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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2011

Mumin Sahin and Ceyhun Sevil

The aim is to provide detailed mechanical and metallurgical examinations of ion‐nitrided austenitic‐stainless steels.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim is to provide detailed mechanical and metallurgical examinations of ion‐nitrided austenitic‐stainless steels.

Design/methodology/approach

Austenitic‐stainless steel was the material chosen for the present study. Ion nitriding process was applied to fatigue and tensile samples prepared by machining. Process temperature was 550°C and treatment time period 24 and 60 h. Then, tensile, fatigue, notch‐impact, hardness tests were applied and metallographic examinations were performed.

Findings

High temperature and longer treatment by ion nitriding decreased fatigue and tensile strengths together with notch‐impact toughness. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X‐ray spectroscopy analysis revealed formation of nitrides on the sample surfaces. Surface hardness increased with an increase in process time due to diffusion of nitrogen during ion nitriding.

Research limitations/implications

It would be interesting to search the different temperature and time intervals of the ion nitriding. It could be a good idea if future work could be concentrated on ion nitriding on welded stainless steels.

Practical implications

Surfaces of mechanical parts are exposed to higher stress and abrasive forces compared to inside mechanical parts during the time period that mechanical components carry out their expected functions. When stresses and forces exceed the surface strength limit of the material, cracks begin to form at the material surface leading to abrasion and corrosion. Therefore, surface strength of materials needs to be increased to provide a longer service life. Ion (plasma) nitriding is a possible remedy for surface wear.

Originality/value

The main value of this paper is to contribute and fulfil the detailed mechanical and metallurgical examinations of ion‐nitrided austenitic‐stainless steels that are being studied so far in the literature.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 63 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 May 2011

Reza Shoja Razavi, Gholam Reza Gordani and H.C. Man

The purpose of this paper is to consider the corrosion properties of laser nitrided Ti‐6Al‐4V alloys that have been reported previously by several researchers.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to consider the corrosion properties of laser nitrided Ti‐6Al‐4V alloys that have been reported previously by several researchers.

Design/methodology/approach

Different kinds of surface nitriding methods of titanium alloys, such as plasma nitriding, ion nitriding, gas and laser nitriding, are introduced. Microstructure changes, such as phase formation and the influence of laser processing parameters in laser nitriding layers of Ti‐6Al‐4V alloys, were investigated using scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, X‐ray photo‐electron spectroscopy, and X‐ray diffraction. Based on investigations presented in the literature, the effect of laser nitriding on the corrosion behavior of Ti‐6Al‐4V alloy was reviewed.

Findings

By regulating the laser processing parameter, the microstructure of the nitrided layer can be controlled to optimize corrosion properties. This layer improves corrosion behavior in most environments, due to the formation of a continuous TiNxOy passive film, which can retard the ingress of corrosive ions into the substrate and can maintain a constant value of a current density. Therefore, the laser gas nitrided specimens have a relatively noble corrosion potential and a very small corrosion current, as compared to untreated specimens.

Originality/value

This paper comprises a critical review, and its collection of references is useful. It summarizes current knowledge in laser surface treatment research.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 58 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1975

N.A. Waterman, I.B. Atkinson, D.A. Cash, C. Hayman and C. Larson

Tribological problems, in common with most other technological problems, are normally solved by one of two methods—1. By the application of existing knowledge. 2. By a…

Abstract

Tribological problems, in common with most other technological problems, are normally solved by one of two methods—1. By the application of existing knowledge. 2. By a research and development programme. The first method, on grounds of speed and economy, is usually the first to be tried and requires the means of characterizing the friction, wear, or lubrication problem, a broad knowledge of the possible alternative solutions and the necessary experience to identify the most cost effective solution. Where no technically satisfactory solution exists or where the solution is economically unattractive, a more basic approach is necessary. Although it can be said that a change of design can have the greatest influence on tribological problems in many instances constraints on change will only permit materials or lubricant substitution or possibly the application of a surface coating. In these instances the tribological problem becomes one of materials development. Examples of the solution of tribological problems by both methods are presented in this paper. They are taken from work recently carried out or presently in progress at the Fulmer Research Institute.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 27 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Article
Publication date: 8 February 2016

Sonia Patricia Brühl, Amado Cabo, Walter Tuckart and Germán Prieto

The purpose of this study is to select a proper surface treatment to enhance wear resistance of engine camshafts. The camshaft is a relevant part of a diesel engine which…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to select a proper surface treatment to enhance wear resistance of engine camshafts. The camshaft is a relevant part of a diesel engine which works under torsion, fatigue and wear efforts. They are usually manufactured by casting, forging or machining from forged bar of low alloy steels, and in most cases, the machined surfaces are quenched and tempered by induction heating. After that, in many cases, to withstand the efforts imposed on the active surfaces and improve tribology and fatigue properties, the industry used for decades, thermochemical technologies such as salt bath or gaseous nitriding and nitrocarburizing processes.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper studied the effects of plasma nitriding and plasma nitrocarburizing, on the tribological behaviour of the steel SAE 1045HM3 proposed to produce camshafts. After the plasma treatments, the change in surface roughness was measured; the modified layers were studied by X-ray techniques and its thickness by optical microscopy. The diffusion zone was evaluated by Vickers microhardness determinations. Tribology tests were performed by pin-on-disc configuration using WC ball as a counterpart.

Findings

Results show that plasma nitrided samples present the best tribological behaviour compared with the nitrocarburized ones; also, the influence of the roughness produced by the thermochemical processes appears to be important.

Practical implications

Although both the plasma treatments have been applied for many years, and also reported separately in the scientific literature, there was no information comparing these two treatments for carbon steels, and also, there is not much about tribology in lubricated conditions of nitrided and nitrocarburized carbon steels. In fact, it is not proved that the porosity of the nitrocarburized layer is beneficial for wear resistance in lubricated conditions. In this paper, it was proved that at least in the tested conditions, it is not.

Originality/value

Gas or plasma nitrocarburizing is usually recommended for this kind of applications, although the modified layer is porous. This paper attempts to prove that nitriding could be better than nitrocarburizing, even with a thinner white layer.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 68 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

Hongbin Xuan and Gongjun Cui

To improve the wear resistance of the sliding boot, the wear-resistant Fe-21 Wt.% Cr-5 Wt.% B alloy is prepared, and the wear mechanism is studied under dry sliding condition.

Abstract

Purpose

To improve the wear resistance of the sliding boot, the wear-resistant Fe-21 Wt.% Cr-5 Wt.% B alloy is prepared, and the wear mechanism is studied under dry sliding condition.

Design/methodology/approach

The anti-wear Fe-21 Wt.% Cr-5 Wt.% B alloy is prepared by powder metallurgy technique. The tribological behavior of Fe-Cr-B alloy sliding against ASTM 1045 steel pin is studied at 30-60 N and 0.03-0.12 m/s using a reciprocating pin-on-disk tribometer under dry sliding condition. Meanwhile, the ASTM 5140 and 3316 steel are studied as compared samples.

Findings

The friction coefficients of tested specimens increase with the increasing normal load. However, this effect is the opposite in case of different sliding speeds. The specific wear rates increase as the sliding speed and normal load increase. The Fe-Cr-B alloy shows the best tribological properties under the dry sliding condition and the wear mechanism is mainly ploughing.

Originality/value

This wear-resistant Fe-21 Wt.% Cr-5 Wt.% B alloy can replace the traditional materials to process the sliding shoes and improve the service life of coal mining machine.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 69 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 March 2015

Mumin Sahin, Cenk Misirli and Dervis Özkan

– The purpose of this paper is to examine mechanical and metallurgical properties of AlTiN- and TiN-coates high-speed steel (HSS) materials in detail.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine mechanical and metallurgical properties of AlTiN- and TiN-coates high-speed steel (HSS) materials in detail.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, HSS steel parts have been processed through machining and have been coated with AlTiN and TiN on physical vapour deposition workbench at approximately 6,500°C for 4 hours. Tensile strength, fatigue strength, hardness tests for AlTiN- and TiN-coated HSS samples have been performed; moreover, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis and microstructure analysis have been made by scanning electron microscopy. The obtained results have been compared with uncoated HSS components.

Findings

It was found that tensile strength of TiAlN- and TiN-coated HSS parts is higher than that of uncoated HSS parts. Highest tensile strength has been obtained from TiN-coated HSS parts. Number of cycles for failure of TiAlN- and TiN-coated HSS parts is higher than that for HSS parts. Particularly TiN-coated HSS parts have the most valuable fatigue results. However, surface roughness of fatigue samples may cause notch effect. For this reason, surface roughness of coated HSS parts is compared with that of uncoated ones. While the average surface roughness (Ra) of the uncoated samples was in the range of 0.40 μm, that of the AlTiN- and TiN-coated samples was in the range of 0.60 and 0.80 μm, respectively.

Research limitations/implications

It would be interesting to search different coatings for cutting tools. It could be the good idea for future work to concentrate on wear properties of tool materials.

Practical implications

The detailed mechanical and metallurgical results can be used to assess the AlTiN and TiN coating applications in HSS materials.

Originality/value

This paper provides information on mechanical and metallurgical behaviour of AlTiN- and TiN-coated HSS materials and offers practical help for researchers and scientists working in the coating area.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 67 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 July 2019

Guanghong Wang, Guangwei He, Shengguan Qu, Hao Li, Mushun Zhou and Husheng Zhang

Fretting wear exists widely in the field of matching mechanical parts whereas previous research studies mostly focus on the point contact through a ball-plate tribometer…

Abstract

Purpose

Fretting wear exists widely in the field of matching mechanical parts whereas previous research studies mostly focus on the point contact through a ball-plate tribometer. This paper aims to study the influence of wear debris on the fretting wear characteristics of the nitrided medium carbon steel under line contact condition at elevated temperature.

Design/methodology/approach

Fretting wear behavior of the nitrided medium carbon steel was experimentally investigated under line contact condition at elevated temperature and different normal loads without lubrication. Wear loss, worn surface and wear debris were studied to analyze the wear mechanism of nitrided steel.

Findings

The results showed that surface hardness of the medium carbon steel was notably improved because of the generation of a 230 µm nitrided case. Wear loss increased with the normal load, which was associated with the damage of a thin solid film formed by the wear debris, consisting of iron oxides and chromium oxide rather than only iron or iron oxides. The wear debris became partially amorphous and spherical because it was trapped within the contact interface and was ground, rolled, oxidized under line contact conditions. The spherical wear debris acted as a third body and formed a lubricating film between the contact faces. This lubricating film helped to stabilize the friction coefficient and reduced the wear rate, which further caused the acceleration of wear volume to gradually decrease. The wear mechanisms of the nitrided steel were oxidation wear, abrasive wear and fatigue spalling of the oxide layer.

Originality/value

The findings are helpful to understand the fretting wear behavior of the friction pair under line contact and enrich the fretting tribology theory.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 73 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2013

Hakan Aydin, Ali Bayram and Şükrü Topçu

The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a study on friction characteristics of plasma, salt‐bath and gas nitrided layers produced in AISI 304 type…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a study on friction characteristics of plasma, salt‐bath and gas nitrided layers produced in AISI 304 type austenitic and AISI 420 type martensitic stainless steels.

Design/methodology/approach

Plasma nitriding processes were carried out with DC‐pulsed plasma in 80% N2+20% H2 atmosphere at 450°C and 520°C for 8 h at a pressure of 2 mbar. Salt‐bath nitriding was performed in a cyanide‐cyanate salt‐bath at 570°C for 1.5 h. Gas nitriding was also conducted in NH3 and CO2 atmosphere at 570°C for 13 h. Characterization of all nitrided samples has been carried out by means of microstructure, microhardness, surface roughness measurement and friction coefficient. The morphologies of the worn surfaces of the nitrided samples were also observed using a scanning electron microscope. Friction characteristics of the nitrided samples have been investigated using a ball‐on‐disc friction and wear tester with a WC‐Co ball as the counterface under dry sliding conditions.

Findings

The plasma nitrided and salt‐bath nitrided layers on the 420 steel surfaces were much thicker than on the 304 steel surfaces. However, there was no obvious and homogeneous nitrided layer on the gas nitrided samples' surface. The plasma and salt‐bath nitriding techniques significantly increased the surface hardness of the 304 and 420 samples. The highest surface hardness of the 304 nitrided samples was obtained by the plasma nitrided technique at 520°C. On the other hand, the highest surface hardness of the 420 nitrided layers was observed in the 450°C plasma nitrided layer. Experimental friction test results showed that the salt‐bath and 450°C plasma nitrided layers were more effective in reducing the friction coefficient of the 304 and 420 stainless steels, respectively.

Originality/value

The relatively poor hardness and hence wear resistance of austenitic and martensitic stainless steels needs to be improved. Friction characteristic is a key property of performance for various applications of austenitic and martensitic stainless steels. This work has reported a comparison of friction characteristics of austenitic 304 and martensitic 420 stainless steels, modified using plasma, salt‐bath and gas nitriding processes. The paper is of significances for improving friction characteristics, indirectly wear performances, of austenitic and martensitic stainless steels.

Article
Publication date: 16 November 2012

N. Lecis, M. Vedani and S. Farè

This paper aims to investigate the structure and scratch resistance properties of gas nitrided pure iron samples.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the structure and scratch resistance properties of gas nitrided pure iron samples.

Design/methodology/approach

The effects of material strain hardening and amount of grain boundaries exposed on nitriding surface were evaluated by cold rolling the starting samples to different reduction levels before gas nitriding.

Findings

The study finds that nitriding without any prior cold rolling produced a comparatively wide compound layer with a large fraction of porous zone featuring low scratch hardness values but no evidence of damage. On the contrary, cold rolling before nitriding led to a more irregular and thinner compound layer with reduced amount of porous zone and much finer nitrides in the diffusion zone. Scratch hardness was increased but failure mechanism changed by generation of conformal cracks within the track groove and the appearance of discontinuous spallation at high loads.

Originality/value

One of the issues of great industrial importance concerning nitriding of steels is the need to predict the extent of the nitrided layer in products showing small variations in microstructure or in extent of cold working due to complex manufacturing cycles. Despite the practical importance, relatively little information is available in literature about these issues. The present paper is therefore aimed at investigating the structure and mechanical properties of pure iron samples, gas nitrided with different amounts of cold working and microstructural conditions.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 August 2018

Shuaishuai Zhu, Baosen Zhang, Zhixin Ba, Xiangyang Mao, Weijie Fei and Zhangzhong Wang

This paper aims to investigate the friction and wear properties of Cr-Ni-Mo-V steel against 440C stainless steel under both water and water–silica mixture lubricant.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the friction and wear properties of Cr-Ni-Mo-V steel against 440C stainless steel under both water and water–silica mixture lubricant.

Design/methodology/approach

The Cr-Ni-Mo-V steel specimens were taken from a forged steel brake disc with the process of quenching at 900°C and tempering at 600°C. The tribological testing was performed using a contact configuration of ball-on-flat with a liquid cell according to the ASTM standard. Detailed examinations on the worn surface were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope.

Findings

The results indicate that the friction coefficient and friction damage of the steel sliding under water–silica mixture are higher than those under water. The friction coefficient decreases with increasing load and increases with the sliding speed for the two lubricants. The mass wear rate presents a rising trend with both sliding load and speed. The wear mechanisms of the Cr-Ni-Mo-V steel sliding under the two lubricants are oxidation wear, abrasive wear and fatigue wear.

Research limitations/implications

Because of the chosen tribological testing approach, the research results could not describe the tribological performance of the brake disc accurately during actual braking process of the high-speed train. Therefore, researchers are encouraged to test the proposed propositions further.

Originality/value

This study shows that the tribology behavior of the Cr-Ni-Mo-V steel with water or water–silica mixture lubrications helps the industrial firms and academicians to work on the wear of the brake disc in rainwater or wet environment.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 70 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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