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Article
Publication date: 22 July 2019

IpKin Anthony Wong, Hoi In Veronica Fong, Aliana Man Wai Leong and Jacky Xi Li

The scant literature on MICE (meetings, incentives, conferences and exhibitions) tourists’ gambling behavior calls for a need to explore how their decision to gamble…

Abstract

Purpose

The scant literature on MICE (meetings, incentives, conferences and exhibitions) tourists’ gambling behavior calls for a need to explore how their decision to gamble (hereafter, “gambling decision”) may unfold. Consequently, several questions germane to the inter-relationships among event tourists’ characteristics, casinos attributes, and gambling behaviors remain largely unaddressed. This paper aims to address the void in the literature by investigating event participants’ gambling decision.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected based on two samples, and a multilevel design was used to test the proposed model. Demographic and event-related participant characteristics were examined as antecedents of gambling decision at the individual level. Event goers’ accommodation characteristics such as brand equity and type of hotel were explored as cross-level effects on the individual-level factors and relationships.

Findings

Results of the study illustrate a joint influence – in terms of both direct and moderating effects – of individual-level and organizational-level characteristics on gambling decision. In particular, brand equity moderates the relationships leading from demographic and event-related characteristics to gambling decision.

Practical implications

The inter-relationships among events, accommodations and casinos present an opportunity for hospitality practitioners to better integrate these three services in a more coherent experiential offering for the ever-demanding MICE attendees. Findings also help practitioners to justify their targeting strategy.

Originality/value

The proposed framework presents the dynamic nature of the hospitality industry in which the event, hotel and casino sectors are interdependent, a picture hitherto prevented by the single-level oriented nature of gambling and hospitality research which largely focuses on the individual perspective. Given the dynamic nature of the hospitality industry, the findings elucidate a complex interdependency of customer needs.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 31 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Catherine Prentice, IpKin Anthony Wong and Desmond Lam

This paper, from a marketing and management perspective, aims to review the relevant literature germane to casino studies. The review discusses the major findings from…

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1083

Abstract

Purpose

This paper, from a marketing and management perspective, aims to review the relevant literature germane to casino studies. The review discusses the major findings from previous studies, provides a critique and identifies research gaps for future studies. In particular, the research foci presented in this paper rest on the service profit chain (SPC) model. The review involves studies relating to the constructs of the chain model and comprises sections that are categorized based on the internal link between management and employees, interaction between casino service employees and customers and profitability link.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach used in the current study involves a systematic review of the relevant academic literature with a focus on SPC studies in the casino industry, along with critical evaluation and analysis to identify research gaps. Google Scholar, EBSCOHost, Science Direct, Emerald and other academic databases were used to search relevant studies relating to casino and gambling research streams.

Findings

The review identifies several research gaps on the basis of the SPC link. Specifically, internal service quality needs more attention from both the practice and research points of view. Casino employee research should be extended to include personal traits and characteristics that may contribute to employee performance and loyalty. In the interaction between casino service providers and gamblers, more studies should be undertaken on the efficiency and effectiveness of marketing initiatives and promotions. Externally, the paper points out that more appropriate measurement of customer loyalty and casino profitability should be explored.

Research limitations/implications

This review provides references to focusing on key competitive advantages and presents guidelines on improving business growth and profitability for casino managers. The paper also identifies research areas that future studies should attend to.

Originality/value

The paper is the first thorough literature review of gaming research on marketing and management with a focus on the SPC model. This review represents a new era of gaming research, extending the problem gambling research focus into a broader scope embracing other disciplines.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 29 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 4 February 2021

Matthew Tingchi Liu, Shaoshan Wang, Glenn McCartney and IpKin Anthony Wong

This paper aims to analyze how a real-time COVID-19 pandemic is impacting Macao’s hospitality industry, and illustrates why lessons from COVID-19 are an opportunity for…

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3530

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyze how a real-time COVID-19 pandemic is impacting Macao’s hospitality industry, and illustrates why lessons from COVID-19 are an opportunity for further development for the city.

Design/methodology/approach

This case study highlights local government and hospitality industry responses to a real-time crisis. Academic studies, media news and reports have been collected to illustrate why the Macao’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic could be taken as a city case study example. Previous crisis experience provided guidance to Macao’s success in this pandemic.

Findings

Macao has succeeded in managing the adverse effects of COVID-19, illustrating the coexistence of challenges and opportunities from experiencing the epidemic. With no COVID-19 cases in the city, cross-border tourism with China resumed in September. Macao is undeniably over reliant on the gambling industry to provide tax income and employment, creating an unbalanced industrial structure. However, the Chinese and Macao Governments, the hospitality industry and other stakeholders, have presented high levels of engagement, unity and rational courses of action during the pandemic. This paper examines Macao’s two orientations – intra and post-coronavirus – which are shown to be instrumental in the city’s future tourism development.

Practical implications

As the paper is Macao-specific, some generalization may not be applicable. The lessons and strategies proposed in the paper may only be theoretically and temporarily workable in this real-time situation. However, as COVID-19 will remain for some time globally, the efficacy of the findings justifies further ongoing analysis and application beyond Macao.

Originality/value

The case offers a first-hand analysis on the governance of Macao to negate the impacts of COVID-19, enabling a comprehensive review on the practices and policies that were effective during the virus outbreak. There is reference for researchers and practitioners in the public policy domain, and particularly in the area of crisis management and destination resilience. The result is worthy of future exploration on how the mechanism of centralized government facilitates risk management, and the rebuilding of a tourism economy in a crisis context, comparing this to other national systems.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 June 2021

Ziying Mo, Matthew Tingchi Liu and IpKin Anthony Wong

Drawing on self-determination theory and the service-profit chain, this study aims to expand the current understanding of the internal processes of internal market…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on self-determination theory and the service-profit chain, this study aims to expand the current understanding of the internal processes of internal market orientation (IMO) on an organizational commitment by investigating the interactive effect between job (task) satisfaction and internal service quality in the field of hospitality and tourism.

Design/methodology/approach

This study examines the cross-level effects of internal service quality through a time-lagged field study with multilevel structural equation modeling analysis that involved 667 frontline employees from 40 casino hotels.

Findings

The results reveal the IMO has an indirect effect on affective and normative organizational commitments through the interaction of job (task) satisfaction with internal service quality, such that internal service quality compensates for relatively low levels of job (task) satisfaction. While no indirect effect is found on continuance organizational commitment.

Research limitations/implications

This study extends the service-profit chain by integrating self-determination theory and by investigating IMO’s indirect effects on commitment through the interaction between job (task) satisfaction and internal service quality.

Practical implications

The study provides practical solutions to the employee servicing and employee retention dilemmas faced by casino organizations.

Originality/value

This study advances the service-profit chain literature by proposing and theorizing an internal process of IMO, through the cross-level buffering effect of internal service quality on the relationship between job (task) satisfaction and organizational commitment. This study further presents the theoretical and managerial implications by understanding how employees’ perceptions and interpretations of IMO affect their commitment.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 33 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 11 October 2021

Zhiwei (CJ) Lin, IpKin Anthony Wong, Shuyi Kara Lin and Yun Yang

This study aims to move beyond the current understanding of corporate social responsibility (CSR) to propose the concept of just-in-time (JIT) CSR as a metaphor that…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to move beyond the current understanding of corporate social responsibility (CSR) to propose the concept of just-in-time (JIT) CSR as a metaphor that reflects hospitality operators’ endeavors to expedite socially responsible measures to both internal and external organizational stakeholders during times when functional and emotional supports are urgently needed.

Design/methodology/approach

This research used a qualitative approach in two studies. Study 1 engaged a media analysis to better grasp the knowledge of the research problem at hand. Study 2 involved interviews from stakeholders to assess their emotions and perceptions of meanings of major contents discerned from the first study.

Findings

This research highlights a process in which operators’ CSR practices (e.g. for business practices, for organizational strategy and for stakeholder well-being) during the COVID-19 crisis are imbued with connotative meanings (e.g. place-as-safety, place-as-partnership and place-as-warmth) that ultimately give shape to three core outcomes (e.g. individual rejoinder, brand resonance and societal resilience).

Research limitations/implications

While JIT CSR is not an antidote for all devastations caused by COVID-19, it is posited as a needed mechanism that operators could use to ameliorate the situation and to go beyond their own stake to bring a broader array of societal benefits to humanity.

Originality/value

This research underscores how hospitality operators expedite crisis responses to the pandemic, and how their societal objectives transform the image of a place from a commercial venue into a place imbued with meaning associated with safety, partnership and warmth.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 33 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 6 October 2020

Zhonglu Zeng, Xing Wang and IpKin Anthony Wong

The adaptation hypothesis suggests that gambling participation would gradually decline after an initial exposure to this activity. While this hypothesis was tested in…

Abstract

Purpose

The adaptation hypothesis suggests that gambling participation would gradually decline after an initial exposure to this activity. While this hypothesis was tested in pathological gambling among residents in Western countries, the present inquiry explores the hypothesis in a tourism context.

Design/methodology/approach

This research is focused on the Mainland Chinese gamblers. Convenience sampling was used. Data were collected outside participating casinos and at major attractions. A total of 498 valid responses were collected.

Findings

By assessing changes of the Mainland Chinese gambling perceptions (e.g. excitement and fallacy) and behaviors, results point to visitor gamblers' decrease in gambling excitement and fallacy as well as budget to income ratio.

Originality/value

By assessing changes of the Mainland Chinese gambling perceptions and behaviors, this research aims to contribute to the literature by demonstrating whether the Chinese gamblers have adapted and hence, are more rational about this recreational activity.

Details

Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2021

IpKin Anthony Wong, Shuyi Lin, Lixin Lin and Ruobing Liao

The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic response is not only devastating nations and economies across the globe but it is also severely disrupting the event industry, with…

Abstract

Purpose

The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic response is not only devastating nations and economies across the globe but it is also severely disrupting the event industry, with government and health authorities forcing many events to be postponed or cancelled. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prospective attendees’ emotional responses to cancelled events. This study draws upon grief cycle theory to articulate different layers of the grief process in the event domain of inquiry.

Design/methodology/approach

The National Collegiate Athletic Association basketball tournament was selected as the research context. Taking user-generated messages from Twitter, this study first performed content analysis to organize lexical patterns into categories and higher-order themes based on the grief cycle. It also performed social network analyses using UCINET to illustrate how different grief phases are inter-related.

Findings

Results not only point to attendees’ self-expression manifested through a continuum of denial, anger, bargaining and acceptance but they also reveal a three-layer hierarchy of grief, namely, event-related, socio-politics-related and crisis-related. The network analysis further illustrates how grief phases are tied into a complex network of grief messages.

Originality/value

This study advances the event literature by improving knowledge about attendees’ emotional responses to cancelled events. It increases our understanding of the grieving process in the aftermath of COVID-19. The proposed triple grief cycle helps advance the literature by showcasing how voices from prospective attendees represent three pillars of grief hierarchy. The findings also underscore the emotional crisis of the COVID-19 aftermath.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 33 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2019

Jiaqi (Gemma) Luo, IpKin Anthony Wong, Brian King, Matthew Tingchi Liu and GuoQiong Huang

This study draws on the service-dominant (S-D) logic paradigm to examine value co-creation and co-destruction. As these phenomena are driven by positive and negative…

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2871

Abstract

Purpose

This study draws on the service-dominant (S-D) logic paradigm to examine value co-creation and co-destruction. As these phenomena are driven by positive and negative “customer-to-customer” (C2C) interactions, this paper aims to examine their influence on tourist perceptions of service quality and how they shape affective responses toward tourism and hospitality services and brand loyalty.

Design/methodology/approach

Following a comprehensive literature review, the authors used convenience sampling to gather a large sample of tourists at Shanghai Disneyland, a recently opened and already popular international tourism attraction. Structural equation modeling was used to test for direct and moderated relationships.

Findings

The findings indicated that positive and negative C2C interactions have significant though differential impacts on customer responses. Furthermore, it was found that visitor arousal mediated the relationship between service quality and brand loyalty. Prior experience was identified as a moderator in the co-creation and co-destruction process during service encounters.

Practical implications

This paper is one of the first to examine the concept of co-destruction in the tourism and hospitality context. It contributes to the literature by demonstrating the merits of proactive service provision by tourism operators, taking account of both the co-creation and co-destruction of value.

Originality/value

The study extends the literature by taking account of both positive and negative C2C interactions when examining co-creation and co-destruction in the context of service encounters. It also contributes to knowledge by assessing the asymmetry of such interactions in the context of the customer experience.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 April 2018

Mingjie Ji, IpKin Anthony Wong, Anita Eves and Aliana Man Wai Leong

The purpose of this study is to investigate how the presence of other customers in restaurant social settings becomes a resource (referred to as “customer-to-customer…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate how the presence of other customers in restaurant social settings becomes a resource (referred to as “customer-to-customer interaction” or “C2CI”) to co-create an escape dining experience and stimulate dining outcomes, namely, food attachment and dining frequency. The relationships are further tested under the effects of regional economic conditions.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected by using a multi-step approach. The first data set was obtained through a personally administered survey, which included a sample of 356 Chinese tourists who dined at fine Western (i.e. Portuguese) restaurants in Macau. The second data set concerned economic statistics and was obtained from the statistics departments of mainland China and Taiwan. A multilevel design with hierarchical linear modeling was used to test the proposed model. Multilevel mediating and moderating effects were also examined.

Findings

The results suggest that customer escape dining experience significantly mediated the relationship between C2CI and food attachment, while food attachment fully mediated the relationship between customer escape experience and dining frequency. The multilevel effect of regional economic conditions played a significant role in moderating the C2CI–escape experience relationship in which the effect of C2CI was more salient for tourists from less economically developed regions in China. The experience–food attachment relationship was also contingent on the regional economic conditions in which the relationship was stronger for tourists from less economically developed areas. A multilevel mediating effect was also presented in the study.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the literature on experience co-creation in restaurant dining by exploring and testing the possibility of the presence of other customers to become a resource of experience co-creation, which is currently overlooked in the restaurant dining literature. The study advances the concept of co-creation by including the presence of other customers and restates the active role of diners in creating experiences. It also considers the existence of structural patterns in individualized experiences.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 16 July 2019

Liang Zhu, Mingming Cheng and IpKin Anthony Wong

This study aims to identify the key determinants of Airbnb rating scores.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to identify the key determinants of Airbnb rating scores.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is based on a sample of 127,257 listings across 43 cities. A total of 24 explanatory variables were identified, and they were further grouped into host verification information, communication, policy of renting, space, information about environment, price and experience of hosting. Both Tobit and ordered logit models were used to perform the analysis.

Findings

The results indicate that good communication, large space and provision of information about the listings’ environment have a positive effect on users’ satisfaction, whereas experience of hosting negatively influences users’ satisfaction.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the peer-to-peer accommodation literature by affording a more complete understanding about guest satisfaction and its determinants.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 31 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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