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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2022

Rafi M.M.I. Chowdhury, Denni Arli and Felix Septianto

This study aims to examine how religiosity influences brand loyalty toward religiously positioned brands (Chick-fil-A, Forever 21, etc.) when these brands engage in…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine how religiosity influences brand loyalty toward religiously positioned brands (Chick-fil-A, Forever 21, etc.) when these brands engage in morally controversial actions.

Design/methodology/approach

Study 1 investigates how religiosity affects brand loyalty when religiously positioned brands engage in religiousness-related vs nonreligiousness-related morally controversial actions. Study 2 examines several psychological processes (reactance, forgiveness and moral decoupling) as mediators of the effects of intrinsic religiosity and extrinsic religiosity on brand loyalty for controversial religious brands.

Findings

Study 1 demonstrates that religiosity leads to positive brand loyalty for religiously positioned brands in the case of both religiousness-related and nonreligiousness-related controversies. Study 2 reveals that intrinsic religiosity (extrinsic religiosity) leads to brand loyalty through moral decoupling and forgiveness, but not through reactance, when religious brands engage in religiousness-related (nonreligiousness-related) controversies.

Research limitations/implications

This research focuses on the effects of religiosity on brand loyalty for morally controversial religious brands but does not examine the effects of religious affiliation (Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, etc.). The samples include only US residents.

Practical implications

Religious positioning of brands can engender brand loyalty for consumers with high levels of intrinsic religiosity and/or extrinsic religiosity, even when these brands engage in morally controversial actions.

Originality/value

This research shows that religiosity affects brand loyalty for morally controversial religious brands and demonstrates that psychological processes used by consumers to justify support for morally controversial religious brands depend on type of religiosity (intrinsic vs extrinsic) and type of controversy (religiousness-related and nonreligiousness-related).

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 56 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 October 2021

Sinan Çavuşoĝlu, Bülent Demirağ, Yakup Durmaz and Gökhan Tutuş

This research aims to find out whether intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity affect product attitude functions (value-expressive, social-adjustive).

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to find out whether intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity affect product attitude functions (value-expressive, social-adjustive).

Design/methodology/approach

The population of the research consists of Muslim consumers in Turkey and Christian consumers in Portugal. Using the convenience sampling method, the data was obtained from 800 questionnaire forms which consist of 400 forms filled by Muslim consumers in Turkey and 400 forms filled by Christian consumers in Portugal. Smart PLS 3 (Partial Least Squares) statistical program was used to test hypotheses.

Findings

Results of the analyses show that the intrinsic religiosity of Muslim Consumers living in Turkey and Christian consumers living in Portugal negatively affects the value-expressive and social adjustive attitude. Extrinsic religiosity, on the other hand, has been found to have a positive effect on the functions of value-expressive and social-adjustive attitudes within the consumers of both countries.

Originality/value

There are studies on religiosity and consumer attitudes in the Turkish literature (Kurtoglu and Çiçek, 2013; Uyar et al., 2020; Demirag et al., 2020). Religiosity dimensions (intrinsic/extrinsic religiosity); however, have been neglected in the Turkish literature. This study provides a detailed evaluation of the effect of these dimensions on the dependent variable. Additionally, this study emphasizes the relational aspect of attitude dependent variable and religiosity dimensions by approaching it through the context of value-expressive and social-adjustive attitude. Thus, it is aimed to help practitioners and the literature gain a different perspective by referring to the attitude functions whose foundations were laid in the studies of Smith et al. (1956), Katz (1960) and strengthened in studies like Wilcox et al. (2009). By comparing two different religions, the study results are analyzed in the context of different regions and cultures. This comparison can be beneficial both for local and international investors as religious and cultural factors play an important role in local and cultural investment decisions. The results of this study are thought to contribute to the consumer behavior literature and to public authorities in terms of evaluating the level of religiosity. In addition, this study can have practical results for the practitioners in both Portugal and Turkey.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 September 2020

Felix Septianto, Fandy Tjiptono, Widya Paramita and Tung Moi Chiew

The purpose of this paper is to examine a three-way interaction between the two motivational orientations of religiosity (i.e. intrinsic and extrinsic) and recognition (in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine a three-way interaction between the two motivational orientations of religiosity (i.e. intrinsic and extrinsic) and recognition (in this study, an explicit expectation that behavior is recognized) on charitable behavior. Further, drawing upon the evolutionary psychology perspective, the status motive is predicted to mediate the predicted effects.

Design/methodology/approach

Three experimental studies were conducted using a 2 (intrinsic religiosity: low/high; measured) × 2 (extrinsic religiosity: low/high; measured) × 2 (recognition: yes/no; manipulated) between-subjects design to examine the predicted effects on likelihood to donate and donation allocations in two Asian countries, namely, Indonesia and Malaysia.

Findings

The results show that recognition increases charitable behavior among consumers with a high level of extrinsic religiosity but low level of intrinsic religiosity (Studies 1a, 1b and 2). Further, a status motive mediates the predicted effects (Study 2).

Research limitations/implications

The present research provides a novel perspective on how marketers can purposively use recognition in charitable advertising to encourage charitable behavior among religious consumers – but only in Asia.

Practical implications

This paper presents the case for how a non-profit organization can develop charitable advertising for disaster relief in Indonesia (Studies 1a and 1b) and Malaysia (Study 2). The findings of this research could potentially be extended to other organizations in Asia or other countries where religiosity places an important role in consumer behavior.

Originality/value

This research shows the interactive effect between extrinsic religiosity, intrinsic religiosity and recognition can increase charitable behavior in Asia.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 55 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 August 2021

Denni Arli, Tuyet-Mai Nguyen and Phong Tuan Nham

There is a perception that non-religious consumers are less ethical than religious consumers. Studies found prejudices against atheists around the world and assumed that…

Abstract

Purpose

There is a perception that non-religious consumers are less ethical than religious consumers. Studies found prejudices against atheists around the world and assumed that those who committed unethical behavior were more likely to be atheists. Hence, first, the purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of consumers’ intrinsic religiosity, extrinsic religiosity and atheism on consumers’ ethical beliefs. Second, this study attempts to segment consumers and identify differences between these segments.

Design/methodology/approach

Using data from 235 study participants in the USA and 531 in Vietnam. Subsequently, a two-step cluster approach was used to identify segments within these samples.

Findings

The study results show consumers’ intrinsic religiosity negatively influences all consumers’ unethical beliefs. Similarly, atheism also negatively influences all consumers’ unethical beliefs. This study also complements other studies exploring consumer ethics in developing countries. In addition, the segmentation analysis produced unique segments. The results from both samples (USA and Vietnam) indicated that non-religious consumers are less likely to accept various unethical behaviors compared to religious consumers. Religious consumers are not necessarily more ethical and atheism consumers are not necessarily less ethical. In the end, are implications for business ethics, religious and non-religious leaders on how to view the impact of beliefs on consumer ethical behaviors.

Originality/value

This is one of the first few studies investigating the impact of atheism on consumer ethics. The results of this study further extend the knowledge of study in consumer ethics by comparing consumers’ religiosity and atheism.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 38 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 March 2021

Denni Arli and Fandy Tjiptono

Religious doctrines generally encourage people to behave ethically. However, in daily life, individuals notice inconsistencies between religious beliefs and behavior…

Abstract

Purpose

Religious doctrines generally encourage people to behave ethically. However, in daily life, individuals notice inconsistencies between religious beliefs and behavior, leading them to ask, in the context of commerce, why religious consumers would behave unethically. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of consumers' intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity on their ethical behavior. Specifically, the moderating effect of ethical ideology on the relationship between Indonesian consumers' religiosity and their ethics was examined by means of a survey.

Design/methodology/approach

The data derived from the questionnaire were complemented by convenience samples of Indonesians living in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY) in central Java. The researchers distributed 600 questionnaires in two major shopping malls and several housing areas in the region, of which 467 were completed and returned, for an overall response rate of 77.8%.

Findings

The results indicated that the participants' intrinsic religiosity negatively impacted their ethical beliefs and was mediated by their idealistic ethical ideology. The present study also found that idealism had negative effects on three of the four dimensions of the consumer ethics scale (CES) (actively benefiting, passively benefiting and questionable behavior), while relativism had positive effects on two of the dimensions (passively benefiting and questionable behavior.

Research limitations/implications

One limitation of the present study was that the analysis did not distinguish among the religions practiced by the respondents to the questionnaire.

Originality/value

This is one of the first few studies investigating the mediating role of ethical ideology in a religious society. This study contributes to the literature on these issues in theoretical and managerial terms by extending the Hunt-Vitell theory (1986) to the context of consumer ethics.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Denni Arli

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the importance of religiosity in consumer ethics. This objective will be achieved by investigating the impact of intrinsic and…

1248

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the importance of religiosity in consumer ethics. This objective will be achieved by investigating the impact of intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity on consumer ethics, and segmenting consumers’ religiosity and explore differences between each segment.

Design/methodology/approach

The surveys were distributed to undergraduate students, their friends and members of their immediate families, through a large public university in Australia. Of 700 paper questionnaires, participants returned 651. Incomplete surveys with too many missing values were removed from the sample. Of these, 517 were usable, yielding a response rate of 74 per cent. Singles accounted for 53.9 per cent of the sample, followed by married people (26.8 per cent). Of the respondents, 49.9 per cent were men. The majority of respondents were between 18 and 24 years old (52 per cent), followed by 15-34 years (16.4 per cent). Finally, most respondents had an income level of less than $20,000 (36.6 per cent) followed by $21,000-$40,000 (20.5 per cent) and $41,000-$61,000 (19.7 per cent). Overall, despite being dominated by younger consumers, the sample is relatively representative of the entire adult population of Australia.

Findings

The results show that both intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity had an impact on consumers’ ethical beliefs. Moreover, the results show significant differences between the two segments studied. The religious segment was more likely than the non-religious segment to reject various unethical beliefs, but no significant differences were found in the behavioural dimensions of recycling and doing good deeds.

Originality/value

This is one of the first few studies to explore the impact of religiosity on consumer ethics in Australia. The results of this study have several implications for academic researchers, religious leaders and managers working in the area of consumer ethics.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 June 2007

Craig S. Galbraith and Devon M. Galbraith

The purpose of this paper is to examine and test the relationship and interaction between “intrinsicreligiosity, entrepreneurial activity, and economic growth.

1863

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine and test the relationship and interaction between “intrinsicreligiosity, entrepreneurial activity, and economic growth.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper selects 23 countries that are predominately Christian and examine the connection between country‐wide religious orientation, entrepreneurial activity, and economic growth. It specifically examines “intrinsicreligiosity, and defines entrepreneurial activity as either total start‐up entrepreneurial activity or opportunity‐based entrepreneurial activity. It is hypothesized that there is a direct relationship between religious attitudes and both economic growth and entrepreneurial activity, with entrepreneurial activity also acting as an intervening variable. The empirical relationship between “intrinsicreligiosity, entrepreneurial activity, and economic growth is then examined.

Findings

The findings suggest that while “intrinsicreligiosity is positively related to economic growth, the key relationship may be between “intrinsicreligiosity and entrepreneurial activity, with entrepreneurial activity then resulting in economic growth.

Originality/value

By examining the diverse literatures of economic development, entrepreneurship, theology, and the psychology of religion, this paper offers a unique analysis of religious attitudes and their impact on entrepreneurial activity and economic growth. Both the conceptual discussion and the empirical results extend previous studies examining cultural approaches to understanding economic growth.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 September 2020

Adil Khan, Mohd Yasir Arafat and Mohammad Khalid Azam

This study aims to investigate the influence of religiosity (intrinsic and extrinsic) and halal literacy on the intention of Muslim consumers to purchase halal branded…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the influence of religiosity (intrinsic and extrinsic) and halal literacy on the intention of Muslim consumers to purchase halal branded food products in India. An extended version of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was used as a framework. Apart from religiosity and halal literacy, the influence of attitude, social norms and perceived behavioural control of halal on buying intention were also tested.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a survey design. The data were collected from 350 individual respondents, using a closed-ended, structured questionnaire. The quality of the measurement model has been assessed through reliability testing, factor loading, average variance extracted and Fornell-Larcker criterion. The test of hypotheses was conducted by performing the partial least square structural equation modelling.

Findings

The result of hypotheses testing shows that both intrinsic and extrinsic types of religiosities did not have a direct influence on buying intention. However, religiosity (extrinsic and intrinsic) and halal literacy have significant relationships with most of the antecedents of the intention of the TPB. In addition, both kinds of religiosities (extrinsic and intrinsic) and halal literacy had a significant indirect effect (through TPB antecedents) on buying intention.

Originality/value

Muslim population in India is one of the largest in the world, yet there is a lack of popular halal branded food products in the market. Nevertheless, few researchers have attempted to study the consumer behaviour of the Muslim population for halal products in India. A large amount of research work on halal food behaviour is from countries such as Malaysia and Indonesia, where the Muslim population is in the majority and halal brands are already popular. Further, this paper studies the impact of dimensions of religiosity, which has been overlooked by researchers studying the halal food purchasing behaviour. The study also explores the impact of halal literacy, an understudied construct in halal marketing literature. The present study is amongst the earliest empirical research based on Muslim consumers in India on the topic of halal branded food products.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 April 2019

Adem Uysal and Abdullah Okumuş

The purpose of this study is to identify the impact of ethical judgements, depending on religiosity level of consumers, on decisions of buying or not buying products from…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to identify the impact of ethical judgements, depending on religiosity level of consumers, on decisions of buying or not buying products from supermarkets selling alcoholic beverages.

Design/methodology/approach

The scope of this study covers consumers from province of Mus in Turkey who indicate they go shopping at supermarkets. Accordingly, data are collected from 362 consumers via face-to-face survey and the results are evaluated through regression analysis.

Findings

According to analysis, it was found that the internal and external religiosity of the consumers positively affected their ethical judgement towards the markets selling alcoholic beverages. Besides, it is concluded that the ethical judgements of consumers have a positive impact on boycott decisions against supermarkets selling alcoholic beverages.

Originality/value

The survey contributes to relevant literature by putting forth the impact of ethical judgements of consumers, associated with their level of religiosity, on their decisions as to preference of supermarkets. Moreover, this study is consistent with the previous studies and supports the conclusion that the ethical decisions are affected by the extrinsic and intrinsic levels of religiosity; however, they are more affected by the intrinsic levels of religiosity.

Article
Publication date: 30 August 2021

Chijioke Nwachukwu, Helena Chládková, Richard Selase Agboga and Hieu Minh Vu

The purpose of this study was to enhance our understanding of the connection between religiosity, employee empowerment and employee engagement.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to enhance our understanding of the connection between religiosity, employee empowerment and employee engagement.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on the social exchange theory, a framework of hypotheses is developed that focusses on religiosity, employee empowerment and their impact on employee engagement. This research employed a quantitative survey and data obtained from 232 adults working in companies in Accra Ghana.

Findings

The results suggest that religiosity dimensions (extrinsic and intrinsic) have a counterbalancing effect on employee engagement dimensions (intellectual and affective). Employee empowerment predicts both intellectual and affective engagement.

Research limitations/implications

This study has some limitations which provide opportunities for more research. First, the study is cross-sectional and focusses on employees in selected companies in Accra Ghana. More so, the participants were a convenience, majorly men (only 28% were women). This limits the generalisability of the findings and our confidence in ascertaining the “cause” and “effect” in the relationship. The present paper used a quantitative research approach; mixed method may provide in-depth insight into the subject. The study examined the direct relationship between religiosity, employee empowerment and employee engagement. Future research should explore how the effect of religiosity and employee empowerment on a relevant outcome changes according to other organisational characteristics.

Practical implications

Organisations must develop more interest in religion's relevance and its impact on their employees' engagement. This should be done by providing the necessary platforms for employees to practice their religion. There is the likelihood of lack of engagement when an organisation fails to consider employee religious orientation or attempts to unduly regulate employees' religiosity. Empowering work environment can promote a higher level of employee engagement. It is obvious that empowered employees are focussed, energetic, enthusiastic and have positive disposition to work. These positive attitudes lead to a higher level of engagement which fosters productivity and overall organisational performance.

Originality/value

This study could contribute to the literature on religiosity, employee empowerment and employee engagement in the Ghanaian context. Therefore, there is a need to keep employees engaged and enhance productivity. This study underpins the importance of religiosity and employee empowerment in fostering employee engagement and productivity in the Ghana work setting.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 41 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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