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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 18 September 2017

Sanjay V. Lanka, Iqbal Khadaroo and Steffen Böhm

The purpose of this paper is to provide a socio-ecological counter account of the role that agroecology plays in supporting the sustainable livelihoods of a co-operative…

5789

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a socio-ecological counter account of the role that agroecology plays in supporting the sustainable livelihoods of a co-operative of smallholder coffee farmers, where very little value is created at their end of the coffee commodity chain. Agroecology may be defined as the science that provides the ecological principles and concepts for the design and management of productive agricultural ecosystems that conserve natural resources.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a case study design of a coffee-producing co-operative in India using data collected from participant observation, focus groups and unstructured interviews with indigenous smallholder farmers. It combines the science of agroecology with the labour theory of value as a theoretical framework.

Findings

An agroecological approach supports agricultural biodiversity, while promoting sustainable livelihoods since members of the co-operative are able to reduce their use of external inputs. However, an agroecological transformation is curtailed by the continued dependence on corporate value chains. A framework using the labour theory of value is used to explain the extraction of surplus value from the labour of both the smallholder farmers as well as nature. This study provides evidence of the role of government policy and practice in perpetuating the status quo by not promoting either research on agroecology or direct consumer to producer value chains while providing subsidies for the inputs of industrial agriculture.

Originality/value

There have been very few studies that have provided an account of the limited value generated in agricultural commodity chains for smallholder farmers due to the need to purchase the inputs of industrial agriculture supported by government subsidies. This study extends the field of accounting for biodiversity into agriculture using the science of agroecology to explain the role played by biodiversity in increasing the amount of value generated by smallholder farmers. By utilising the labour theory of value, the authors have introduced the notion of the labour power of nature as represented by the environmental services that nature provides.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 30 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2005

Iqbal Khadaroo

The exponential growth in corporate reporting on the internet has created numerous opportunities and challenges for the accounting and auditing profession, and regulators…

5322

Abstract

Purpose

The exponential growth in corporate reporting on the internet has created numerous opportunities and challenges for the accounting and auditing profession, and regulators. This study aims to examine internet reporting practices of companies in Malaysia for the purpose of exploring their auditing implications.

Design/methodology/approach

An examination of the 100 Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange Composite Indexed (KLSE CI) companies in Malaysia in 2003 and 2004.

Findings

Although there has been an increase in both the number of companies and the types of information provided on the internet, the quality of internet reporting information to users has little improved. This problem is compounded because auditors have little control over web contents and the changes that can be made to audited information. Further guidance to standardise the types of internet reporting information may help protect the interest of users, provide more certainty to what information needs to be audited and reduce audit risks.

Practical implications

The hosting of audited information on an auditor's web site may provide auditors with better control, reduce audit risks and further improve the credibility and reliability of information to users.

Originality/value

Provides information on the financial reporting and auditing challenges posed by internet reporting.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 20 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 October 2012

Istemi Demirag, Iqbal Khadaroo, Pamela Stapleton and Caral Stevenson

The UK government argues that the benefits of public private partnership (PPP) in delivering public infrastructure stem from transferring risks to the private sector…

3596

Abstract

Purpose

The UK government argues that the benefits of public private partnership (PPP) in delivering public infrastructure stem from transferring risks to the private sector within a structure in which financiers put their own capital at risk, and the performance‐based payment mechanism, reinforced by the due diligence requirements imposed by the lenders financing the projects. Prior studies of risk in PPPs have investigated “what” risks are allocated and to “whom”, that is to the public or the private sector. The purpose of this study is to examine “how” and “why” PPP risks are diffused by their financiers.

Design/methodology/approach

This study focuses on the financial structure of PPPs and on their financiers. Empirical evidence comes from interviews conducted with equity and debt financiers.

Findings

The findings show that the financial structure of the deals generates risk aversion in both debt and equity financiers and that the need to attract affordable finance leads to risk diffusion through a network of companies using various means that include contractual mitigation through insurance, performance support guarantees, interest rate swaps and inflation hedges. Because of the complexity this process generates, both procurers and suppliers need expensive expert advice. The risk aversion and diffusion and the consequent need for advice add cost to the projects, impacting on the government's economic argument for risk transfer.

Originality/value

The expectation inherent in PPP is that the private sector will better manage those risks allocated to it and because private capital is at risk, financiers will perform due diligence with the ultimate outcome that only viable projects will proceed. This paper presents empirical evidence that raises questions about these expectations.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 25 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2005

M. Iqbal Khadaroo

To compare the internet reporting practices of Malaysian listed companies with those in Singapore. To examine the implications of web technology for business reporting and…

3903

Abstract

Purpose

To compare the internet reporting practices of Malaysian listed companies with those in Singapore. To examine the implications of web technology for business reporting and the challenge it poses for standard‐setting bodies.

Design/methodology/approach

A standard web browser was used to survey the web sites of listed companies and collect the data. The second objective of this paper was addressed mostly through a literature review.

Findings

One of the survey findings was that listed companies in Singapore have a greater web presence compared with Malaysia. Another major finding was that Singapore companies were making better use of the potential the internet had to offer compared with companies based in Malaysia.

Research limitations/implications

Internet reporting practices of listed companies in Malaysia and Singapore only were compared.

Practical implications

Developing a global internet reporting standard is a major challenge to accounting standard setters world‐wide.

Originality/value

This paper adds to the literature on content analysis studies by exploring web reporting practices of two south east Asian countries.

Details

Corporate Communications: An International Journal, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-3289

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 September 2008

Gwen Hannah

The purpose of this paper is to explore the development of the public finance initiative (PFI) in a £2 billion investment to build new schools in Scotland in order to…

449

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the development of the public finance initiative (PFI) in a £2 billion investment to build new schools in Scotland in order to understand how the PFI negotiation process is evolving as the public and private sectors' experiences of PFI grows.

Design/methodology/approach

Semi‐structured interviews were conducted with officials from three different Scottish councils. Further insight was gained from attendance at a Scottish conference where presentations were made on the PFI process in building schools.

Findings

Council officials' handling of PFI processes has improved over time with more assistance being available to aid project organisers. However, the process continues to be very lengthy with significant sums being spent on professional advice. The balance sheet treatment of PFI transactions remains a crucial consideration.

Originality/value

This paper assesses recent developments in PFI schools' building projects in Scotland and provides some insight into areas where previously reported difficulties have been resolved and where problems continue to exist.

Details

Journal of Applied Accounting Research, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-5426

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 September 2018

Shakir Hussain Parrey, Iqbal Ahmad Hakim and Raouf Ahmad Rather

The purpose of this paper is to enlarge the current understanding of destination image in view of identified sources of risk and to investigate the mediating role of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to enlarge the current understanding of destination image in view of identified sources of risk and to investigate the mediating role of government initiatives and media influence for sustainable and secure tourism in a conflict zone. Therefore, this study develops and empirically tests an integrative model of destination image that reflects a comprehensive view of the relationships among these variables.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses data collected through a self-administered survey of respondents selected through probability area sampling from the targeted sample of domestic tourists in hospitality contexts (four- and five-star hotels). The data were analysed using structural equation modelling. The scale was developed and purified through factor analysis (confirmatory factor analysis).

Findings

The results provide evidence that psychological risk and socio-cultural risk emerged as the major sources of risk followed by unrest (terrorist) and political risk which is against the predetermined notion that unrest (terrorist) risk is the major source of risk perceived by domestic tourists visiting a conflict zone. Further, the study identified that media is having comparatively higher role in influencing the perception about the sources of risk than the government initiatives in decreasing the sources of risk towards destination image and its competitiveness. Thus, the study supports the fact that for the destination image in conflict zone, performing best in the domain of control (government initiatives) yields very weak performance in the domain of concern (media).

Originality/value

This research contributes theoretically and empirically to the discussions on the components of the destination image in the conflict zone. Further, the study is inert in evaluating mediational role of media influence and government initiatives in the relationship between perceived risks and destination image.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 7 October 2020

Yusuf Karbhari, Md. Kausar Alam and Md. Mizanur Rahman

Prior studies on Islamic finance provide a limited linkage between organizational theory and the complex Shariah governance framework embraced by Islamic banks worldwide…

2065

Abstract

Purpose

Prior studies on Islamic finance provide a limited linkage between organizational theory and the complex Shariah governance framework embraced by Islamic banks worldwide. This paper aims to show the relevance of the application of “institutional theory” in the Shariah governance framework of Islamic banks.

Design/methodology/approach

This study applied library research to investigate the application of institutional theory in the Shariah governance framework of Islamic banks. The authors also critically reviewed prior empirical and review papers for accomplishing the research objectives.

Findings

Based on the critical review, the authors found that institutional theory is the most influential in progressing Shariah governance as it contributes toward the organizational image, helps to achieve religious legitimacy, and inspires a more robust regulatory environment. In addition, a well-designed Shariah governance framework is driven by institutional theory and that could assist in providing guidelines, strategies and procedures for Islamic banks to better conduct; monitor and control their social, religious and accountability obligations. The authors also highlighted the societal, economic and legal environment of Islamic banks in relation to the propositions of institutional theory. They emphasize that a well-designed Shariah governance framework driven by institutional theory could assist in providing guidelines, strategies and procedures for Islamic banks to better conduct, monitor and control their social, religious and accountability obligations.

Research limitations/implications

This study highlights institutional theory to serve best the development of operational strategies and structures of Islamic banks including the roles, functions and powers of the various stakeholders including regulators and those involved in the Shariah governance process of Islamic banks. The authors recognize the institutional theory to perform a key role in enriching the structural framework of Islamic Financial Institutions. This study is heavily dependent on prior research rather than empirical investigations. The authors did not cover other Islamic finance areas (such as Islamic insurance, Islamic microfinance and Halal industries). Thus, future researchers can apply institutional theory in Shariah governance practices and implementations of setting up rules by the regulators and respective institutions.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that attempts to show the importance of the application of institutional theory in Shariah governance of Islamic Banks. Thus, this study, therefore, adding a novel dimension to the literature by arguing why institutional theory, is more pronounced (as compared to the other theoretical frameworks) in the formation and discharge of the roles, powers and functions by the different governance organs (such as regulators, the board of directors, management and Shariah supervisory board) operating in this unique corporate governance landscape.

Details

PSU Research Review, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2399-1747

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 May 2020

Shama Nazneen, Hong Xu and Nizam Ud Din

Based on Butlers’ Tourism Area Life Cycle (TALC) model and stakeholder theory, this paper aims to propose an integrative model to examine the perceived impacts of…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on Butlers’ Tourism Area Life Cycle (TALC) model and stakeholder theory, this paper aims to propose an integrative model to examine the perceived impacts of cross-border mega-infrastructure development within the China–Pakistan economic corridor (CPEC). It was hypothesised that these perceptions may be predictors of residents’ perceived destination image (RPDI) and pro-tourism development behaviour (PTDB).

Design/methodology/approach

Interviewer adopted a self-administered questionnaire method and a descriptive technique to analyse the data.

Findings

The empirical results of 800 questionnaires in SEM indicates that, perceived CPEC benefits positively effects RPDI and PTDB. Further, the perceived CPEC costs positively influenced RPDI but had a negative relationship with PTDB. Moreover, RPDI partially mediated between perceived CPEC benefits and PTDB but fully mediated between perceived CPEC costs and PTDB.

Originality/value

In residents’ destination image studies, there is a paucity of the application of Butlers’ TALC model. Therefore, application of Butlers’ TALC model in residents’ destination image study in the context of cross-border mega-infrastructure development project of CPEC is entirely new.

目的

本文基于巴特勒的旅游目的地生命周期模型和利益相关者理论, 提出一个整合的模型用于考察跨越国境的大型基础设施在中国-巴基斯坦经济走廊的影响。本文假定对这些影响的感知能够预测当地居民感知目的地形象和旅游发展前的行为。

方法

使用自填式问卷和描述性数据分析技术。

发现

通过对800份问卷数据的结构方程分析, 发现感知中国-巴基斯坦经济走廊收益积极影响居民感知目的地形象和旅游发展前的行为。进一步, 感知中国-巴基斯坦经济走廊成本积极影响居民感知目的地形象但是消极影响旅游发展前的行为。而且, 居民感知目的地形象部分中介了感知中国-巴基斯坦经济走廊收益和旅游发展前的行为, 完全中介了感知中国-巴基斯坦经济走廊成本和旅游发展前的行为。

贡献

在居民目的地形象研究中, 很少使用巴特勒的旅游目的地生命周期模型。故而, 在居民目的地形象研究中使用巴特勒的旅游目的地生命周期模型, 应用在中国-巴基斯坦经济走廊这一跨国界的大型基础设施开发项目情境中, 是创新的。

关键词

目的地形象, 旅游发展前行为, 巴特勒旅游目的地生命周期模型, 利益相关者理论, 感知中国-巴基斯坦经济走廊的影响, 多群组分析

论文类型

研究论文

Propósito

Este trabajo, basado en el modelo de CDVT de Butlers y la teoría de stakeholder, propone un modelo integrador para examinar los impactos percibidos del desarrollo transfronterizo de megainfraestructuradentro dentro del corredor económico China-Pakistán (CPEC). Se presumió que estas percepciones pueden ser predictores de la imagen de destino percibida de los residentes y del comportamiento de desarrollo pro-turismo.

Metodología

el entrevistador adoptó un método de cuestionario autoadministrado y una técnica descriptiva para analizar los datos.

Resultados

Los resultados empíricos de 800 cuestionarios en el modelado de ecuaciones estructurales (SEM, por sus siglas en inglés) indican que los beneficios percibidos del CPEC influyen positivamente en la RPDI y en el comportamiento de desarrollo pro-turismo. Además, los costos percibidos del CPEC influyeron positivamente en la RPDI pero tuvieron una relación negativa con el desarrollo pro-turismo. Por otra parte, la RPDI media parcialmente entre los beneficios percibidos del CPEC y el comportamiento de desarrollo pro-turismo, pero totalmente mediado entre los costos percibidos del CPEC y el comportamiento de desarrollo pro-turismo.

Originalidad

En los estudios de imagen de destino percibida de los residentes, rara vez se aplica el Modelo del Ciclo de Vida de los Destinos Turísticos de Butlers (MCDVT). Por lo tanto, la aplicación del modelo de CDVT de Butlers en el estudio de imagen de destino percibida de los residentes, en el contexto dell proyecto de desarrollo trans-fronterizo de la mega-infraestructura del CPEC, es completamente nuevo

Article
Publication date: 4 April 2016

Yuan George Shan and Indrit Troshani

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the impact of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and eXtensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL) on audit…

1907

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the impact of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and eXtensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL) on audit fees based on evidence from listed companies operating in an emerging economy. Whilst IFRS constitute high-quality accounting standards, XBRL represents a technology standard that can enhance the usability of IFRS and overall financial reporting transparency.

Design/methodology/approach

Multivariate analyses are used on a sample of 1,798 firm-year observations between 2000 and 2011 from companies listed in the Shanghai Stock Exchange that were subject to XBRL and IFRS adoption mandates.

Findings

The main results suggest that XBRL has a main negative effect on audit fees which is weaker for larger firms. Additionally, the authors find that IFRS increases audit fees for all companies. Whilst this effect is positive for firms of different sizes, it is weaker for larger firms.

Research limitations/implications

Whilst the findings are applicable to the selected sample and may or may not be generaliseable to other economies, they can provide important implications for both regulators and companies that are undertaking IFRS convergence and XBRL implementation projects in developing economies around the world.

Originality/value

This study offers a timely assessment of the economic consequences of IFRS and XBRL on listed companies operating in an emerging economy, in addition to providing an important basis upon which further research can be designed in order to extend the analysis.

Details

International Journal of Managerial Finance, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1743-9132

Keywords

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