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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1992

Alvin G. Wint

Reports on a study that examines, by interviews and archivalresearch, the promotional structures which 11 governments in tencountries have put in place to market their…

Abstract

Reports on a study that examines, by interviews and archival research, the promotional structures which 11 governments in ten countries have put in place to market their economies to foreign investors. Focuses specifically on the various forms through which these governments have conducted their overseas marketing operations. Finds that governments that have been most effective in influencing foreign investors have created overseas offices that “stand alone”, and are unconnected with the governments′ other foreign operations. Also identifies the conditions necessary for a successful overseas investment promotion operation.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 5 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 July 2021

Hongmei Dickinson, Ron Fisher and Hammad Akbar

This study aims to investigate how investment promotion agencies (IPAs) attract funds effectively from emerging to established countries.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate how investment promotion agencies (IPAs) attract funds effectively from emerging to established countries.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative action research (AR) study with data collected from focus groups and semi-structured interviews, observation and journaling. Comparative case studies are also presented to provide an external perspective to the researchers’ internal action researcher positions.

Findings

The research identifies four main factors that impact IPAs’ effectiveness in seeking a strategic asset in the UK from a developing country, China. The factors are policy advocacy, targeting industry, regional strategy and cultural adaption, which provide positive and significant influences on IPAs’ effectiveness.

Research limitations/implications

Little research has been published about the roles of IPAs in attracting foreign direct investment (FDI) from a developing to a developed country. The study uses an AR approach and case studies, which have not previously been used to investigate IPAs’ performance. The study extends the sparse extant research and provides insights into what influences the performance of IPAs, thus contributing to knowledge and practice.

Practical implications

The findings provide insights into the ways in which IPAs influence FDI flows. The research contributes to discipline knowledge and practice by identifying factors influencing funding in a non-traditional manner, that is from a developing to a developed country.

Originality/value

Little research has been published about the roles of IPAs in attracting FDI from a developing to a developed country. The study uses an AR approach and case study, which have not previously been used to investigate IPAs’ performance. The study extends the sparse extant research and provides insights into what influences the performance of IPAs, thus contributing to knowledge and practice.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 September 2020

Paweł Capik

Investment promotion is gaining in popularity, yet its relationship with regional development remains unclear and under-investigated. The purpose of this paper is to…

Abstract

Purpose

Investment promotion is gaining in popularity, yet its relationship with regional development remains unclear and under-investigated. The purpose of this paper is to combine place marketing and regional development concepts to explore investment promotion in the Czech, Polish and Slovak regions. It identifies elements of best practice and investigates to what extent these are used in foreign direct investment promotion conducted by regional authorities. Organisation- and implementation-related elements are studied. The discussion aims to answer the question of how systematic Central–Eastern European regional investment promotion is, and what are the factors determining regions’ involvement in, and the extent of, promotion activities.

Design/methodology/approach

Discussion is based on an original survey of Central–Eastern European (CEE) regional authorities' investment promotion. The paper develops a measurement of regional authorities’ engagement in investment promotion – an investment promotion index (IPI) and using non-parametric, two-tailed Spearmans correlation test investigates the relationship between IPI and socio-economic conditions in the regions. Kruskal-Wallis, a non-parametric test of difference is used to investigate statistical significance of differences in mean values between the three countries.

Findings

The analysis provides early insights into the relationship between regional development and investment attraction – the main theoretical contribution of the paper. Diverse levels of engagement in promotion are not influenced by the staple competitiveness factors of gross domestic product growth rates or foreign direct investment stock. Instead, it is conditioned by labour market situation in the countries studied.

Originality/value

Investment promotion relationship to regional development remains under-explored. The main focus of the analysis offered is the varying levels of CEE regional authorities’ involvement in investment promotion and its relationship to the socio-economic conditions prevailing in the regions. Exploring this relationship, the paper provides original contribution in the following two aspects: it establishes a systematic way of measuring regional authorities’ engagement with investment promotion; and it links the level of investment promotion to wider development of the regions.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 October 2020

Rick T. Wilson

The purpose of this research is to understand how brand-building is used to lend credibility to investor information and to differentiate countries competing for foreign…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to understand how brand-building is used to lend credibility to investor information and to differentiate countries competing for foreign investment. Brand signals, such as slogans and logos, are frequently used by governments and their investment promotion agencies to enhance the presentation of information to potential investors interested in acquiring or establishing a business within their country. Yet, little is known about how governments use brand building to foster professionalism and convey their expertise in international expansion assistance and differentiate themselves from one another in an investment promotion context.

Design/methodology/approach

This research content analyzes the slogans and logos found in 55 months of print advertising and on the websites of 181 countries engaged in investment-seeking activities.

Findings

The research finds that slogans and logos are frequently used across both samples, but slogan use is greater in print advertising than on the Web, which is likely because of the greater effort required to develop an advertising campaign than to maintain a website. Regardless of medium, logo use is greater than slogan use. In the sample, slogans tended to be generic or undifferentiated and do not appear to facilitate brand credibility. However, logos were better designed than slogans and incorporated more territorial and cultural symbols and elements of expertise.

Originality/value

This study provides for a deeper understanding of investment promotion, especially, as it relates to brand building both on the Web and in print advertising. It also extends the author’s understanding of brand building within a specialized area of business-to-business organizational buying. From a managerial perspective, the research highlights the need for differentiated slogans and for logos using territorial and cultural symbols to better assist governments with appearing more professional, conveying expertise and differentiating their country from potential rivals.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 November 2016

Nicolas Papadopoulos, Leila Hamzaoui-Essoussi and Alia El Banna

This study aims to address a heretofore neglected area in research, nation branding, for the purpose of attracting foreign direct investment (FDI). It compares and…

2474

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to address a heretofore neglected area in research, nation branding, for the purpose of attracting foreign direct investment (FDI). It compares and contrasts the well-established literature on decision-making and location choice in FDI with studies in the nascent field of nation branding, with a view to developing directions for future research that result from the identification of research gaps at the intersection point between the two areas.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on a systematic and integrative review of several streams within the relevant literatures, from the theory of decision-making in FDI to the similarities and differences between advertising, promotion, branding and marketing for investment on the part of nations and sub- or supra-national places.

Findings

Each of the two areas is characterized by lack of consensus as to the principal factors that affect investor and nation decisions and actions, resulting in several knowledge gaps that need to be addressed by new research along the lines suggested in the study.

Research limitations/implications

A large number of avenues for potential future research are identified, from assessing the importance of target country image in location choice to the adverse effects arising from the emphasis on “promotion” rather than “marketing” on the part of places engaged in nation branding efforts.

Practical implications

The study examines several problems that affect the practice of nation branding for FDI and points to alternative approaches that may enhance place marketers’ effectiveness in their efforts to attract foreign capital.

Originality/value

Notwithstanding the global growth of FDI in volume and importance, and the omnipresence of nation branding campaigns to promote exports or attract tourism and investment, there has been virtually no research to date on the core issue, nation branding for FDI. The study uses a strategic perspective that highlights key nation branding issues related to FDI, and FDI issues related to nation branding, and suggests a comprehensive agenda for research in the future.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 25 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 22 June 2011

Satwinder Singh, Kirandeep Dhillon, Florian Kaulich and Weifeng Chen

The chapter adopts the international production typology offered by the OLI paradigm whereby firms are classified principally as market seekers, efficiency seekers…

Abstract

The chapter adopts the international production typology offered by the OLI paradigm whereby firms are classified principally as market seekers, efficiency seekers, natural resource seekers or partner seekers. These motives to reach overseas are tested against 26 location factors, categorised under ‘business climate’, ‘market conditions’, ‘local resources’ and ‘incentive packages’, and three sets of control variables: industry, age and entry mode. The empirical analysis based on firm-level data from 15 sub-Saharan countries shows that, for all types of firm, the presence of local markets, regional markets and key clients are the positive determining location factors, followed by business climate factors, such as labour costs, the availability of skilled labour, raw materials and local suppliers. For market-seeking MNEs, the political and economic stability, infrastructure, country's legal framework and the transparency of investment all rate high. Importantly, the implication for host-nation promotion agencies is that once the motive to enter their economies is clear, they can – and should – play a skilful negotiation game with MNEs at the entry point itself. Based on the empirical analysis, a conceptual two-step approach to understanding FDI decisions, intimately linked to the liability of foreignness concept, is suggested.

Details

Dynamics of Globalization: Location-Specific Advantages or Liabilities of Foreignness?
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-991-3

Expert briefing
Publication date: 2 March 2016

The fall in foreign investment last year.

Details

DOI: 10.1108/OXAN-DB209662

ISSN: 2633-304X

Keywords

Geographic
Topical
Book part
Publication date: 3 October 2012

Olivier Naray

Government, business support organisations (BSOs), support services and client business firms constitute the key actors involved in the business–government interaction…

Abstract

Government, business support organisations (BSOs), support services and client business firms constitute the key actors involved in the business–government interaction within commercial diplomacy. While businesses are interested in support in their international operations, commercial diplomats (CDs) work towards both objectives: supporting individual firms and promoting the home country's national economy in general. BSOs, public or private or mixed such as bilateral chambers of commerce, sector associations, investment promotion agencies and other self-help business organisations, complete the CD's offer, and are often referred to, and participate directly and indirectly in the home country's trade promotion effort.

The nature of the CD's service to beneficiaries is highly people based, and contains both a consistent amount of government instruction and CD's own personal judgment and initiative in promoting various sectors/sub-sectors and spotting business opportunities. The ‘intermediary’ function of the CD between the beneficiary business and its potential future business partner is important. The interaction may start on either side: the business firm may approach the CD or vice versa. To a large extent, export issues remain the most important enquiries from business to CD vs. other issues such as foreign direct investment, joint venture and debt issues.

From a business perspective the main advantages to use the CD's service are threefold. The CD appears to business firms as the central platform, the starting point to promote bilateral business. Second, CDs enjoy trust as an institution: they are considered credible and neutral (credibility and neutrality). Last but not the least, CDs are found useful in helping out firms in their first steps in foreign markets (not necessarily first exporters but for the firms to which the host country market only is new). The transaction between CD and beneficiary business firm has a material price: some services such as market research are for fee and are often subcontracted. Others being part of a ‘basic service’ of diplomats are free of charge.

Article
Publication date: 30 April 2016

Pierre-Bruno Ruffini

Economic diplomacy refers to methods and processes by which states take advantage of cross-border economic activities to achieve their national interests. It makes…

Abstract

Economic diplomacy refers to methods and processes by which states take advantage of cross-border economic activities to achieve their national interests. It makes connections between the sphere of corporate players, who export or invest abroad, and the sphere of diplomats, who represent the state on the international scene and implement geopolitical decisions. The main purpose of this paper is to provide an overall and coherent framework for asking, classifying and discussing the main issues raised by economic diplomacy. It investigates concepts such as national interest, power and influence. It surveys the relevant literature and deals with various expressions of economic diplomacy such as export promotion agencies, economic role of embassies and consulates, or international economic sanctions. It analyzes the two-way relationship between international economics and international politics, which is at the core of economic diplomacy, and tries to answer the following questions: on the global scene, is diplomacy just accompanying the economy? Is diplomacy driving the economy?

Details

Journal of International Logistics and Trade, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1738-2122

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 2 August 2021

Andreia Costa Vieira

Strong growth and social progress have made Brazil one of the world’s leading economies over the past three decades, but Brazil remains a highly unequal country with an…

Abstract

Strong growth and social progress have made Brazil one of the world’s leading economies over the past three decades, but Brazil remains a highly unequal country with an urgent need for reforms to sustain and continue development with inclusive growth. This chapter introduces sustainable foreign direct investments (FDIs), which can be tools to promote sustainable development and improve the living conditions of all Brazilians, thus representing entrepreneurship for social change in Brazil. Although there is a large recognition that FDIs might pave the way for sustainable development, it does not happen in an automatic way and, in this chapter, some instruments are presented as pathways for achieving that aim in Brazil. First, it analyses the scenario of inequalities in Brazil and a call for more sustainable private investments to achieve social inclusion. Next, it introduces the state of the art of Brazil’s framework and legislation on sustainable FDIs. Last, it presents initiatives on financing and promotion of sustainable development in Brazil. This chapter comes to a conclusion that Brazil has taken the first steps, but much more has to be done in order to effectively introduce sustainable FDIs as entrepreneurial tools for social inclusion, reduction of inequalities and better conditions of life for all Brazilians.

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