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Book part
Publication date: 30 June 2004

Belle Rose Ragins

Lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) employees constitute one of the largest, but least studied, minority groups in the workforce. This article examines what we know, and what…

Abstract

Lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) employees constitute one of the largest, but least studied, minority groups in the workforce. This article examines what we know, and what we need to know, about the career and workplace experiences of this understudied population. The construct of sexual identity is defined, followed by a review of the research on sexual orientation in the workplace. Then an analysis of the differences between LGB employees and other stigmatized groups is presented. Three unique challenges facing LGB employees are identified, and conceptual models are developed that explain underlying processes. Finally, career theories are critically analyzed, and an identity-based longitudinal theory of LGB careers is presented.

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Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-103-3

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2008

Mahdi Fadaee Khorasgani

Higher education has a vital role to play in shaping the way in which future generations learn to cope with the complexities of sustainable development. Universities and…

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2236

Abstract

Purpose

Higher education has a vital role to play in shaping the way in which future generations learn to cope with the complexities of sustainable development. Universities and higher education institutions educate highly qualified graduates and responsible citizens able to meet the needs of all sectors of human activity; they provide opportunities for higher learning and for learning throughout life; they advance, create and disseminate knowledge through research and provide, as part of their service to the community, relevant expertise to assist societies in cultural, social and economic development; they contribute to the development and improvement of education at all levels, including through the training of teachers. The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between higher education and economic growth in Iran.

Design/methodology/approach

First, a baseline survey analysis of Iran supported by tables and figures was conducted. Secondly, by using multivariable time series data on the variables: annual logarithmic gross domestic product, physical capital (K), human capital, research expenditures (R) and by using an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model, the long‐ and short‐run relationship between the growth and higher education variable was investigated. The following steps were followed: test of a dynamic ARDL model, CUSUM and CUSUMQ test for stability, long‐run relationship and ECM test.

Findings

The results indicated that the higher education variable had a positive effect on the economic growth of Iran in both the short and long run.

Originality/value

The research in this paper has implications for government policy makers responsible for investment in higher education.

Details

Education, Business and Society: Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-7983

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Article
Publication date: 11 December 2019

Wee Chan Au, Uracha Chatrakul Na Ayudhya, Yan Soon Tan and Pervaiz K. Ahmed

The purpose of this paper is to explore the work-life (WL) experiences of live-in women migrant domestic workers (MDWs), who represent a significant proportion of migrant…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the work-life (WL) experiences of live-in women migrant domestic workers (MDWs), who represent a significant proportion of migrant workers globally. MDWs play a key role in enabling the work-life balance (WLB) of others, namely the middle-class households that employ them. Yet, their experiences have largely been invisible in mainstream WL literature. The authors draw on an intersectional approach to frame the WL experiences of this marginalized group of women at the intersection of being secondary labour segment workers, with significant legal and employment restrictions as migrant workers, who work and live in the same place as their employers.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative interviews were conducted with 13 women MDWs from Indonesia and the Philippines working in Malaysia. The women talked about the meaning of work as MDWs, how they maintain familial connections whilst working abroad, and how they negotiate their WLB as live-in workers. Thematic analysis of the interviews focused on the intersection of the women’s multiple dimensions of disadvantage, including gender, class and temporary migrant-foreigner status, in shaping their accounts of the WL interface.

Findings

Three thematic narratives highlight that any semblance of WLB in the MDWs’ lived experience has given way to the needs of their employers and to the imperative to earn an income for their families back home. The themes are: working as MDWs enables the women and their families back home to have a life; the co-existence of WL boundary segmentation and integration in relation to “real” and “temporary” families; and the notion of WLB being centred around the women’s ability to fulfil their multiple duties as MDWs and absent mothers/sisters/daughters.

Research limitations/implications

The study is based on a small sample of live-in women MDWs in Malaysia, intended to promote typically excluded voices and not to provide generalizable findings. Accessing potential participants was a considerable challenge, given the vulnerable positions of women MDWs and the invisible nature of their work.

Practical implications

Future research should adopt a multi-stakeholder approach to studying the WL experiences of women MDWs. In particular, links with non-governmental organizations who work directly with women MDWs should be established as a way of improving future participant access.

Social implications

The study underscores the existence of policies and regulations that tolerate and uphold social inequalities that benefit primary labour segment workers to the detriment of secondary labour segment workers, including women MDWs.

Originality/value

Extant WL literature is dominated by the experiences of “the ideal work-life balancers”, who tend to be white middle-class women, engaged in professional work. This study offers original contribution by giving voice to a taken-for-granted group of women migrant workers who make other people’s WLB possible. Moreover, the study challenges WL research by underscoring the power inequities that shape the participants’ marginal and disadvantaged lived experience of work, life, family and WLB.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 39 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Article
Publication date: 13 August 2018

Carrye Syma

The subject of invisible disabilities is becoming more prevalent in the workplace. Invisible disabilities (as defined by the Invisible Disabilities Association) refers to…

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1574

Abstract

Purpose

The subject of invisible disabilities is becoming more prevalent in the workplace. Invisible disabilities (as defined by the Invisible Disabilities Association) refers to symptoms such as “debilitating pain, fatigue, dizziness, cognitive dysfunctions, brain injuries, learning differences and mental health disorders, as well as hearing and vision impairments.” There are times when employees are hesitant to disclose their invisible disability to their employer or coworkers, which means that accommodations for disabilities may not be requested or made. Accommodations made in the workplace for invisible disabilities can include flexible schedule, special software for assisting with scheduling or prioritizing tasks, or architectural changes such as a standing desk. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

For this literature review, articles on invisible disabilities and accommodations were researched and used to support the importance of accommodations in the workplace.

Findings

Invisible disabilities are affecting the workplace and must be addressed. Those struggling with invisible disabilities need to consider sharing information about their disability with their employer as well as requesting accommodation. The question of whether or not to inform coworkers should be left to individual employees and what they feel comfortable divulging. More research needs to be done on how to create learning opportunities and sensitivity in the workplace to those with invisible disabilities. Perhaps training should be offered at the time a new employee begins work.

Originality/value

This literature review is of value because it speaks to an important issue facing today’s workplaces – invisible disabilities and accommodations. Mental illnesses are an invisible disability and as more people are diagnosed and enter the workforce, employers are faced with an increasing demand to meet the needs of these workers. Educating employers and employees on the topic of invisible disabilities and accommodations paves the way to a greater and more productive workforce.

Details

Library Management, vol. 40 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-5124

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Article
Publication date: 17 December 2019

Louise Fitzgerald

The purpose of this paper is to explore the harassment of vulnerable women whose lives and experiences remain largely unseen in the era of #MeToo.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the harassment of vulnerable women whose lives and experiences remain largely unseen in the era of #MeToo.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper draws from the sparse empirical literature as well as the more informal accounts provided by social justice organizations, investigative journalists and legal commentary about four spheres that have largely remained invisible: women in low-income housing, agricultural workers, janitorial workers and restaurant workers. It also reviews the surprising success stories that some of these groups have achieved and invite us to ponder what we can learn from them.

Findings

Farm workers, sub-minimum wage restaurant workers, single mothers and janitorial workers are several groups that were not highlighted by the current movement.

Social implications

Highlighting the experiences of those who remain largely hidden in and from academic discourse and, more largely, the public eye enlarges the scope of knowledge and encourages further scholarly inquiry.

Originality/value

Combining the perspectives of scholar and social justice activist illuminates the depth and breadth of largely invisible classes of harassment victims and the potentially novel remedies they have initiated.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 39 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Book part
Publication date: 30 May 2013

Catherine Laurent

Which is the main characteristic of the French Mediterranean Agriculture (FMA)? The recognition of the multifunctionality of agriculture, supported by the institutions of…

Abstract

Which is the main characteristic of the French Mediterranean Agriculture (FMA)? The recognition of the multifunctionality of agriculture, supported by the institutions of the territorial development? Or the development of social dumping considered as a necessity by many institutions of the sector? To answer this question the analysis is based on three main sources of data: agricultural statistics, monographs and administrative reports. The results show that the structural diversity is still important in the FMA. A significant proportion of the farms have based their economic strategy on making the most of the multifunctionality of agriculture. Some have built real success stories. But this development path cannot guarantee the viability of a large range of holdings: the number of farm holdings in FMA has decreased by 27% since 2000 and 57% since 1988. Due to the specificities of the Mediterranean productions, the cost of labour is still considered as a major adjustment variable to secure farm income in the region. Many situations are reported where the situation of casual labour is concerning, in particular for migrant workers. However, the working conditions of temporary migrant workers remain invisible and the image of the multifunctional agriculture is put forward as a marketing asset by all types of actors. This image is misleading. It makes invisible, issues that are essential for the future. Thus, it generates knowledge gaps and leads to the depoliticization of debates on the development models of agriculture in masking the contradictions and the conflicts of interest that they generate.

Details

Agriculture in Mediterranean Europe: Between Old and New Paradigms
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-597-5

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Article
Publication date: 31 May 2019

The purpose of the study was to determine, first, whether both numeric diversity and racial climate impacted the psychological well-being and workplace experiences of…

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237

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the study was to determine, first, whether both numeric diversity and racial climate impacted the psychological well-being and workplace experiences of faculty of color (FOC). But the authors also considered whether there was an “additive” effect when both diversity factors existed at the same time.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used surveys of academics from various backgrounds in multiple US regions to test the effects of numeric diversity and racial climate on three dependent variables – invisible labor, stress from discrimination and dissatisfaction with co-workers. For the purposes of the study, FOC were defined as black, Latinx and Asian faculty.

Findings

The results showed significant support for the authors' prediction that there was more stress from discrimination, invisible labor, and co-worker dissatisfaction against FOC in institutions with low numeric diversity and poor racial climate compared with institutions with high numeric diversity and a positive racial climate. They also found that negative impacts were smaller in institutions with both high numeric diversity and a positive racial climate, compared to institutions with high numeric diversity, but a poor racial climate. However, similar results were not found for institutions with low numeric diversity and positive racial climate.

Originality/value

The authors concluded that the findings showed that “diversity climate may be the primary driver of mitigating psychological disparities between FOC and white faculty”. They said that education officials should take action to construct a positive racial climate, but neither should they ignore numeric representation.

Details

Human Resource Management International Digest , vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-0734

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Book part
Publication date: 19 May 2009

Rina Agarwala

Purpose – This chapter illustrates how an economic sociology of work exposes the deeply embedded nature of the informal economy and the social and political lives of its…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter illustrates how an economic sociology of work exposes the deeply embedded nature of the informal economy and the social and political lives of its growing mass of unprotected workers under globalization. In particular, the premises of economic sociology offer a comprehensive definition of the informal economy that I term, “relational.” In contrast to definitions based on modernization and neoliberal assumptions of isolated economies, relational definitions of the informal economy expose the structures, networks, and political institutions that intertwine informal workers with the formal economy, society, and the state. Operationalizing the relational definition in labor surveys ensures the inclusion of previously invisible informal workers, especially those who operate at the intersection of the informal and formal economy. As well, it ensures the collection of data on the precise ways in which informal workers are socially and politically embedded, including their collective action efforts, the meaning they attach to their labor, and the social networks that determine their life chances.

Methodology – To illustrate this point, I apply a relational definition of informal labor to the case of India, using the National Sample Survey on Employment and Unemployment, as well as findings from interviews with organized informal workers.

Findings – By doing so, I provide an internationally comparative measure of India's informal workforce, illustrate informal workers’ social conditions relative to those of formal workers, highlight the expansion of the informal workforce since the government enacted liberalization reforms, and expose the unique political action strategies Indian informal workers are launching against the state.

Implications/Originality – These findings help us understand Indian informal workers in an internationally comparative context, yielding empirical insights on their social conditions and political organizations for the first time. As well, they call for an important refinement to existing definitions of the informal economy that to date have relied only on Latin American and African experiences.

Details

Economic Sociology of Work
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-368-2

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Article
Publication date: 16 February 2010

Myrtle P. Bell, Eileen N. Kwesiga and Daphne P. Berry

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the invisibility of immigrants in diversity research in the management field.

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5706

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the invisibility of immigrants in diversity research in the management field.

Design/methodology/approach

Reasons for the paucity of immigrant research, focusing on discrimination, exploitation, and abuse of low‐skilled Hispanic immigrants in the USA, are examined. Considerations of what can be applied to the study of immigrants from extant diversity research are explored.

Findings

Experiences of Hispanic immigrants to the USA are largely absent from diversity literature even though immigrants are significant contributors to the diversity of the USA. There are clear differences in the employment experiences of native‐born Hispanic‐Americans and those who are immigrants, with the latter, both documented and undocumented, generally faring worse in wages, benefits, and interpersonal treatment when compared with those who are native‐born.

Research limitations/implications

Suggestions for research are provided to increase the inclusion of immigrants in diversity research.

Originality/value

This paper focuses on integrating the experiences of discrimination of low‐skilled Hispanic immigrants, who comprise the bulk of newcomers to the USA, into the mainstream diversity literature in management studies and provides questions to stimulate research in the area.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2010

Caroline Gatrell

Drawing upon notions of agency and the body, the purpose of this paper is to examine the nature of agency as a gendered concept through a consideration of women sex‐workers

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2637

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing upon notions of agency and the body, the purpose of this paper is to examine the nature of agency as a gendered concept through a consideration of women sex‐workers. Specifically, the paper analyses how far women sex‐workers may be regarded as social agents. It then considers how far notions of agency, in relation to sex‐workers' embodied boundaries, may be gendered.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reviews existing literature on sex‐workers and sex‐work practices, looking at indoor sex‐work (massage parlours), outdoor sex‐work (street sex‐work) and trafficking. It considers these types of sex‐work in relation to agency, gender and the body.

Findings

The paper acknowledges the diversity of women's experience within different aspects of the sex trade. The paper recognizes claims that treating sex‐workers as “victims” could further jeopardize their social position. However, the paper finds that the “options” available to sex‐workers are severely constrained. Specifically, the lack of capacity among sex‐workers to set embodied “rules of engagement” with clients makes the notion of agency problematic. The paper contends that “agency” is itself a gendered concept not only in relation to sex‐work, but also in the context of women's work more broadly.

Practical implications

Through the idea of agency as a gendered concept, the paper offers alternative ways of exploring agency, the body and women's work.

Originality/value

The paper puts forward the notion of agency as a gendered concept. This opens up possibilities for further research on women's “choices”, and who “makes the rules” within different labour markets.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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