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Article
Publication date: 27 July 2012

Bing Wang

The purpose of this paper is to reargue the great controversies surrounding marketization, by the concept of intrinsic value and to give a panorama of China's…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to reargue the great controversies surrounding marketization, by the concept of intrinsic value and to give a panorama of China's marketization and social development during last 30 years.

Design/methodology/approach

The concept of intrinsic value is elaborated, and marketization and closely linked concepts such as price, wealth, happiness, freedom, etc. are reargued. An intrinsic value account (IVA) is constructed and the enhancement and weakening of some intrinsic values could be clearly shown. A panorama of China's marketization and social development is exhibited by IVA.

Findings

The basic point of this paper is that social development is a concept with strong but implicit ethical assumption and should be explicitly based upon intrinsic value. Without concrete definition and consensus on intrinsic value, it will face great disputes on judging human history as social development or social degradation. Market is not only an objective value‐neural system, but a subjective moral entity. China's maketization has enhanced economic value greatly, but suffered great loss by other intrinsic values.

Practical implications

IVA could be a practical instrument to evaluate social development and clarify the possible academic controversies on market. The arguments of China's marketization experience could be of benefit to other developing countries.

Social implications

This paper could encourage people, particularly policy makers, to consider their value assumptions, value priority, some basic concepts in market, and what human kind is really pursuing.

Originality/value

The paper shows that IVA could be a new instrument to better evaluate social development, similar to the National Income Account or National Happiness Account.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 39 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 30 November 2004

Kenneth Einar Himma

I consider the foundational issue of whether we have a right to information that is fundamental in being independent of other rights and general in protecting all…

Abstract

I consider the foundational issue of whether we have a right to information that is fundamental in being independent of other rights and general in protecting all information. To this end, I distinguish two kinds of morally relevant value an entity might have, i.e. intrinsic and instrumental value, and explain the role that each has in determining whether a person has a fundamental moral interest in that entity. Next, I argue that, by itself, the claim that some entity E has an informative nature does not justify believing that E has either intrinsic value or instrumental value. Accordingly, I conclude that whatever protection morality provides to our interests in information, such protection does not rise to the level of a right that is either general in the sense that it applies to all information or fundamental in the sense that it is not derived from other more basic rights.

Details

Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-996X

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Book part
Publication date: 27 December 2013

Jason Dockstader

This chapter argues that environmental ethicists commit a serious error when they require that people hold a moral realist metaethical belief in the intrinsic value of…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter argues that environmental ethicists commit a serious error when they require that people hold a moral realist metaethical belief in the intrinsic value of non-human living things and non-living natural things in order to be able to behave in an ethically acceptable manner toward the environment.

Methodology

Environmental ethics regard this position as the mandatory non-anthropocentrism one must first hold in order to be in a proper moral relationship to the environment. The main reason for seeing this requirement as an error is that it is politically unrealistic insofar most people most of the time behave in political contexts on the basis of instrumental and not intrinsic reasons. To claim that people can behave in a morally acceptable manner toward the environment if and only if they first believe in its intrinsic value is not only politically unrealistic, but also actually false.

Findings

The chapter looks at recent studies measuring the behavior of political and moral philosophers which shows that they do not behave in any markedly way better than non-moral philosophers. Ethicists, whom one can assume believe in some form or another of the mind-independent reality of moral properties, are not more morally well-behaved for holding such a belief.

Implications

Ethicists, especially environmental ethicists, are in no position to require of us to believe in the intrinsic value of the environment in order to behave in more beneficial ways toward it.

Details

Environmental Philosophy: The Art of Life in a World of Limits
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-137-3

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Article
Publication date: 22 June 2012

Juha Munnukka and Pentti Järvi

This study aims to explore: first, the formation of the customer value of high‐tech consumer products through application of intrinsic and extrinsic cues of product…

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2653

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore: first, the formation of the customer value of high‐tech consumer products through application of intrinsic and extrinsic cues of product quality; and second, the effect of the mental price category of the product on the construction of customer value.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was conducted in the Finnish consumer market in 2008. In total, 453 completed interview forms were collected through the structured interview method. The factor model was constructed through explorative factor analysis and hypothesis testing was conducted through linear multiple‐regression analysis.

Findings

The high‐tech product's price category was found to have a significant effect on the construction of the customer value. The mental price category in which consumers located the product was found to dictate how the perceived value was constructed through the intrinsic and extrinsic dimensions of product quality. The customer value of high‐tech consumer products was composed of visual appeal, excellence, and price satisfaction. Intrinsic cues of product quality were emphasised.

Originality/value

The study provides new insights into how the formation of customer value is dictated by the mental price category perceived by consumers. Also, new information on how intrinsic and extrinsic cues of product quality affect the customer value of high‐tech consumer products was provided.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2016

Martina G. Gallarza, Francisco Arteaga-Moreno, Giacomo Del Chiappa and Irene Gil-Saura

Within the abundant and not always unanimous body or research on conceptual and methodological approaches to consumer value in services, there are two areas of relative…

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2340

Abstract

Purpose

Within the abundant and not always unanimous body or research on conceptual and methodological approaches to consumer value in services, there are two areas of relative consensus: the multidimensional nature of value (intra-variable approach) and the existence of causal relations with other constructs (inter-variable approach). This work aims to contribute additional knowledge in both areas, with a joint approach in a structural model tested for hospitality services.

Design/methodology/approach

The study proposes four scales of intrinsic values (entertainment, aesthetics, ethics and spirituality as relaxation), based on Holbrook’s (1999) value typology, and a casual model to be used to measure the relationships between these four values and overall perceived value, satisfaction and loyalty. The model is tested with PLS on a sample of 585 hotel guests on the island of Sardinia (Italy).

Findings

The psychometric properties of all four value scales, created ad hoc, are tested and approved. Results on the causal model show contrasted links on the intra-variable approach, entertainment, aesthetics and spirituality (measured as relaxation), are positive antecedents of perceived value, while the path ethics-overall value is not confirmed. The value–satisfaction–loyalty chain is fully confirmed, with strong linkages.

Research limitations/implications

The authors acknowledge the use of a convenience sample, of mainly leisure tourists.

Practical implications

The implications for managers are derived on the need of considering extra drivers (intrinsic and therefore fully experiential) of satisfaction and loyalty.

Originality/value

Research on value has been qualified as not univocal and controversial. This study adds knowledge on the use of four less common value types (intrinsic ones) and sheds light on their nature as antecedents of the well-known value–satisfaction–loyalty chain.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Rhett H. Walker, Lester W. Johnson and Sean Leonard

To provide an alternative view of customer value and service quality as conceptualized in the service‐profit chain.

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9638

Abstract

Purpose

To provide an alternative view of customer value and service quality as conceptualized in the service‐profit chain.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey of the vast and diverse literature on the concepts of value and quality is used to reconceptualize these constructs as they are used in the service‐profit chain. The concept of intrinsic value and quality is proposed as an addition to the extrinsic value and quality concepts already apparent in the chain.

Findings

The service‐profit chain is based on the premise that profitability to a firm derives from customer satisfaction and loyalty, which, in turn, are derived from a customer's sense of value received. This value, it is argued, is calculated with reference to the perceived quality of what is received, balanced against the aggregated costs to the customer of availing themselves of the service. This paper questions the sufficiency of the assumption that value offered to a customer resides solely in the customer's perception of what has been experienced in and through the service encounter. Correspondingly, it is argued that value to the customer may reside also in intrinsic qualities or attributes of a service.

Originality/value

The idea of value and quality being built into a service offering (intrinsic) has value for both practising service managers and academic researchers. Several avenues for future investigation are posited.

Details

Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-4529

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2012

Oyvin Kyvik, Yingying Zhang and Ana M. Romero‐Martinez

The purpose of this paper is to empirically explore the relationship between value dimensions and creativity, particularly between the intrinsic and extrinsic value

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1307

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to empirically explore the relationship between value dimensions and creativity, particularly between the intrinsic and extrinsic value approaches and creativity values.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper adopts an explanatory approach. After analyzing construct validity, reliability and factor analysis, the study tests its hypotheses by performing a multi‐regression analysis with a sample of 389 individuals in two different regions.

Findings

There are two main conclusions. First, intrinsic value systems (personal life values and intrinsic work values) affect creativity value in a positive manner. Second, extrinsic value systems (social life values and extrinsic work values) have an insignificant or weak positive impact on the creativity value.

Originality/value

The results of this research are applicable to the global technology/innovation intensive knowledge economy, where highly dynamic and competitive business environments also demand further strategy innovation. A focus on the intrinsic value approach could be effective to enhance creativity value, and hence this type of behavior. Relative management education and human resource management practices need to take this into account in their program designs, in order to further their strategic importance for better performance in a global business world.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2009

Helge Thorbjørnsen, Per E. Pedersen and Herbjørn Nysveen

This paper aims to investigate the properties and attributes of networked services and to propose a general categorization scheme for such services.

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1447

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the properties and attributes of networked services and to propose a general categorization scheme for such services.

Design/methodology/approach

Two separate studies were conducted to test the validity and applicability of the categorization scheme. First, industry experts categorized a set of pre‐selected mobile services based on the services' dominant source of value. Second, a large‐scale end‐user study of the same services was conducted for testing cross‐service differences between the proposed service categories in terms of what drives perceived customer value. It is argued that services can be categorized on the basis of whether their dominant source of value stems from intrinsic, user network, or complement network attributes.

Findings

The study results largely support the proposed categorization scheme. The two studies suggest that categorizing networked services as driven by either intrinsic, user network, or complement network attributes is fruitful and helps pinpoint fundamentally different drivers of perceived customer value. The drivers investigated in the end‐user study explain 60 percent of the variance in customer value.

Research limitations/implications

The current categorization scheme will have stronger and clearer implications when the full array of antecedents and consequences of intrinsic, user network, and complement network attributes have been investigated.

Practical implications

The categorization scheme may provide managers with important guidelines regarding the kinds of business models and marketing means that will work best for the three different categories of networked services.

Originality/value

The paper contributes with a conceptual framework for understanding and categorizing both extrinsic and intrinsic drivers of service value. It extends and integrates previous work on network effects and adoption research and also offers empirical insight into an under‐researched topic.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 43 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 23 January 2009

Rhett H. Walker and Lester W. Johnson

This paper sets out to consider the role that can be played by independent professional accreditation systems and processes in influencing and grounding the intrinsic

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1686

Abstract

Purpose

This paper sets out to consider the role that can be played by independent professional accreditation systems and processes in influencing and grounding the intrinsic quality of what is offered by a service provider who has secured this certification.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach takes the form of personal interviews conducted with senior management personnel within a range of accommodation providers who were responsible for preparing their accreditation submission.

Findings

More than 80 percent of respondents agreed that the process of applying for accreditation forced a critical review of all aspects of their operations, and heightened their awareness of things that could prove problematic and ways by which these problems could be effectively countered. Respondents also agreed that the process served to motivate the development and detailed documentation of policies, systems and procedures, which enabled greater consistency in the standard of what is provided.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that rigorous accreditation processes help service providers to review and confirm the appropriateness of what may already be in place, to ground the quality of what might need to be put in place, and to improve the standard of what is currently in place.

Originality/value

The paper augments what is posited by the service‐profit chain framework, shows how a focus on intrinsic quality can help to close the service design and standards gap, and also shows how extrinsic and independent professional accreditation processes can ground and enable the intrinsic quality and standard of what is offered.

Details

Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-4529

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2015

Luo Lu, Hui Yen Lin, Chang-Qin Lu and Oi-Ling Siu

The moderating roles of personal resources in the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model are relatively rarely examined, especially in non-western countries. The purpose of…

Abstract

Purpose

The moderating roles of personal resources in the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model are relatively rarely examined, especially in non-western countries. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the moderating effect of a personal resource (i.e. intrinsic work value orientation) on the relationships between job demands, job resources, and job satisfaction among a large sample of Chinese employees from both mainland China and Taiwan.

Design/methodology/approach

Structured questionnaire survey was carried out to collect data from 402 employees in mainland China and 306 employees in Taiwan.

Findings

The authors found that intrinsic work value orientation amplified the negative relationship between work constraints (a job demand) and job satisfaction. Meanwhile, intrinsic work value orientation strengthened the positive relationship between autonomy (a job resource) and job satisfaction.

Originality/value

This is one of the few studies that explored the role of personal resources in the JD-R model. One unique contribution of the study is that the authors extended the JD-R model to include the intrinsic work value orientation as a resourceful work value for Chinese employees in two major Chinese societies. Based upon the findings, the authors suggest that personal resources such as work value orientation should be taken into account in the research of the JD-R model. Managerial implications of the findings are also discussed.

Details

International Journal of Workplace Health Management, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8351

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