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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Selma Kadic-Maglajlic, Irena Vida, Claude Obadia and Richard Plank

The purpose of this study is to explore the linkages among emotional intelligence, relational selling behavior and salesperson performance. Although existing research…

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2442

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore the linkages among emotional intelligence, relational selling behavior and salesperson performance. Although existing research acknowledges the importance of emotional facets in business relationships, the role of emotional intelligence is poorly understood in the literature on salesperson performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Two data sets from business-to-business salespeople in various industrial and service sectors were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Mediation hypotheses were cross validated through a bootstrapping approach with bias-corrected confidence estimates.

Findings

The results suggest that two focal types of selling behaviors – namely, adaptive selling and customer-oriented selling – fully mediate the positive relationship between emotional intelligence and salesperson performance.

Practical implications

The study offers new insights to sales and marketing managers on how individual capabilities (such as emotional intelligence) can be transformed into high sales performance.

Originality/value

Drawing on the ability view of emotional intelligence and highlighting its conative facet, the current research posits that emotional intelligence affects salesperson performance through relational selling behaviors.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 31 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2008

Yujie Wei

This paper studies how Chinese consumers respond to foreign goods in the post‐WTO era. Specifically, it examines brand sensitivity as a mediator and product cues as…

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2007

Abstract

This paper studies how Chinese consumers respond to foreign goods in the post‐WTO era. Specifically, it examines brand sensitivity as a mediator and product cues as moderator of purchase intention. Additionally, it examines consumer preferences for different products and consumption plans for the subsequent five years. The survey sample is drawn from a population of foreign product users from 34 cities in 18 provinces in China. Results provide evidence that brand sensitivity mediates the relationship between consumer ethnocentrism and purchase intention; product cues moderate the effect of ethnocentrism on purchase intention. As the first study to link consumer ethnocentrism directly to brand sensitivity and purchase intention, this research provides some managerial implications. Global marketers can offset the negative effect of ethnocentrism by emphasizing brand image of its products, taking advantage of specific product cues, or by providing more comprehensive after‐sale service to reduce the perceived risk of purchasing imports. Also, price is still a hurdle that prevents Chinese consumers from mass consumption of foreign products. Global firms should not overestimate the purchasing power of Chinese consumers. This study represents a “snapshot” of Chinese consumers’ decision making at a time when their economic system is undergoing rapid change.

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Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1999

Irena Vida

The purpose of this conceptual study is to offer an assessment and evaluation of the literature in the field of international marketing negotiations and to propose a…

Abstract

The purpose of this conceptual study is to offer an assessment and evaluation of the literature in the field of international marketing negotiations and to propose a descriptive organizing framework which could serve as a basis to integrate and evaluate the existing empirical and conceptual work. The premise of the model is that certain cultural value orientations will be reflected in the characteristics of individuals and in those of their respective companies. Cultural value orientations will, thus, indirectly affect the process of negotiation and the outcomes of the dyadic interaction.

Details

International Journal of Commerce and Management, vol. 9 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1056-9219

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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2007

Tanja Dmitrovic and Irena Vida

This paper examines consumer motivations for shopping abroad and explores the role of demographic versus socio‐psychological factors in explaining the phenomenon of…

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2741

Abstract

Purpose

This paper examines consumer motivations for shopping abroad and explores the role of demographic versus socio‐psychological factors in explaining the phenomenon of cross‐border shopping.

Design/methodology/approach

Empirical data were collected via personal interviews from adult consumers living in Croatia and Serbia and Montenegro. The research instrument consisted of construct measures adapted from previous studies and open‐ended questions related to demographics and consumer motives for cross‐border shopping trips.

Findings

A discriminant analysis of cross‐border out‐shoppers and domestic in‐shoppers in the two countries confirmed the unstable effect of demographic variables on out‐shopping behaviour and established the significant role of economic patriotism in consumer decision making. Differences in the results across the two countries indicate that a contextual approach should be adopted in international out‐shopping studies.

Practical implications

Countries with high level of out‐shopping activity are potentially attractive targets for international retailers and marketers. Our out‐shopper profiles suggest that market opportunities exist for international discount retailers in Croatia and for upscale retailers in Serbia.

Originality/value

Unlike most research focusing on the out‐shopping phenomenon, the distinguishing feature of the study is that it examines socio‐psychological and demographic rather than macro‐economic variables as determinants of cross‐border shopping. In particular, the role of economic patriotism has rarely been investigated in this context.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 41 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2005

James Reardon, Chip Miller, Irena Vida and Irina Kim

The aim of this research was to investigate how ethnocentrism and economic development within transitional economies affects the formation of brand attitudes and attitude…

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7474

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this research was to investigate how ethnocentrism and economic development within transitional economies affects the formation of brand attitudes and attitude toward the ad.

Design/methodology/approach

Kazakhstan and Slovenia were chosen as representative transitional economies – Kazakhstan in the early stages and Slovenia highly advanced. A random sample of adults was surveyed in both countries and in the USA, which served as a control group. Questionnaires were distributed that contained measures of ethnocentricity (CETSCALE), attitude toward the brand (Ab) and attitude towards the ad (Aad). Expectations based on theory and previous studies suggested the following: ethnocentricity leads to negative Aad and Ab for foreign products and ethnocentricity will have a greater effect on Aad and Ab in new transitioning economies. All hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling (LISREL).

Findings

Ethnocentricity did result in negative Aad, but only for Kazakhstan, not Slovenia. The effect of ethnocentrism on Aad was stronger in the newly transitioning economy. Ethnocentricity affected Ab formation only indirectly through Aad, not directly as predicted by previous research. There was limited support for the idea that the effect of ethnocentrism on Ab was stronger in newly transitioning economies.

Practical implications

Because ethnocentric attitudes transfer directly to negative Aad, it indicates that developing a superior brand in newly transitioning economies is preferable to relying on mass advertising to make one's case. The brand will develop its reputation based on quality and status, which are not directly affected by ethnocentricity. A further protection from ethnocentric attitudes would be to form a joint venture with a local firm or set up a foreign subsidiary. In more advanced transitioning economies, a shift to mass communication of product benefits will work more readily.

Originality/value

International marketers have better decision‐making information now available. The relationships of economic development and ethnocentricity are more clearly laid out as they relate to attitude formation for foreign products. Researchers in this field have more advanced theory to work from, as the path by which ethnocentricity affects attitude formation has been delineated more clearly.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 39 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2000

Irena Vida

Uses the results of a mail survey to gain insights into international expansion of US retailers and their strategic thrusts. The findings indicate that important drivers…

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5014

Abstract

Uses the results of a mail survey to gain insights into international expansion of US retailers and their strategic thrusts. The findings indicate that important drivers of the retail internationalization process are related to four distinct retailer characteristics, i.e. retail‐specific advantages, dimensional factors, and to international market orientation of companies and their strategic management teams. However, neither the retail operating format nor the lack of domestic growth opportunities emerged as factors promoting international retail expansion. Retailers in this study favored full control entry modes and culturally similar country markets. Implications for future research and retailing practice are outlined.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 17 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 April 2008

Irena Vida, Tanja Dmitrović and Claude Obadia

In view of the increasingly dynamic ethnic composition of nation states in Europe and elsewhere, this paper aims to examine the effects of ethnic affiliation on…

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4282

Abstract

Purpose

In view of the increasingly dynamic ethnic composition of nation states in Europe and elsewhere, this paper aims to examine the effects of ethnic affiliation on ethnocentrism and domestic purchase bias, and to test a model of consumer ethnocentrism antecedents and outcomes in a multi‐ethnic transitional economy.

Design/methodology/approach

Empirical data were collected via personal interviews from 580 urban consumers in Bosnia and Herzegovina, which was, in the aftermath of violent ethnic conflicts in the Balkans, divided into two major sub‐regions inhabited by three clearly identifiable ethnic groups. A structural model with five first‐order reflective constructs was evaluated to test the hypothesized relationships.

Findings

The findings confirm that both national identity and nationalism are significant predictors of consumer ethnocentrism, and that ethnic affiliation has a direct effect on both consumer ethnocentrism and on domestic purchase bias. However, the antecedent nature of cultural openness in relation to consumer ethnocentrism was not confirmed.

Practical implications

While it has been suggested previously that, when consumers have dual allegiances, the construct of national identity may be of a lesser explanatory power, the results attest to the value of both nation‐state level constructs in the model as reliable predictors of consumer ethnocentrism. The findings also suggest that a differentiated marketing strategy may be warranted on entering multi‐ethnic markets.

Originality/value

Unlike most prior studies that tested ethnocentrism models across different countries with citizens of each country being addressed as a culturally/ethnically uniform group, this study does not limit in‐groups to a nation state, but examines groups based on ethnic affiliation.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 42 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 25 January 2008

Irena Vida and James Reardon

This study focuses on consumer choice behavior in the context of a new European Union (EU) member state by examining cognitive, affective and normative mechanisms in…

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4677

Abstract

Purpose

This study focuses on consumer choice behavior in the context of a new European Union (EU) member state by examining cognitive, affective and normative mechanisms in consumer preference formation for domestic vs imported products.

Design/methodology/approach

Data is drawn from a survey of 714 adult consumers. The research instrument included construct measures adapted from previous studies. The measurement model of domestic consumption was tested via covariance analysis. Once the construct reliability and validities were established, the structural model was evaluated to test the hypothesized relationships.

Findings

The findings suggest that affective and normative constructs (i.e. consumer ethnocentrism and patriotism) are stronger determinants of domestic consumption than rational considerations (the cognitive mechanism) such as perceptions of relative product quality of domestic vs imported products. The role of patriotism and cosmopolitanism as factors fuelling ethnocentric tendencies are confirmed.

Practical implications

Our results, showing the considerable relative strength of patriotism and ethnocentrism on domestic consumption suggest that managers of local brands and domestic institutions should be able to enhance their communication programs and develop close bonds with their consumers. This finding is an important signal to international entrants in positioning their international offerings, particularly as strong local brands are gaining market share in many emerging consumer markets.

Originality/value

In view of emerging transnational groupings such as the EU, this study examines possible consumer resistance to economic integration. It uses realistic data set drawn from adult consumers and focuses on a relatively homogeneous country with a small population allowing for a good external validity of findings.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2012

Irena Vida, Mateja Kos Koklič, Monika Kukar‐Kinney and Elfriede Penz

The purpose of this paper is to investigate consumer perceptions of personal risk and benefits of digital piracy behavior as determinants of one's justification for such…

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2402

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate consumer perceptions of personal risk and benefits of digital piracy behavior as determinants of one's justification for such behavior and the consequent future piracy intention. Temporal effects of rationalization in shaping future piracy intent are also addressed.

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual model was developed using counterfeiting and piracy literature. Data were gathered via mail and online survey of adults in five European Union countries. The model was tested on pooled sample using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling.

Findings

Rationalization mediates the relationship between perceived benefits and piracy intention, but not between perceived risk and intention. Both perceived risk and benefits affect piracy intent, with risk reducing it and benefits increasing it. Rationalization of past behavior increases future digital piracy intent.

Research limitations/implications

Risk measure was limited to technical problems, thus future studies should examine a wider scope of risk dimensions. The cross‐sectional design of the study also creates some limitations. A longitudinal methodology could provide a better insight into sequencing of rationalization.

Social implications

Marketing communications should increase public awareness of risks and reduce perceived piracy benefits to reduce future piracy intent. Public persuasion activities should counter the arguments consumers use to rationalize their piracy behavior.

Originality/value

This research fills in a void in knowledge on how expected consequences drive rationalization techniques, particularly with respect to future piracy intent. A realistic data set drawn from adult population in five countries is used, enhancing external validity.

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 9 May 2016

Rudolf R. Sinkovics, Ruey-Jer "Bryan" Jean and Daekwan Kim

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358

Abstract

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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