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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2009

Ali A. Hebeish, Essam S. Abdel-Halim, Ibrahim A. Hamdy, Sanaa M. El-Sawy, Mervat S. Ibrahim and Fikry A. Abdel-Mohdy

Linear electron beam radiation has been used to induce irradiation grafting of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), glycidyl methacrylate/β-cyclodextrin (GMA/β-CD), and glycidyl…

Abstract

Linear electron beam radiation has been used to induce irradiation grafting of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), glycidyl methacrylate/β-cyclodextrin (GMA/β-CD), and glycidyl methacrylate/monochlorotriazinyl-β-cyclodextrin (GMA/MCT-β-CD) onto cotton fabrics. The effect of radiation dose, GMA concentration and CDs concentration on graft yield, epoxide content and the bonded amount of CDs was investigated. Results obtained reveal that the amount of CDs bonded within the fabric; the add-on and the epoxide content are directly related to the CDs concentration, GMA concentration and the irradiation dose. Graft yield and epoxide content increase with the increase of radiation dose to a certain extent, and they decrease due to degradation of GMA at higher irradiation doses. Results also reveal that although the bonded amount of CDs is nearly proportional to the concentration of CDs in the treatment solution, the accessibility ratio of CDs decreases with increasing CDs concentration. Treatment of fabrics grafted with GMA (Cell-g-GMA) and GMA/CDs mixtures (Cell-g-GMA/CDs) in a sequel step with the corresponding CDs increases the amounts of CDs fixed onto the fabrics, while epoxide content decreases. The treatment of the cotton fabrics with GMA and CDs was established on the basis of spectral data studies.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2011

Essam S. Abdel-Halim, Moustafa M.G. Fouda, Sanaa M. El-Sawy, Ibrahim A. Hamdy and Fikry A. Abdel-Mohdy

Glycidyl methacrylate/monochlorotriazinyl-β-cyclodextrin mixture (GMA/MCT-β-CD) is grafted onto cotton fabric by an irradiation technique that uses linear electron beam…

Abstract

Glycidyl methacrylate/monochlorotriazinyl-β-cyclodextrin mixture (GMA/MCT-β-CD) is grafted onto cotton fabric by an irradiation technique that uses linear electron beam radiation for initiating the grafting reaction. The obtained grafted fabric (cell-g-GMA/MCT-β-CD) is loaded with chlorohexidin diacetate (an antimicrobial agent) and subjected to several washing cycles. Grafted cotton fabrics (before and after loading with the antimicrobial agent) and control cotton fabrics are characterized for antimicrobial activity against different kinds of bacteria and fungi by using the diffusion disk method.

Grafted fabrics that are loaded with an antimicrobial agent show very good antimicrobial activity in comparison with control and grafted fabrics which are not loaded with an antimicrobial agent. The results in this study also demonstrate that GMA/MCT-β-CD grafted fabrics that are loaded with an antimicrobial agent retain a good deal of their antimicrobial activity after five washings. Good retention of antimicrobial activity is due to the cavities that are present in the cyclodextrin moieties which are used to host and keep the antimicrobial agent.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article
Publication date: 27 July 2012

J. Gisbert, M. Bonet, P. Díaz, I. Montava and P. Monllor

Electron beam is a way of radiation that can induce different reactions on polymers. The purpose of this work is to analyze the effect that the electron beam can produce…

Abstract

Purpose

Electron beam is a way of radiation that can induce different reactions on polymers. The purpose of this work is to analyze the effect that the electron beam can produce on polyester fabrics.

Design/methodology/approach

Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fibres were treated at 0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 KGy. Later on surface modification was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Colorimetric and thermal measurements were studied too, as well as traction resistance.

Findings

Traction resistance showed no significant variations. As a result the authors could observe some changes in fabric witnesses and cristallinity increase, but no changes in traction resistance were observed. Moreover, when surface was studied, roughness was increased as oligomers moved towards fibre surface because of radiation dose.

Originality/value

The authors could appreciate roughness increased with radiation dose as well as yellowness and crystallinity.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 November 2014

F. Bezgin and K. Demirelli

This paper aims to a newly designed photoresponsive four-armed graft copolymer was synthesised and characterised. The synthesised polymer contains photochemical group and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to a newly designed photoresponsive four-armed graft copolymer was synthesised and characterised. The synthesised polymer contains photochemical group and a greater part of the cross-linkable functional group which is not affected by short wavelength when subject to under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in film status.

Design/methodology/approach

The four-armed macroinitiator was prepared by reacting diethanol amine with poly [methyl-2-chloro-4-{7-(chloroacetyl) oxy]-2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yl}-2-methylbutanoate] and acylating the product with chloroacetyl chloride. A grafting reaction with n-butyl methacrylate was carried out in the presence of the four-armed macroinitiator and the catalyst CuBr/2, 2′-bipyridyne at 90°C. All of the synthesised polymers were structurally characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Hydrogen-1 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR) spectra. Gel permeation chromatography was used to obtain the molecular weights of polymer.

Findings

1H-NMR, FT-IR and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy demonstrated that the four-armed macroinitiator and the graft copolymer was successfully synthesised. The end-functionalised poly(methyl methacrylate) with 7-hydroxyl-4-chloromethyl coumarin was irradiated at the wavelength larger than 300 nm to create the cyclobutane ring in between the 7-hydroxyl-4-chloro methyl coumarin unities. To characterise the polymer and show the transformation of coumarin unities into photodimers, 1H-NMR, FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopy were used.

Research limitations/implications

Graft copolymer containing coumarin has involves photocrosslinkable functional group, in which reactive functional group has attracted great interest from both industrial and academic fields. Their synthesis provides the opportunity for a compatible modification of the graft copolymer structure to develop adapted macromolecules for a range of end practices.

Practical implications

A photoresponsive graft copolymer can have a role in an active area of polymer chemistry research due to its uses in the areas of photolithography, liquid crystal, non-linear optical materials, laser dyes, fluorescence materials and future microelectronics.

Originality/value

Graft copolymers containing a photocrosslinkable functional group, and a star polymer may be prepared using the method described in this paper and then used in technological applications. The method discussed here also allows photoinduced reversible self-healing in solid polymers.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 43 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 28 April 2020

Aminoddin Haji

The dyeing of cellulosic and proteinous fibers with natural and synthetic colorants usually needs large amounts of metal salts to promote the dyeing procedure. To get rid…

Abstract

Purpose

The dyeing of cellulosic and proteinous fibers with natural and synthetic colorants usually needs large amounts of metal salts to promote the dyeing procedure. To get rid of the necessity to use metal salts, plasma treatment and subsequent attachment of chitosan biopolymer were considered as green processes for surface functionalization of wool and cotton. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of oxygen plasma treatment and attachment of chitosan on the dyeability of wool and cotton fabrics using walnut and weld as model natural dyes, as well as C.I. reactive blue 50 and C.I. acid blue 92 as model synthetic dyes.

Design/methodology/approach

Wool and cotton fabrics were modified with oxygen plasma and coated with chitosan solution. The un-modified and modified samples were dyed with the above-mentioned dyes under constant conditions. The color strength, color coordinates and fastness properties of the dyed samples were determined and compared.

Findings

The results showed that oxygen plasma treatment could improve the dyeability and fastness properties of wool and cotton fibers when dyed with all of the above-mentioned dyes. Attachment of chitosan to the plasma-treated samples significantly improved the dyeability of wool and cotton fibers with walnut, acid and reactive dyes. The fastness properties of the dyed samples were enhanced by plasma treatment and chitosan coating.

Originality/value

This study uses plasma treatment as an environmentally friendly pre-treatment for attachment of chitosan on wool and cotton. This process improved the dyeing properties of both fibers. The use of metal salts in not needed for dyeing of wool and cotton according to the investigated process.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 49 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2014

Padma S. Vankar and Rama Shanker Sahu

A graft copolymer (PBW-g-PAM) of Moringa seed was prepared. The phosphate buffer washed seed powder and polyacrylamide were reacted, using ceric ion initiator. The grafted

Abstract

Purpose

A graft copolymer (PBW-g-PAM) of Moringa seed was prepared. The phosphate buffer washed seed powder and polyacrylamide were reacted, using ceric ion initiator. The grafted copolymer was tested for its efficiency for metal removal (Cr-VI) from tannery effluent and for color removal from textile effluent using standard spectroscopic methods. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The PBW-g-PAM was prepared by standard method and characterized by FT-IR, SEM, UV-vis, XRD and DSC/TGA analyses.

Findings

The effects of PBW-g-PAM dose, contact time and pH on percent removal of Cr-VI and dye color, have been reported.

Originality/value

The efficiency of metal removal was shown to be 99 per cent in just 15 min. Similar results were obtained for efficient color removal from textile effluents. It is for the first time that graft polymer of Moringa seed has been used for metal and color removal.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 43 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2017

Md. Asadul Hoque, Md. Anwarul Kabir Bhuiya, Md. Saiduzzaman, Md. Ashadul Islam and Mubarak A. Khan

This paper aim to comparatively study of mechanical properties of gamma radiation treated raw and polyethylene glycol modified bleached jute reinforced polyester…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aim to comparatively study of mechanical properties of gamma radiation treated raw and polyethylene glycol modified bleached jute reinforced polyester composite. The natural fiber-reinforced composite has been a wide area of research, and it is the preferred choice due to its superior physical and mechanical properties like low density, stiffness and light weight. Among several natural fibers, jute is one that has good potential as reinforcement in polymer composite. Jute fibers biodegradability, low cost and moderate mechanical properties make it as a preferable reinforcement material in the development of polymer matrix composites.

Design/methodology/approach

In the present work, raw jute fabrics-reinforced polyester composite (as RJPC) and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified bleached jute fabrics-reinforced polyester composite (as MBJPC) were fabricated by the heat-press molding technique at 120°C for 5 min at a pressure of 5 tons. Prior to the composite formulation, low lignin content bleached jute fabrics were chemically modified with PEG for the better compatibility of the fabrics with the polyester matrix and enhancing elongation properties. All the composites irradiated with different gamma radiation dose in the range of 2 to 14 kGy.

Findings

The irradiated composites showed highest improved of mechanical properties at the 10 kGy γ-radiation dose. However, the hard and sunlight-sensitive high lignin content γ-RJPC showed higher mechanical properties except elongation properties compared to that of low lignin content γ-MBJPC.

Originality/value

After the γ-ray irradiation, both the γ-RJPC and γ-MBJPC developed high degree of cross-linking among the polyester molecules and thereto fabrics with the consequence of significant changed of surface morphology as observed by atomic force microscopy.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

George K. Stylios

Examines the tenth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched aspects…

Abstract

Examines the tenth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched aspects. Subjects discussed include cotton fabric processing, asbestos substitutes, textile adjuncts to cardiovascular surgery, wet textile processes, hand evaluation, nanotechnology, thermoplastic composites, robotic ironing, protective clothing (agricultural and industrial), ecological aspects of fibre properties – to name but a few! There would appear to be no limit to the future potential for textile applications.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2001

Min Zhi Rong, Ming Qiu Zhang, Hong Liu, Hanmin Zeng, Bernd Wetzel and Klaus Friedrich

Nanocomposites represent a new prospective branch in the huge field of polymer materials science and technology. It has been shown that an overall enhancement of…

Abstract

Nanocomposites represent a new prospective branch in the huge field of polymer materials science and technology. It has been shown that an overall enhancement of properties of polymers can be achieved under certain conditions by the addition of nanoparticles. To examine the influence of microstructure on the tribological performance of nanocomposites, different ways of compounding were used in this study. It was found that the friction and wear behavior of polymeric nanocomposites under sliding environment was rather sensitive to the dispersion states of the nanoparticles. When the microstructural homogeneity of the nanocomposites was improved, their wear resistance could be increased significantly. The present work demonstrates the importance of TiO2‐nanoparticles dispersion in an epoxy resin matrix, on the materials’ tribological properties, when sliding against a smooth steel counterpart.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 53 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2011

H. Li and D.Y. Gao

The purpose of this paper is to prepare poly(sodium‐p‐styrenesulphonate) (PSSNa) and investigate the effects of polymerisation conditions on the polymerisation rate of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to prepare poly(sodium‐p‐styrenesulphonate) (PSSNa) and investigate the effects of polymerisation conditions on the polymerisation rate of sodium styrenesulphonate (SSNa) and molecular weight of PSSNa.

Design/methodology/approach

SSNa polymers were prepared in both solution state and solid state by the γ‐ray radiation‐induced polymerisation. The molecular weight of polymer was measured with Ubbelohde viscosimeter and the molecular structure was characterised with IR and UV spectrophotometers.

Findings

In the radiation‐induced polymerisation of SSNa, factors such as irradiation dose rate, total dose, irradiation temperature, additives, etc. have impacts on the polymerisation rate, polymer yield and molecular weight of polymer. In aqueous solution, the reacted monomer number of SSNa and the total activation energy (Ea) of polymerisation were found to be 1.28×104 mol/100 eV and 12.98 kJ/mol, respectively. In the solid state, the SSNa was polymerised too, although the irradiation dose needed for the polymerisation was much higher comparing with that in the liquid state.

Research limitations/implications

There are few reports on polymerisation process for the preparation of PSSNa via radiation techniques.

Practical implications

PSSNa has been widely used in many fields. Polymers prepared by radiation‐induced polymerisation could be used in special aspects such as biomedical application which requires products of higher purity.

Originality/value

The paper provides a way for the preparation of higher purity PSSNa without the use of polymerisation initiator.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

1 – 10 of 92