Search results

1 – 10 of over 111000

Abstract

Details

Knowledge Assets and Knowledge Audits
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-771-4

Article
Publication date: 19 January 2022

Hilal Anwar Butt, Mohsin Sadaqat and Muhammad Tahir

The main purpose of this study is to enunciate the underlying factors that enhance the performance of scaled momentum strategies.

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this study is to enunciate the underlying factors that enhance the performance of scaled momentum strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

In previous studies, the negative relationship between the lagged volatility and future return of momentum strategy is exploited to manage the risk. But this negative relationship only holds when volatility is higher, further the volatility is shown to be persistent. The implication of these two characteristics is important and this paper highlights that.

Findings

The higher performance of the scaled momentum strategies for the US market is linked with the length of the investment horizon. The traditional asset pricing models fail to explain this relationship. However, the authors find that the excess variance loaded on the long side of these strategies is one important explanation of this horizon bound performance of these strategies.

Practical implications

This study highlights that the volatility scaled momentum strategy has higher gains as the investment horizon increases. Therefore, it is an advisable investment strategy for the pension fund industry.

Originality/value

Momentum strategy is unique as it fulfils two criteria of performance enhancement through volatility scaling, such as, the persistent in volatility and its negative relationship with the returns. However, the impact on the performance of the negative relationship between volatility and return that only exist in highest volatility related states is not discussed. The authors have shown that this aspect of volatility and return relationship of the momentum strategy has an important bearing on the performance of the volatility scaled momentum strategies.

Highlights of the Paper

  1. This study finds that the Sharpe ratios and the alphas of the volatility scaled strategies increase as the investment horizon increases.

  2. This is because the volatility series are highly persistent and the negative predictive relationship between the volatility and future momentum returns only exist when the volatility is higher. The impact of these two characteristics of the volatility series on the performance of the scaled momentum strategies is not discussed in the literature.

  3. We find that the scaled strategies invest more/less when the volatility of the momentum strategy is lower/higher. By investing less when volatility is higher, the scaled strategies avoid momentum crashes and lessens the contribution of the variance from the short side in the overall variance of these strategies.

  4. It is further shown that the higher performance of the volatility scaled strategies, at each investment related horizon can be explained by the higher variance loaded on the long side of such strategies in comparison to the traditional momentum strategy.

This study finds that the Sharpe ratios and the alphas of the volatility scaled strategies increase as the investment horizon increases.

This is because the volatility series are highly persistent and the negative predictive relationship between the volatility and future momentum returns only exist when the volatility is higher. The impact of these two characteristics of the volatility series on the performance of the scaled momentum strategies is not discussed in the literature.

We find that the scaled strategies invest more/less when the volatility of the momentum strategy is lower/higher. By investing less when volatility is higher, the scaled strategies avoid momentum crashes and lessens the contribution of the variance from the short side in the overall variance of these strategies.

It is further shown that the higher performance of the volatility scaled strategies, at each investment related horizon can be explained by the higher variance loaded on the long side of such strategies in comparison to the traditional momentum strategy.

Details

China Finance Review International, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1398

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 4 June 2021

Jeongjoon Park, Jaewan Bae and Changjun Lee

Given the importance of style allocation strategy under the outsourced chief investment officer (OCIO) structure, the authors examine the validity of style allocation…

Abstract

Purpose

Given the importance of style allocation strategy under the outsourced chief investment officer (OCIO) structure, the authors examine the validity of style allocation strategies in the Korean stock market. The authors find that external investment agencies can improve performance by using newly suggested investment styles such as high dividend yield and low volatility as well as traditional styles. In addition, the authors find that the style combination strategies create economically large and statistically significant returns. Finally, empirical results indicate that factor timing strategies suggested in this study can improve the reward-to-risk ratio. In sum, the empirical findings indicate that external investment agencies under the OCIO structure can improve performance using active style allocation strategies.

Details

Journal of Derivatives and Quantitative Studies: 선물연구, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1229-988X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 June 2019

Ana Ivanisevic Hernaus

The purpose of this study is to segment and profile socially responsible investment (SRI) funds based on investment strategies they use. Specifically, the paper…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to segment and profile socially responsible investment (SRI) funds based on investment strategies they use. Specifically, the paper investigates how different SRI strategies are applied and how they are related to fund-level characteristics, with the goal of recognising their potential dominant combinations in SRI practice.

Design/methodology/approach

Cluster analysis was complemented with one-way ANOVA to classify 147 SRI funds from 11 European countries into different groups based on the diversification (number and type) and application (intensity of usage) of the investment strategies. Discriminant analysis and chi-square tests were conducted to profile the clusters. Financial performance was examined by running multiple hierarchical regression and dominance analyses to determine meaningfulness of particular investment strategies within each of the SRI fund clusters.

Findings

Three basic SRI fund clusters were recognised: strong-intensity strategic heterogeneity, weak-intensity strategic heterogeneity and weak-intensity strategic homogeneity. The combination of SRI strategies used in the weak-intensity strategic homogeneity cluster significantly explained the variance in mid-term financial returns.

Practical implications

Fund managers may use these results to make more informed investment decisions on the selection and the application of SRI strategies.

Social implications

Financial industry has significant and broad and not only economic but also social implications. This research effort results in better understanding of the SRI universe, potentially leading to a broader consideration of the societal impact of financial investment.

Originality/value

The author provided useful insights into existing bundles of SRI strategies used in the European SRI market, recognised dominant investment strategies within SRI strategy portfolios and reported how strategic variety is related to fund-level characteristics.

Details

Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8021

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 June 2015

Yi-Tsai Chung, Tung Liang Liao and Yi-Chein Chiang

The relative performance of five popular nonzero-investment strategies, including Size, book-to-market ratios, earnings-to-price (E/P) ratios, cash flow-to-price (CF/P…

Abstract

Purpose

The relative performance of five popular nonzero-investment strategies, including Size, book-to-market ratios, earnings-to-price (E/P) ratios, cash flow-to-price (CF/P) ratios and dividend-to-price ratios, and their corresponding zero-investment strategies (also known as premiums) are first examined altogether for equally weighted (EW) and value-weighted (VW) methods to check whether a certain strategy (or some strategies) could be recommended to portfolio managers as the best (better) strategy (strategies). The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses the stochastic dominance (SD) approach, a non-parametric test, to investigate the relative performance among various strategies and help investors search for the best or better strategy (strategies).

Findings

The main results show that both the highest E/P and CF/P strategies (and their corresponding premiums) generally produce higher returns than the other three strategies (and their corresponding premiums) through allocating investors’ capital between the risky and risk-free assets for the EW and VW methods, respectively.

Research limitations/implications

This study only examines US stock markets by SD approach, whether the results are consistent with non-US markets still needs further investigation. The findings imply that investors can benefit by investing in the highest E/P or CF/P stocks (or their corresponding premiums) to make more profit or less loss for US stock markets.

Practical implications

First, the SD findings suggest that investors or portfolio managers can allocate their funds between risky and risk-free assets to maximize their profits. Next, the simulation results again prove that the profits of each nonzero-investment or zero-investment strategy for EW portfolios are higher than those of each corresponding strategy for VW portfolios. Finally, the findings imply that portfolio managers or investors can invest in the highest E/P or CF/P stocks (or their corresponding premiums) to make more profit or less loss.

Originality/value

This study first uses an extensive data set (1952-2009) to examine the relative performance of nonzero-investment strategies and their corresponding zero-investment strategies for the five popular indicators altogether for the EW and VW methods with the SD approach for US stock markets. Moreover, the results reveal that the investors or portfolio managers can invest in the highest E/P and/or CF/P portfolios (or their corresponding premiums) to make more profit or less loss.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 41 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 October 2010

Lalit Manral

The thought and rationale of sustainable competitive advantage in strategy are significantly influenced by the Schumpeterian models of dynamic competition in IO and…

Abstract

Purpose

The thought and rationale of sustainable competitive advantage in strategy are significantly influenced by the Schumpeterian models of dynamic competition in IO and evolutionary economics. Yet, most analytical accounts of sustainable competitive advantage fail to explain how firms' investment choices influence, and are simultaneously influenced by, the co‐evolution of “external” industry competition and “internal” firm competences. This paper aims to contribute to the development of a theory of endogenous market structure in strategy.

Design/methodology/approach

Two alternative assumptions are developed – concerning temporally heterogeneous firm investment strategy – that lie central to a proposed behavioral theory of endogenous market structure. Additionally, a theoretical description is provided of the endogeneity of the demand‐side determinants of firm investment strategy and industrial market structure. Finally, guidelines are provided for empirical application of [incorporating] the alternative assumptions and theoretical arguments.

Practical implications

It is expected that the theoretical arguments in the paper will influence strategy scholars to develop dynamic models of firm performance that render themselves amenable to sound empirical analyses.

Originality/value

The paper contributes towards developing a theory of endogenous market structure in strategy.

Details

Journal of Strategy and Management, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-425X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2003

Georgios I. Zekos

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination…

67636

Abstract

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination of some legal aspects concerning MNEs, cyberspace and e‐commerce as the means of expression of the digital economy. The whole effort of the author is focused on the examination of various aspects of MNEs and their impact upon globalisation and vice versa and how and if we are moving towards a global digital economy.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 45 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 January 2012

Yuri Khoroshilov

Existing empirical studies that document momentum trading strategies do not provide any insight on how investors choose the time horizon that is used to compute the past…

1353

Abstract

Purpose

Existing empirical studies that document momentum trading strategies do not provide any insight on how investors choose the time horizon that is used to compute the past stock returns. Indeed, since past returns over overlapping time periods are positively correlated, it is hard to identify the exact historical time period on which investors base their trading strategies and to investigate whether such a period is unique. The purpose of this paper is to investigate this and reach some conclusions.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper the author uses experimental setting to analyze how investors choose which of the past returns to use as a basis for their trading strategies and whether this choice depends on their investment horizon. The advantage of this experimental setting over the existing empirical research is the ability to control for the investment horizon of the subjects and the ability to provide the subjects with a hand‐picked set of stocks with uncorrelated past returns over overlapping time periods. In the study subjects were asked to make short‐term investment decisions based on historical short‐term realized returns over two time intervals of different lengths. In each treatment the subjects were divided into two groups based on the lengths of their investment horizons, which were set to match the lengths of time intervals used to compute the historical returns.

Findings

It was found that subjects followed momentum trading strategies based on both historical returns provided to them and paid more attention to the historical returns over the shorter time period. In addition, some evidence was found that subjects with longer investment horizons rely less on momentum strategies.

Originality/value

A wide sample was used to create an original set of observations and conclusions.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 39 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Kathryn A. Wilkens, Jean L. Heck and Steven J. Cochran

The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between predictability in return and investment strategy performance. Two measures that characterize investment

2801

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between predictability in return and investment strategy performance. Two measures that characterize investment strategies within a mean‐variance framework, an activity measure and a style measure, are developed and the performance of alternative strategies (e.g. contrarian, momentum, etc.) is examined when risky asset returns are mean reverting.

Design/methodology/approach

Returns are assumed to follow a multivariate Ornstein‐Uhlenbeck process, where reversion to a time‐varying mean is governed by an additional variable set, similar to that proposed by Lo and Wang (1995). Depending on its parameterization, this process is capable of producing an autocorrelation pattern consistent with empirical evidence, that is, positive autocorrelation in short‐horizon returns and negative autocorrelation in long‐horizon returns.

Findings

The results, for four uninformed investment strategies and assuming that returns are generated by a simple univariate Ornstein‐Uhlenbeck process, show that the unadjusted returns from the contrarian (momentum) strategy are greater than those from the other strategies when the mean reversion parameter, α, is greater than (less than) one. The results are expected, given the relationship between α and the first‐order autocorrelation in returns. The risk level (measured by either the standard deviation of returns or beta) of the contrarian strategy is the lowest at essentially all levels of mean reversion and the risk‐adjusted returns from the contrarian strategy, measured by the both the Sharpe and Treynor ratios, dominate those from the other strategies.

Research limitations/implications

In future research, a number of issues not considered in this study may be investigated. The style measure developed here can be used to determine whether the results obtained hold when an informed, mean‐variance efficient active strategy is employed. In addition, the performance of both the informed and uninformed strategies may be examined under the assumption that the risky return process follows a multivariate Ornstein‐Uhlenbeck process. This work should provide findings that facilitate the separation of fund risk due to dynamic strategies from that due to time‐varying expected returns.

Practical implications

The methodology used here may be easily extended to consider a number of important issues, such as the frequency of portfolio rebalancing, transactions costs, and multiple asset portfolios, that are encountered in practice.

Originality/value

The approach used here provides insight into how predictability affects the relative performance of tactical investment strategies and, thus, may serve as a basis for determining the magnitude and persistence in autocorrelation required for active investment strategies to yield profits significantly different from those of passive strategies. In this sense, this study may have appeal for both academics and investment professionals.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 March 2022

Manish Bansal and Asgar Ali

The study presents the zero investment strategies based on the pricing impact of real earnings management (REM) on stock returns after taking into account the direction…

Abstract

Purpose

The study presents the zero investment strategies based on the pricing impact of real earnings management (REM) on stock returns after taking into account the direction and endogeneity nature of REM.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use standard portfolio methodology and Fama–Macbeth cross-sectional regression to analyze the data for this study. Both upward and downward form of REM has been examined. Accrual earnings management (AEM) has been controlled while examining the association between REM and stock returns.

Findings

The findings demonstrate that the REM anomaly exists in the Indian equity market and is consistent under different market conditions and investment horizons. It is robust after controlling for cross-sectional effects and AEM. Our subsequent analysis suggests that a decile-based zero investment portfolio strategy based on REM loadings generates an annual excess return of 17.90%. The presented annual excess return is highest among quantile and mean-based investment strategies. Further, the authors find that REM sorted proposed investment strategies outperform the AEM sorted investment strategies in all spheres.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that investors can form an arbitrage profitable investment strategy by taking a long position in the bottom 10% of negative REM stocks, and a short position in the top 10% of positive REM stocks.

Originality/value

This is the first study that examines the pricing impact of REM on stock returns and provides zero investment strategies by betting against REM.

Details

Asian Review of Accounting, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1321-7348

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 111000