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Article
Publication date: 11 December 2017

Ana João Santos, Baltazar Nunes, Irina Kislaya, Ana Paula Gil and Oscar Ribeiro

Psychological elder abuse (PEA) assessment is described with different thresholds. The purpose of this paper is to examine how the prevalence of PEA and the phenomenon’s…

Abstract

Purpose

Psychological elder abuse (PEA) assessment is described with different thresholds. The purpose of this paper is to examine how the prevalence of PEA and the phenomenon’s characterisation varied using two different thresholds.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants from the cross-sectional population-based study, Aging and Violence (n=1,123), answered three questions regarding PEA. The less strict measure considered PEA as a positive response to any of the three evaluated behaviours. The stricter measure comprised the occurrence, for more than ten times, of one or more behaviours. A multinomial regression compared cases from the two measures with non-victims.

Findings

Results show different prevalence rates and identified perpetrators. The two most prevalent behaviours (ignoring/refusing to speak and verbal aggression) occurred more frequently (>10 times). Prevalence nearly tripled for “threatening” from the stricter measure (>10 times) to the less strict (one to ten times). More similarities, rather than differences, were found between cases of the two measures. The cohabiting variable differentiated the PEA cases from the two measures; victims reporting abuse >10 times were more likely to be living with a spouse or with a spouse and children.

Research limitations/implications

Development of a valid and reliable measure for PEA that includes different ranges is needed.

Originality/value

The study exemplifies how operational definitions can impact empirical evidence and the need for researchers to analyse the effect of the definitional criteria on their outcomes, since dichotomization between victim and non-victim affects the phenomenon characterisation.

Details

The Journal of Adult Protection, vol. 19 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1466-8203

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 29 October 2018

Natalia N. Khakhonova, Elena N. Makarenko, Tatiana V. Makarenko and Irina A. Kislaya

The purpose of this chapter is to develop practical recommendations for monitoring and controlling the implementation of the optimization model of digital economy in modern Russia.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this chapter is to develop practical recommendations for monitoring and controlling the implementation of the optimization model of digital economy in modern Russia.

Methodology

The authors use the methods of induction, deduction, synthesis, systemic and problem analysis, and formalization.

Results

The authors develop and present recommendations for the establishment of planned values of the indicators that characterize digital economy in Russia until 2025, according to the treatment of factual values of these indicators, and for the correction of measures for regulating the process of digital economy’s formation depending on the values of these indicators. The practical recommendations offered for monitoring and controlling the implementation of the optimization model of digital economy allow creating a comprehensive and detailed national strategy and implementing it in the economic practice of modern Russia. The algorithm presented for this monitoring reflects a general logic involved in this process and opens possibilities for the manifestation of its flexibility and adaptation to each specific situation.

Recommendations

The developed algorithm of monitoring and control regarding the implementation of the optimization model of digital economy in modern Russia and the offered planned values of the indicators that characterize digital economy in Russia until 2025 are recommended for usage during development and implementation of the national strategy for digital economy’s formation in the Russian economic system.

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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2015

Ana Paula Gil, Ana João Santos and Irina Kislaya

The purpose of this paper is to reflect on how qualitative approaches can improve a prevalence study on older adults’ violence. The paper describes how qualitative data…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to reflect on how qualitative approaches can improve a prevalence study on older adults’ violence. The paper describes how qualitative data can help frame a complex and multidimensional problem, such as older adults’ violence, within the culture where it happens and therefore prevent two risks present in prevalence studies: underestimation and overestimation.

Design/methodology/approach

To adequately measure violence and violent behaviours the authors first conducted four focus groups with the target population – older adults aged 60 and over – and 13 in-depth interviews with older adult victims of violence. Through content analysis of focus groups and in-depth interviews the authors sought to understand how violence is perceived, defined and limited by the general population and by victims.

Findings

By employing qualitative methods the authors were able to operationalise violence, decide upon and select specific behaviours to measure, rephrase questions and develop strategies to approach the general population through telephone interviews.

Research limitations/implications

The qualitative approaches helped reduce participants bias in the prevalence study and therefore to minimise the risks of underestimation and overestimation.

Originality/value

The study exemplifies how assessing quantitatively to a sensitive subject requires taking into account the perspective of the target population through a qualitative approach.

Details

The Journal of Adult Protection, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1466-8203

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 29 October 2018

Abstract

Details

Models of Modern Information Economy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-287-5

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Article
Publication date: 19 November 2021

Ana Paula Gil and Manuel Luis Capelas

Reciprocal abuse inside care practices remain under-studied due to their invisibility and further research is required. The purpose of this paper is to explore different…

Abstract

Purpose

Reciprocal abuse inside care practices remain under-studied due to their invisibility and further research is required. The purpose of this paper is to explore different levels of conflicts inside organisations.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on a self-administered questionnaire filled out by care workers (n = 150), in 16 Portuguese care homes.

Findings

Results indicated that, overall, 54.7% of care workers had observed abuse, in their daily practice, in the preceding 12 months: 48.7% psychological; 36.0% neglectful care practices; 14.0% physical and 3.3% financial abuse. The figures decreased significantly as regards abuse committed themselves, with 16.7% of those admitting to having committed at least one of these behaviours. The highest figures were also recorded for psychological abuse (13.3%) and neglect (6.7%). However, there is a statistically significant relationship between abuse committed by care workers and abuse committed by residents. Overall, 52.0% of care workers reported having been the target of at least one such behaviour by residents.

Research limitations/implications

This paper has its limitations as the sample consisted of only 16 nursing homes (12 not-for-profit and 4 for-profit nursing homes). The fact that only 4 of the 16 LTC homes were for-profit is a potential limitation both in general and in particular because research has shown that lower quality of care and elder abuse and neglect are more common in for-profit nursing homes at least in Portugal. The results were also based on self-reported measures.

Practical implications

A reactive behaviour, the risk of retaliation, after a complaint, the difficulty in dealing with dementia and the residents' aggressive behaviour, an absence of a training and support policy in an environment where difficult working conditions prevail, are factors enhancing a reciprocal process of abuse. The analysis followed by a discussion of potential implications to prevent institutional elder abuse and neglect, based on communication and social recognition, including better working conditions and training, and a cooperative work environment.

Social implications

Conflict is much more than reducing an interpersonal relationship problem between residents and staff (care workers, professional staff, managers) and extending to the whole organisation. Therefore, there are still uncertainties on how organisations, staff and residents interact between themselves, and affect care practises.

Originality/value

Reciprocal abuse in nursing homes is an important area of research and this paper enabled a discussion of potential implications concerning the quality of care, which required the identification of levels of conflict, in an organisational system, including interactions, the context where care is provided, difficult working conditions, lack of training and levels of support. All these factors are important when considering elder abuse and neglect and this calls for special attention by policymakers and researchers.

Details

The Journal of Adult Protection, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1466-8203

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 March 2019

Ana Paula Gil

In most European countries there is a range of quality control system mechanisms, however, poor quality and institutional violence can be found in the residential sector…

Abstract

Purpose

In most European countries there is a range of quality control system mechanisms, however, poor quality and institutional violence can be found in the residential sector. Taking Portugal as an example of a country that uses an inspection-only approach, this paper focuses on the monitoring system for controlling the quality of care in nursing homes. The purpose of this paper is to analyse how mistreatment of older people is identified and dealt with by the national social security services. In particular it looks at what the indicators are with which to assess poor quality care and mistreatment (how it is perceived and defined), which factors affect mistreatment of older people and intervention outputs (i.e. what are the sanctions to prevent and combat this).

Design/methodology/approach

An exploratory approach was based on a mixed method, using a database of 3,685 complaints reported to the social security inspection services. To understand the context of the complaints and the assessment of institutional violence, focus groups were carried out with inspectors from the National Inspection Service.

Findings

The focus groups identified severe situations of poor care, mistreatment of older people and loss of human rights and dignity. Some indicators were found in key areas of care and the factors associated with this were based on Kamavarapu’s typology (2017): physical conditions of facilities; closed organisational models; difficult working conditions; and perceived concerns of residents. Monitoring and inspection systems are still based on minimum standards focusing on structural and process quality, devoting little attention to the human rights situation of older persons and clinical issues.

Research limitations/implications

The number of participants in the focus groups was limited in size but the uniqueness of this exploratory method draws a dark picture of non-licensed nursing homes in Portugal.

Originality/value

An exploratory analysis was useful to identify institutional violence and discuss potential implications, in terms of effectiveness of quality care control, which calls for special attention by policy makers and researchers when monitoring the human rights of older persons.

Details

The Journal of Adult Protection, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1466-8203

Keywords

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