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Article
Publication date: 19 April 2013

Susan Freeman, Seyda Deligonul and Tamer Cavusgil

Current conceptualizations of born‐globals lack a full theoretical explanation of strategic re‐structuring through the use of outward and inward‐oriented activity and the…

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3322

Abstract

Purpose

Current conceptualizations of born‐globals lack a full theoretical explanation of strategic re‐structuring through the use of outward and inward‐oriented activity and the processes of de‐internationalization and re‐internationalization. Strategy and internationalization processes are created by entrepreneurial behaviour. If one wants to understand various international behaviours and strategic changes in firms one needs to focus on entrepreneurs – individual managers. The purpose of this paper is to unify the theoretical framework on born‐globals by addressing two questions. How do managers move through the de‐internationalization (exit) to re‐internationalization (re‐entry) process? How do they choose their patterns of internationalization?

Design/methodology/approach

To address these research gaps, this study draws on 26 in‐depth interviews with senior managers across nine Australian born‐globals.

Findings

Moving between outward and inward‐oriented activity as they de‐internationalize and re‐internationalize is used as proactive strategic re‐structuring by born‐global managers for survival during periods of global economic decline or changing competitive conditions.

Originality/value

This study provides new theoretical insights where the entrepreneur is central to the internationalization process and provides practical implications for those involved in international business and marketing.

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2006

Christopher D. Hopkins, Catherine A. Roster and Charles M. Wood

This research proposes to examine how the retirement experience in the USA is cultivated via the appraisal process and reflected in post‐retirement lifestyle postures and

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5395

Abstract

Purpose

This research proposes to examine how the retirement experience in the USA is cultivated via the appraisal process and reflected in post‐retirement lifestyle postures and consumption changes.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 298 recent retirees were surveyed to test hypotheses suggested by a proposed model of the retirement experience. The model proposes that the appraisal process is integral in determining how a retiree interprets impact of the event for self‐identity and reflects self‐realignment strategies in post‐retirement consumption patterns.

Findings

Findings show that perceptions of resource availability are important predictors of retiree appraisals. Furthermore, appraisals directly impact retirees' adoption of a post‐transition lifestyle posture, whether “new start”, “continuation of life”, “disruption to life”, or “beginning of old age”. Also explored are differences between lifestyle postures and post‐retirement consumption expenditures across a number of product categories. Generally, retirees who adopt the perspective of retirement as a “new start” or as a “disruption” tend to increase expenditures in “experiential” andoutward‐oriented” product categories. Retirees who adopt the perspective of retirement as the beginning of “old age” or as a “continuation” of past selves tend to increase expenditures in “non‐experiential” andinward‐oriented” product categories.

Practical implications

Retirees are an increasingly important cohort for marketing in many industries. The findings demonstrate that individuals appraise the retirement event very differently and in turn respond to marketing activities very differently, which has implications for marketing segmentation strategies.

Originality/value

This research extends prior research of life transitional events by highlighting the importance of considering individuals' attitudes toward major life transitional events as an important factor in predicting their responses to these events.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2020

Karin Book and Gustav Svanborg Edén

The purpose of this paper is to examine how skateboarding as a community, sport and cultural phenomenon can become integrated into and drive the development, branding and

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how skateboarding as a community, sport and cultural phenomenon can become integrated into and drive the development, branding and marketing of a city (Malmö).

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is produced through a communicative co-constructed process of one scholar and one practitioner within the skateboarding field. Through the narrative told by the practitioner, and with basis in the established understanding and conceptualization of place marketing through sport, success factors of the skateboarding initiatives in Malmö are identified.

Findings

The skateboarding story of Malmö fits well into the established conceptualization of place branding and marketing, neoliberalism and urban entrepreneurialism. Also, it demonstrates the power of a unique user-driven partnerships between skaters, a non-profit organization and public institutions to create a skateboard-friendly city and as a consequence a strong internationally renowned skate-image. The multi-level, multi-content approach is founded in shared values and mutual benefits. Instead of fitting a phenomenon into an outward-oriented image-strategy, skateboarding as a sport and culture has been allowed to develop organically, creating a credible and unique image for Malmö.

Originality/value

This study adds to the literature on sport and city marketing/branding by developing a deeper, empirically founded, understanding of how to combine top-down and bottom-up approaches in urban development, marketing and branding. The results have scientific as well as practical value.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1998

K.C. Roy and C.A. Tisdell

The possibilities for good governance depends on institutional structures and the economic resources available for ensuring governance. In some cases centralised…

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5585

Abstract

The possibilities for good governance depends on institutional structures and the economic resources available for ensuring governance. In some cases centralised governance structures are inefficient. In other cases, decentralised structures turn out to be inadequate. In India decentralisation of power to village level has not improved the efficiency of rural development. Decentralisation of power, it is said, by facilitating the empowerment of people in local communities can contribute to more sustainable development. On the other hand, in India, the delegation of power to the states in some cases has resulted in the destruction of the environment. Thus centralised and decentralised governance structure have both merits and demerits. Preservation of the environment which is essential for sustainable development cannot be achieved unless the pressure on forest and natural resources is reduced. This cannot happen in the absence of appropriate property rights of local communities and of rural women. In West Bengal as well as in the central Himalayan region in India it has been found that the disappearance of community control and restrictions on the user rights of villagers reduced the incentive and ability of villagers to use forest sustainability. On the other hand, in Russia, pristine forests are being degraded because of lack of resources of the weak central government. Good governance also depends on appropriate institutions. Corruption, bureaucratic inefficiency, inefficient and corrupt law enforcement agencies undermine the capacity of institutions to facilitate good governance for sustainable development. Corruption and rent seeking activities can grow even in an economy which has tried to apply outward oriented economic policies if an appropriate institutional environment does not exist. A state which assumes predatory or semi‐predatory status can systematically incapacitate all institutions for good governance and effective implementation of policies. Thus formulation of policies cannot ensure effective implementation in the absence of good governance which in turn cannot be achieved in the absence of appropriate institutions. Hence, sustainable development requires good policies and effective provision of institutions conducive to good governance.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 25 no. 6/7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 5 December 2008

Azmat Gani and Biman Chand Prasad

The purpose of this paper is to examine the export, import, and total trade determinants using reduced form equations for six Pacific Island countries (PICs) with an…

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1545

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the export, import, and total trade determinants using reduced form equations for six Pacific Island countries (PICs) with an institutional focus.

Design/methodology/approach

A fixed effects model, controlling for AR(1) errors, using panel data for selected PICs is utilized. Controlling for common determinants of trade, four indicators of institutional quality: government effectiveness; rule of law; regulatory quality; and control of corruption are tested.

Findings

The empirical results indicate that improvements in institutional quality variables matter for improved levels of trade. The results also provide confirmation that the appreciation of currency does not significantly harm trade; higher levels of technological diffusion are vital for improved trade; and that gradual liberalization of trade through tariff reduction strongly facilitates more trade.

Practical implications

This study clearly points out that the institutional quality in the selected countries is a significant factor in determining the level of trade.

Originality/value

This paper expresses the view that institutions matter for enhanced trade.

Details

Journal of International Trade Law and Policy, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-0024

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 July 2021

Jung Hyun Ryu and Anh Thuy Nguyen

The research aims to provide the basis for a better understanding of the internationalization of higher education in Vietnam. First, it examines Vietnam's higher education…

Abstract

Purpose

The research aims to provide the basis for a better understanding of the internationalization of higher education in Vietnam. First, it examines Vietnam's higher education reforms and policy/ legal frameworks for the promotion of internationalization since the implementation of Doi Moi in 1986. Secondly, it analyzes the internationalization activities at the national and institutional levels. At both levels, the internationalization activities are categorized into internationalization at home and cross borders (Knight, 2012). Finally, the paper discusses the challenges Vietnamese HE is facing and presents policy directions.

Design/methodology/approach

This study employs a case study research strategy to examine and gain understanding of internationalization of higher education in Vietnam as a phenomenon. The study collected detailed information using a variety of data collection procedures over a period of time. First, it analyzes Vietnam's higher education reforms as well as policy and legal framework for the promotion of internationalization. Then, using Knight's framework, the study analyzed the internationalization at home and crossborder educational activities at the national and institutional levels. At the national level, strategic policy goals and programs were explored. Then, it chose Vietnam National University- Hanoi as a institutional case to learn its institutional strategies on cross border programs and mobility, reputation building, research cooperation.

Findings

Vietnam has continuously reformed its legal and policy framework of higher education to better integrate into the global higher education market and also to meet the national demand for economic development. Predominant rationale for Vietnam to engage in crossborder programs is for brain development, specifically in the academics and public sector. Meanwhile internationalization at home is driven by (1) international programs and universities and (2) initiative to enhance competitiveness of its higher education institutes. Vietnam hosts different models of international universities, including classical, satellite and co-founded. However, issues and challenges remain, such as poor lack of systematic cooperation and coordination at the governmental level, retaining talents, and finally finances.

Originality/value

Written for the special edition on Internationalization of Higher Education in the Era of SDGs: Asia–Pacific Perspective, the study aims to provide a basis for understanding the current situation of internationalization higher education in Vietnam and how it compares to its partners in the region. This study is unique as it provides a two-layer analysis, at the national and institutional levels capturing macro and micro perspectives in one scene. In addition, this study includes rich empirical data, which was rare in previous literature due to limited access.

Details

International Journal of Comparative Education and Development, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2396-7404

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2013

Xiang Dai

– The purpose of this paper is to econometrically examine whether indigenous enterprises can upgrade under open economy by using micro-firm data.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to econometrically examine whether indigenous enterprises can upgrade under open economy by using micro-firm data.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to make clear the impact of outward development on the indigenous manufacturing export enterprises' productivity from micro level and to propose policy recommendation, the research group selected indigenous manufacturing export enterprises in Kunshan China as research objects and made a large-scale survey. Based on micro-firm data from survey, the paper carries out empirical analysis.

Findings

After controlling some other variables including innovation activity, human capital and enterprises scale, empirical result shows that export activity, establishing connections with FDI enterprises, industry clusters formed under open economy all have significant and positive effect on upgrading of indigenous enterprises.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to use micro-firm data obtained from survey to examine factors affecting indigenous enterprises' upgrading capability of China.

Details

Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-4408

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2018

Muhammad Tahir, SAF Hasnu and Mario Ruiz Estrada

Trade openness plays a significant role in the growth process of countries. The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of macroeconomic determinants on the trade…

Abstract

Purpose

Trade openness plays a significant role in the growth process of countries. The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of macroeconomic determinants on the trade openness of countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The study focuses on the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) member countries and the data used were from 1971 to 2011. Panel data econometrics techniques and two stages least square method (TSLS) are used to carry out empirical analysis and robustness testing.

Findings

The main finding of the paper is that macroeconomic determinants such as investment both in physical and human capital and per capita gross domestic product (GDP) positively affect trade openness. Further, the size of labour force and currency exchange rate has also impacted trade openness negatively and significantly.

Practical implications

It implies that efficient macroeconomic management matters for higher trade openness. The sampled developing countries are suggested to pay favourable attention to macroeconomic variables if they want to grow in the long run through outward-oriented policies.

Originality/value

This paper is an original contribution in the context of SAARC countries by focusing on the relationship between macroeconomic determinants and trade openness.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2014

Jenny Sjöholm and Cecilia Pasquinelli

The purpose of this paper is to analyse how contemporary artists construct and position their “person brands” and reflects on the extent to which artist brand building…

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2035

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse how contemporary artists construct and position their “person brands” and reflects on the extent to which artist brand building results from strategic brand management.

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual framework proposes a spatial perspective on artist brand building to reach an analytical insight into the case of visual artists in London. The empirical analysis is qualitative, based on serial and in-depth interviews, complemented by participant observations.

Findings

Artist brand building relies on the creation and continuous redefinition of “in-between spaces” that exist at the blurred boundaries separating an individual and isolated art studio, and the social and visible art scene. Artist brand building is a bundle of mechanisms that, mainly occurring without strategic thinking, are “nested” within the art production process throughout which learning, producing and performing are heavily intertwined.

Research limitations/implications

This study was undertaken with a focus on visual artists and specific operations and spatialities of their individual art projects. Further empirical research is required in order to fully explore the manifold of practices and spatialities that constitute contemporary artistic practice.

Practical implications

This study fosters artists’ awareness of branding effects that spillover from artistic production, and thus potentially opens the way to a more strategic capitalization on these.

Originality/value

The adopted spatial perspective on the process of artist brand building helps to uncover “relatively visible” and “relatively invisible” spatialities that, usually overlooked in branding debate, play a significant role in artist brand building.

Details

Arts Marketing: An International Journal, vol. 4 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-2084

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 4 January 2014

Rajneesh Narula

This chapter examines the role of foreign direct investment (FDI) in promoting industrial development, and asks, if FDI is such an important avenue to promote development…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter examines the role of foreign direct investment (FDI) in promoting industrial development, and asks, if FDI is such an important avenue to promote development, why is there little evidence on concomitant industrial development in most developing countries?

Methodology/approach

I look at the secondary evidence on FDI and development and explore some of the causes for this ambiguity.

Findings

The complexities of global value chains and networks have begun to trivialise the simplistic principle that increased multinational enterprise (MNE) activity automatically implies a proportional increase in spillovers and linkages.

Value/originality

Policies towards MNEs need to be closely linked and integrated with industrial policy. MNE activity needs to be evaluated by considering the kinds of externalities that are generated; whether and how domestic actors can internalise them, and building up absorptive capacities to achieve this.

Details

International Business and Sustainable Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-990-4

Keywords

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