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Article
Publication date: 12 July 2021

Fara Azmat, Ameeta Jain and Fabienne Michaux

This paper aims to focus on impact integrity in investment decision-making – an under-researched yet important topic – as a means for optimising investor contributions to…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to focus on impact integrity in investment decision-making – an under-researched yet important topic – as a means for optimising investor contributions to sustainable development outcomes, including achieving the sustainable development goals (SDGs).

Design/methodology/approach

This conceptual paper adopts a two-step approach. First, this paper reviews existing “responsible” investment strategies and products used in practice and highlight their shortcomings in terms of optimising sustainable development outcomes. Second, drawing from the minimal standards theory, this study explores how emerging impact management practices may strengthen impact integrity in investment decision-making and mitigate shortcomings in existing “responsible” investment approaches to increase their contribution to sustainable development outcomes.

Findings

Current “responsible” investment approaches often do not optimise sustainable development outcomes and may facilitate “impact washing”. The theoretically grounded framework demonstrates standardised impact management practices based on a bounded flexibility approach – adaptable to different contexts within limits and assessed by skilled analysts – along with incorporating shared language and conventions supported by appropriate accountability mechanisms that can be used to mitigate shortcomings in current “responsible” investment approaches. The authors further propose accountability mechanisms to systematically involve stakeholders (including rightsholders) in decisions that impact them with effective grievance and reparation mechanisms. Such an approach, the authors argue will strengthen impact integrity and the capacity of investments to optimise contributions to sustainable development outcomes.

Practical implications

The findings have implications for the ability of investment markets to optimise their contributions to sustainable development and the SDGs.

Social implications

By highlighting shortcomings in current “responsible” investment approaches and focussing on strengthening impact integrity in investment decision-making through standardised impact management practices, the findings enhance the capacity of investment markets to contribute positively to sustainable development and the SDGs.

Originality/value

Despite its importance, impact integrity in investment decision-making is severely under-researched with little academic attention. This paper fills this void.

Details

Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8021

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Article
Publication date: 12 April 2011

Lukasz Prorokowski

The purpose of this paper is to investigate equity appraisal techniques employed by non‐professional investors from the Central European emerging stock market (CEESM) of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate equity appraisal techniques employed by non‐professional investors from the Central European emerging stock market (CEESM) of Poland. The paper examines investment decision‐making processes in the context of the current financial crisis in a pioneering attempt to shed some light on crisis‐induced changes in investment strategies. In addition, the study tests the usefulness and predictive abilities of analytical tools employed by non‐professional investors when faced with unstable stock‐market conditions.

Design/methodology/approach

Questionnaires and experiments conducted with a large group of Polish investors – trading equities in their home market – in order to gain information on the most commonly used investment strategies. Their views are contrasted with similarly obtained opinions expressed by UK non‐professional investors to highlight differences in approaches to investments. Finally, a series of semi‐structured interviews was conducted to discuss how the current financial crisis has affected investment strategies among Polish and UK investors.

Findings

Technical analysis (TA) is the preferred tool utilized by non‐professional investors in Poland. However, the current financial crisis caused the majority of Polish practitioners to adopt fundamental analysis which, in this case, is undertaken to support initial conclusions derived from TA. At this point, investees' financial statements coupled with analyses of the main macroeconomic indicators for CEESMs became the main source of decision‐influencing information.

Practical implications

The paper addresses an area which is gaining in importance and is of interest to both practitioners and service providers for non‐professional investors. Further investigation is recommended of nascent challenges to investing in CEESMs with practical implications for policy makers and investors.

Originality/value

The current paper refers to the global financial crisis which occurred in the years 2008‐2010. To date, there are no previous studies devoted to an investigation of how investors' trading strategies were influenced by the international financial crisis. Moreover, there are relatively few studies which target practitioners from CEESMs. The paper focuses on the non‐professionals, as this group of investors seems to be relatively under‐researched. Therefore, a number of important implications can be drawn from the current paper with regard to investment strategies tailored to overcome a financial crisis.

Details

Qualitative Research in Financial Markets, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4179

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Article
Publication date: 13 May 2019

Eunivicia Matlhogonolo Mogapi, Margaret Mary Sutherland and Anthony Wilson-Prangley

Impact investment is an emergent field worldwide and it can play an especially important role in Africa. The aim of this study was to examine how impact investors in South…

Abstract

Purpose

Impact investment is an emergent field worldwide and it can play an especially important role in Africa. The aim of this study was to examine how impact investors in South Africa manage the tensions between financial returns and social impact.

Design/methodology/approach

The research was based on 15 semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders in the impact investment community in South Africa to understand the related challenges, trade-offs and tensions.

Findings

There are two opposing views expressed as to whether the tensions between financial return and social impact result in trade-offs. It is proposed that impact investors embrace this duality and seek to approach it through a contingency and a paradox view. The tensions can be approached by focussing on values alignment, contracting processes, engaged leadership and sector identification. The authors integrate the findings into a proposed framework for effective tension management in an impact investment portfolio.

Research limitations/implications

This study was limited to selected South African interviewees. It would be valuable to extend the study to other African countries.

Practical implications

The issue of values alignment between investors, fund managers and investee firms is an important finding for practice. As is the four-part iterative framework for sensing the operating environment, defining impact, organising internally and defining the investment approach.

Originality/value

This study contributes empirical evidence to scholarship around organisational tensions, especially work in hybrid organisations. It affirms the value of a nuanced application of paradox theory. It examines these tensions through the lived experience of impact investing professionals in an emerging market context.

Details

European Business Review, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

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Article
Publication date: 11 March 2019

Nargis Kaisar Boles Makhaiel

This paper aims at studying earnings management phenomenon in its wider social and economic context to get better understanding for the following points: whether there is…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims at studying earnings management phenomenon in its wider social and economic context to get better understanding for the following points: whether there is “one-size-fits-all” earning management approach which can be widespread applied among nations and whether the Egyptian context affects managers’ trade-off between three different earnings management approaches: accounting, operational and investment.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper adopts interpretive approach and analyses data from official documents and 34 interviews with company executives; financial analysts; external auditors; and Stock Exchange regulators to inform our understanding of the influence of the Egyptian context on the trade-off between earnings management approaches.

Findings

The results show that there is no application for “one-size-fits-all” earning management approach; unlike the developed cultures, where R&D expenses and overproduction are extensively used for boosting profits, in Egyptian context they are not valid tools. The findings indicate that the Egyptian political and economic context remarkably affect managers trade-off earnings management approaches, leading executives to prefer operational manipulation compared with others.

Originality/value

This paper extends but adds to the literature by shedding light on the different implications of earning management theories based on the variation in the political, economic and operational contexts of firms; identifying that operational cash flows matter more to managers than accounting profits; focusing on the fact that managers differentiate and compare between three various earning management approaches: accounting techniques, investment activities and operational activities; and showing that changes in political and economic Egyptian context makes operational manipulation favorable to be adopted compared with others. It also overcomes the criticism of New Institutional Sociology Theory.

Details

Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1985-2517

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Article
Publication date: 4 March 2019

Rodney J. Dormer

The purpose of this paper is to explore the recently increased use of the word “investment” in the public management discourse. In particular, it examines the implications…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the recently increased use of the word “investment” in the public management discourse. In particular, it examines the implications of this for accounting and public governance. It asks, is that discourse simply concerned to account for “investment” in the efficient provision of public goods and services? Or does it also seek to hold governments, and government agencies, to account for the results they achieve and, more broadly, for their investment in, and stewardship of, the capacity to do so in the future?

Design/methodology/approach

The paper draws on a range of literature as well as speeches made by both New Zealand politicians and officials to track the emergence and evolution of a discourse in respect of “an investment approach”. As such, the analysis represents a diachronic approach for, as Jäger and Meyer (2009) note: “To identify the knowledge of a society on a topic, the analyst has to reconstruct the genesis of this topic” (p. 46).

Findings

The initial adoption of “an investment approach” occurred in the context of attempts to gain a clearer focus on, and accountability for, the results of government interventions. Subsequently, a broader, and arguably more classic, conception of public investment has involved a developing focus on changes to the nation’s economic, social and environmental capitals. Both approaches provide significant practical challenges for accounting and the continued relevance of the accounting profession.

Research limitations/implications

The paper points to an urgent need to engage the accounting profession in debates that extend beyond the adoption of accrual accounting for the control of inputs and the provision of outputs. It is suggested that a future research agenda should focus on how models of well-being, and the public capitals that enable well-being, might be better accounted for and monitored.

Originality/value

This paper provides an insight into the emergence, spread and ultimate fading of the use of the word “investment” in the public policy discourse in New Zealand. However, it also places that process in a wider development that is focusing on citizens’ well-being. In so doing, it also highlights the challenges for the accounting profession created by the investment turn – whether relating to investment in operational activities or in public capitals.

Details

Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1995

Giuliano Noci

In recent years it has been often claimed that quality is one ofmost critical success factors for organizations. Managers introducedquality‐based programmes – such as…

Abstract

In recent years it has been often claimed that quality is one of most critical success factors for organizations. Managers introduced quality‐based programmes – such as total quality management – assuming that performances would improve. However, many quality‐based initiatives failed. There are several reasons that could explain the failure of quality‐based strategies in a number of firms; suggests two causes: the lack of effective decisional tools for evaluating the most effective investment(s) among a set of potential programmes; and the lack of specific goals to be assigned to each investment in order to monitor the actual results of the programmes on time. In small firms these problems are greater because of the limited availability of financial and managerial resources which make more difficult the identification of the most effective decisional solutions. Identifies a conceptual framework aimed at supporting the choice of most effective models for evaluating quality‐related investments in small firms, particularly an approach which balances different decisional needs such as completeness, urgency of evaluation, measurability of output and structural characteristics.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 15 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Article
Publication date: 5 January 2015

Jiří Fotr, Miroslav Špaček, Ivan Souček and Emil Vacík

The purpose of this paper is to elucidate on specific risk mitigation approach which is known as “scenario approach”. Description of stepwise process of their elaboration…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to elucidate on specific risk mitigation approach which is known as “scenario approach”. Description of stepwise process of their elaboration, which is worth considering for managers, offers feasible tool not only for company risk management improvement but also for significant enhancement of the quality of company strategic planning. Authors also draw attention to advantages and disadvantages of investment and strategic scenario planning. Theoretical implications of using scenario approaches are exemplified both by the set of investment projects and company strategic planning process where method in question was applied.

Design/methodology/approach

As for methods applied which fulfilled research strategies, it is worth mentioning following items: analysis which explores particular parts of methodology of scenario elaboration and application, the way of obtaining information, impact on strategy, working with risks and organizational support of outcomes in company environment; synthesis observing context and natural relation of problems solved which supports research hypotheses formulation; induction generalizing facts acquired from results in companies; deduction to be grounds on which conclusion of this paper was drawn up; abstraction used upon evaluation of case studies; comparison assessing consistency and inconsistency of phenomena and objects; description inevitable for characterization of companies and environment in which they operate; interview collecting information inevitable for the evaluation of the way of working with scenarios and company knowledge standards; modelling was used upon consideration about possible future development of factors observed.

Findings

The paper arrived at conclusion, that scenario approach, when used appropriately, may significantly mitigate risk exposure of the company. Conclusions which have been made on selected industrial companies can be extended to other industrial branches. Practical application of scenario planning method confirmed that this approach was superior to deterministic single scenario model. Scenario technique thus compensates for deficiencies and omissions which are inherent in simplistic deterministic model. In cases where an investment scenario planning process proved to be insufficient, the paper refers to more advanced techniques like simulation methods or real options.

Research limitations/implications

Over past ten years practical test of proposed stepwise process of scenarios elaboration was repeatedly tested on approx ten industrial companies during the tenure of Mr Soucek and Mr Špaček in top managerial positions.

Practical implications

This paper offers flexible and feasible toll for scenario elaboration and their further development. Such an approach contributes significantly to the enhancement of company risk management process. Proceedures described were successfully tested in managerial practice by two of authors while holding CEO positions in oil prcessing and pharma business.

Social implications

This paper does not have direct social implication. But scenario approach as a powerful tool of risk management process may significantly contribute to company survival and thus impact social status all stakeholders concerned. Therefore social implications should be identified rather on the background of the problem.

Originality/value

Notwithstanding some general notion about scenario concept, there is still little evidence that scenario approach is applied in larger extent. It is prevalently due to lack of expertise of respective managers who are obviously puzzled with numerous outcomes to be obtained by this approach. Clearly define procedure of scenarios formation may be conducive to larger exploitation of this approach. Design of the elaboration and application of scenario approach which was proven to be functioning in the practice brings new benefits to risk management exploration.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

Rufei Ma and Pengxiang Zhai

One of the important characteristics of the hotel business is uncertainty of lodging demand, which can jeopardize hotel operation and ultimately even threaten a hotel’s…

Abstract

Purpose

One of the important characteristics of the hotel business is uncertainty of lodging demand, which can jeopardize hotel operation and ultimately even threaten a hotel’s survival during an economic recession. The purpose of this paper is to propose an approach to determine optimal hotel investment issues under uncertain lodging demand.

Design/methodology/approach

Uncertainty of lodging demand is classified into two types: the impact of unexpected economic recession and the temporary imbalance between supply of hotel rooms and lodging demand. A jump-diffusion real option approach is proposed to analyze how these two types affect optimal investment timing and the potential value of new hotel projects. The case of hotel investment in Macao is used to illustrate the jump-diffusion real option approach.

Findings

The results of numerical analysis show that the uncertainty induced by temporary imbalance between supply of hotel rooms and lodging demand increases the threshold of investment and hotel value, while the uncertainty induced by unexpected economic recession has ambiguous effects on the value and optimal investment timing of new hotel projects.

Practical implications

The jump-diffusion real option approach increases managerial flexibility for managers when making investment decisions on new hotel projects, allowing greater value to be generated than is possible with the conventional discounted cash flow method.

Originality/value

The approach separates the impact of unexpected economic recession on lodging demand from that of “normal” fluctuations in lodging demand, and it considers the impact of both types of uncertainty on hotel investment.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 45 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 26 September 2008

David Lorenz and Thomas Lützkendorf

The purpose of this paper is to explain the rationale for integrating sustainability issues into property valuation theory and practice and to provide initial suggestions…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explain the rationale for integrating sustainability issues into property valuation theory and practice and to provide initial suggestions for valuers on how to account for sustainability issues within valuation reports.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors emphasise the key role of valuation professionals and of the valuation process itself in achieving a broader market penetration of sustainable construction. It is explained that, on the one hand, property valuation represents the major mechanism to align economic return with environmental and social performance of property assets, and thus to express and communicate the advantages and benefits of sustainable buildings. On the other hand, it is explained that gradual changes in market participants' perceptions in favour of sustainable buildings must be reflected within the property valuation and associated risk assessment process (otherwise valuers would produce misleading price estimates). The authors identify both the financial benefits and risk reduction potential of sustainable design as well as valuation input parameters that would allow these benefits to be reflected in property price estimates.

Findings

The authors show that the main reasons for immediately and rigorously integrating sustainability issues into property valuation are as follows: more sustainable patterns of behaviour are urgently necessary to sustain the viability of the Earth's ecosystems; a huge untapped market potential exists for sustainable property investment products and consulting services; sustainable buildings clearly outperform their conventional competitors in all relevant areas (i.e. environmentally, socially and financially); neglecting the benefits of sustainable design leads to distorted price estimates; and reflecting sustainability issues in property price estimates is already possible and the validity of this decision depends solely on the valuer's capability and sophistication to explain and justify his/her assumptions within the valuation report. However, it is also shown that efforts need to be undertaken to improve the description of property assets in transaction databases in order to provide the informational databases necessary to empirically underpin a valuer's decision to assign a “valuation bonus” to a sustainable building or a “valuation reduction” to an unsustainable/conventional one.

Originality/value

The paper postulates that valuation reports should be extended to include the following additional elements: a clear description of the availability of certain sustainability‐related property characteristics and attributes; a statement of the valuer's opinion about the benefits of these characteristics and attributes; and a statement of the valuer's opinion about the impact of these benefits and/or risks on property value.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 26 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

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Article
Publication date: 22 June 2012

Eckhart Hertzsch, Christopher Heywood and Mirek Piechowski

The purpose of this paper is to present a methodology to improve decision making about investments that reduce buildings' energy consumption.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a methodology to improve decision making about investments that reduce buildings' energy consumption.

Design/methodology/approach

A three‐stage methodology was developed and tested to analyse an existing Australian office building's energy use, its energy rating, and its life cycle investment. In total, seven cases of sets of improvements were modelled for energy performance. Their investment value was evaluated using a life cycle‐based analysis across several investment options.

Findings

A holistic approach to investment shows that the most effective sustainable refurbishments need not be the most expensive. Optimised investment can take advantage of the timing of both re‐investment in component renewal and efficiency gains from the refurbishment. Furthermore, relatively small changes in income can offset capital expenditure for refurbishments and protect against obsolescence.

Originality/value

Much work on sustainable refurbishments rarely considers the investment basis, across a life cycle, of that expenditure, generally seeing them as a cost and rarely considers the optimal time for that expenditure in the asset life cycle. This paper addresses both concerns.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

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