evaluation of Jordan in terms of Halal services should be redressed by the Jordanian Government and the Jordanian private tourism and hospitality sectors to build a positive image of Jordan as a potential competitive Halal destination for Muslim tourists who want to comply with the Islamic law.

Originality/value

The paper is among the first of its kind, which empirically examined the motives of Jordanian Muslims who want to comply with the Islamic law to travel to Halal tourism destinations as well as evaluating Jordan as a Halal tourism destination. This study fills the gap in literature about Halal tourism in Jordan and presents Halal tourism as one of the alternative forms of tourism of high potential for Jordan to compete in this market segment.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

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Article

Abd Hakim Abd Razak

The purpose of this study is to examine the legal paradigm of multiple Sharia' board directorship practice from the Sharia' law concept of Maslahah Al-Mursalah (public interest).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the legal paradigm of multiple Sharia' board directorship practice from the Sharia' law concept of Maslahah Al-Mursalah (public interest).

Design/methodology/approach

It uses a doctrinal research method that relies on the commonly referred sources of Quran and Sunnah, with a specific focus on Maslahah Al-Mursalah and, where applicable, commentaries by contemporary scholars, academics and practitioners as well as translations of classical book of Fiqh. This study scrutinises the polarity of views concerning the distinct Masyaqqah (necessity) surrounding the practice in discussion: the Masyaqqah that encourages and one that discourages the application of the practice.

Findings

This study is keen to suggest the industry to adopt a cautious approach and consider exploring a corporate governance framework that appraises the theoretical and practical Sharia' issues concerning its application in cognisance of its adversarial influence towards the sustainability of Islamic banking industry.

Originality/value

Since Murat Unal’s study of multiple Sharia' board directorships in 2009 and 2011, empirical works that scrutinise the practice from the Sharia' law perspective have remained limited or almost non-existent. It is aspired that this study may assist fellow readers and future researchers alike in evaluating and appreciating the divergent views surrounding the application of this practice in Islamic banking.

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Article

Saeed Akbar, Syed Zulfiqar Ali Shah and Shahin Kalmadi

Islamic banking as a financial institution has always been proclaimed to be different from conventional banking systems. This is mainly due to the prohibition of interest…

Abstract

Purpose

Islamic banking as a financial institution has always been proclaimed to be different from conventional banking systems. This is mainly due to the prohibition of interest and emphasis on achieving social economic responsibility in society. However, in practice, Islamic banking practices in the UK seem to be far away from its paradigm version. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate user perceptions of Islamic banking practices in the UK.

Design/methodology/approach

To explore the understandings and perceptions of customers about Islamic banking practices in the UK an online questionnaire survey is used as the research approach in this study. The survey was conducted through a closed‐ended structured questionnaire.

Findings

The overall findings of this study suggest that Islamic banking in the UK is not fully aligned with the paradigm version of Islamic finance. The respondents generally agree with the view that the principle of profit and loss sharing element represents the true spirit of Islamic banking practices, however, due to the complex nature of Islamic banking products, they are unsure about the full benefits of this system. There is a high expectation among the respondents about the commitment and strong welfare role of Islamic banks in society. It is therefore suggested that through research, effective marketing and generating more awareness in users about Islamic finance, it is possible to achieve more from the Islamic banking paradigm.

Originality/value

This study is not only relevant to Muslims, but also to the banking regulators in the UK, as many conventional banks are now offering Islamic products and services alongside their routine interest‐based transactions. Hence there is a need for the regulators to understand the real nature of such practices by both the Islamic and conventional banks and establish a uniform regulation so that users are not ill‐treated by banks in the UK.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

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Book part

Noor Mahinar Abu Bakar, Norhashimah Mohd Yasin, Siti Salwani Razali and Ng See Teong

This chapter aims to examine Bank Negara Malaysia’s (BNM) approach in fulfilling its financial consumer protection mandate from unfair contract terms and the statutory…

Abstract

This chapter aims to examine Bank Negara Malaysia’s (BNM) approach in fulfilling its financial consumer protection mandate from unfair contract terms and the statutory framework relevant for consumer protection in the domestic market. This is a qualitative-based research. Using content analysis, this study analyses BNM’s Financial Stability and Payment Systems Report from 2012 to 2016, specifically on the ‘market conduct and consumer empowerment’ to explore BNM’s prudential regulatory, supervisory and consumer protection roles in protecting bank consumers from unfair contract terms. It is found that even if a number of standards and guidelines have been issued by BNM in improving ‘fairness and transparency’, the potential risk facing bank consumers from unfair terms in standard consumer contracts of Islamic banks especially where terms may be unfair or unclear remains unchanged. This study recommends that BNM as the Central Bank and financial regulator of Malaysia promotes self-regulation of the Islamic banks by adopting value-based banking of a consumer-focussed culture in delivering an effective protection for consumers from unfair contract terms and empowering them in their dealings with Islamic banks in Malaysia. This study will be helpful in bringing a policy formulation by BNM in identifying their weak areas and suggesting improvements in pursuing a strong consumer protection agenda from unfair contract terms.

Details

Emerging Issues in Islamic Finance Law and Practice in Malaysia
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-546-8

Keywords

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Article

Jonathan A.J. Wilson and John Grant

The purpose of this paper is to debate what (if anything) is Islamic marketing? And link developments in this field to the wider marketing paradigm.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to debate what (if anything) is Islamic marketing? And link developments in this field to the wider marketing paradigm.

Design/methodology/approach

A phenomenological antipositivist review of key case examples, drawing from 40 years of the authors' collective professional experiences; and field notes investigating approximately 1,000 brand marketing media reports, and 32 in‐depth interviews – as industry active academic practitioners. Supporting this, literature searches covered the fields of marketing, cultural studies, anthropology, contemporary religion, post‐structuralism and natural philosophy.

Findings

Marketing is both a concept and lived experience, manifest in the competitive exchange of commoditised thoughts, feelings, actions and objects – between engaged individuals and collectives. For many reasons, Islamic and Brand agendas/imperatives have risen in the consciousness and practises of Muslims and non‐Muslims globally, through social interactions. These have placed Islamic, brand and marketing practises in the spotlight, singularly and collectively. On the surface, many have considered whether Islamic marketing is a truism, a phenomenon, a noumenon, an ideology, or even a paradigm? The paper suggests that it represents a new focal phase “torchbearer”, as a conspicuous and necessary challenger strain towards convention, supporting fit for purpose marketing – just as “green” and “digital” marketing have previously, and continue to do so.

Research limitations/implications

This is a viewpoint piece, which whilst based upon the experiences of two authors, draws from their varied practitioner‐engaged action research, as collaborators and participants. To this end they adopt a standpoint, which argues for marketing being an applied science, rejecting approaches that encourage academic/practitioner divides.

Practical implications

Scholars and practitioners should resist the temptation to study and practice the field with a silo mentality. Marketing is not monolithic, nor is Islamic marketing necessarily a new phenomenon, or discrete sub‐set. Muslims have always engaged in marketing practices – offering symbolic and functional value globally.

Originality/value

The paper presents the following key argument: that Islamic Marketing is (while connected to the Islamic faith, heritage and cultural milieu) most usefully described and analysed as a differentiated wave within marketing activities and consumption, spearheaded currently by Muslims and non‐Muslims alike. And hence that it can be related to other developments in the marketing field, where marketing moves through evolutionary and revolutionary phases of meaning and practice, while grappling with new challenges and channels, in order to maintain its relevance and efficacy.

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Article

Umar A. Oseni

This study aims to examine the phenomenon of Fatwā shopping, its effect on consumer trust in Islamic finance products and the need for effective consumer protection…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the phenomenon of Fatwā shopping, its effect on consumer trust in Islamic finance products and the need for effective consumer protection regulations in the Islamic finance industry.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology used in this study is qualitative research which draws significantly from relevant regulations on financial consumer protection through analytical method to identify common themes on Fatwā shopping and consumer trust in the relevant literature.

Findings

This study finds that the increasing practice of Fatwā shopping through clandestine searches by some Islamic banks to get their new products endorsed by leading Sharī‘ah scholars requires proper legal regulation to avoid a total erosion of trust in the entire Islamic finance industry.

Research limitations/implication

Though Fatwā shopping is practiced in the Islamic finance industry, it is always difficult to get some desperate Islamic bankers to agree to this; hence, this study does not portend to examine the evidence on Fatwā shopping, but it seeks to bring to the fore the effect of Fatwā shopping on consumer trust in Islamic financial services, and the need for effective consumer protection regulations.

Practical implications

This study is expected to provide an invaluable guide and policy framework for emerging and promising jurisdictions on the need to regulate Fatwā shopping through an effective legal framework based on some best practices identified in the study.

Originality/value

Though there have been a number of studies relating to Fatwā shopping, focusing on the need for effective consumer protection regulations in the Islamic finance industry will enrich the existing literature and have significant implications for the future of the industry.

Details

Society and Business Review, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5680

Keywords

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Article

Norlia Ahmad

The purpose of this paper is to offer a renewed perspective on the intersections of Islam and marketing.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to offer a renewed perspective on the intersections of Islam and marketing.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is based on Islamic marketing literature, Islam’s view on human and economic progress, insights from other marketing disciplines and phenomena that focus on treating consumers as “individuals” instead of merely target markets. It consists of an inclusive approach guided by a notion that Islamic marketing debates should not merely attempt to “see” (understand) Muslim consumers or Islamic markets but to also enhance efforts to “see” and (re)discover Islam.

Findings

This paper reiterates a view of Islam as both a faith and activity; it argues that this view should be the basis of critical analysis on the intersections of Islam and marketing. It also highlights the overlap between Islamic marketing and humanistic marketing, thus offers more inclusive approach to Islamic marketing debates. Based on the arguments of Islam as a deen and marketing as part of human activity, it provides further directions for critical and continuous efforts to explore the questions of “what, why and how” Islam can contribute to the advancement of marketing theory and practice.

Originality/value

This paper presents a renewed perspective to current debates on Islamic marketing; it stresses on the importance of building a case in which Islam has something to commit to contemporary marketing issues and problems.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

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