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Article
Publication date: 26 June 2009

Peter J. Hosie and Peter Sevastos

The purpose of this paper is to emanate from an enduring stream of research into individual performance and organisational productivity where happy employees are believed…

2989

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to emanate from an enduring stream of research into individual performance and organisational productivity where happy employees are believed to perform better. Decades of research have been unable to establish a strong link between workplace happiness and performance. A variation on the enduring employee happiness‐productivity debate is evolving the “happy‐performing managers” proposition.

Design/methodology/approach

An empirical investigation reports on the impact of two important aspects of job happiness – self‐rated affective wellbeing and intrinsic job satisfaction – on superiors' ratings of managers' contextual and task performance. An ancillary methodological objective of the study is to establish the structure of managers' performance.

Findings

A partial model of managers' affective wellbeing, intrinsic job satisfaction and performance contributed an understanding to how specific indicators of affective wellbeing and intrinsic job satisfaction predict certain dimensions of managers' performance.

Practical implications

Changes in the workplace emphasises are needed to ensure managers can retain and improve their positive affective wellbeing by working smarter and faster, rather than harder and longer.

Originality/value

A contribution of this paper is to provide qualified support for the “happy‐performing managers” proposition by linking the conceptual bases relating to managers' affective wellbeing, intrinsic job satisfaction and to their performance. These findings progress the debate as to how work might be structured to improve managers' affective wellbeing and consequently their performance. Perhaps, it is timely to consider moving away from the negative forms of psychology and affirm managers' future by embracing the “happy‐performing managers” proposition.

Details

International Journal of Workplace Health Management, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8351

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 1 July 2018

Arfat Ahmad

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the underlying reciprocity mechanism which governs the relationship between employer and employee at their workplaces in a…

18130

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the underlying reciprocity mechanism which governs the relationship between employer and employee at their workplaces in a perspective whereby intrinsic and extrinsic factors of job satisfaction are considered as proxy to organizational offerings, while multi overall job satisfaction and dimensional organizational commitment as employee’ attitudinal reaction to the organizational offerings. Under the aforementioned notion, the present study intends to examine the influence of job characteristics on employees’ attitudes, such as, job satisfaction, organizational commitment and employee’ turnover intentions as psychological response to job characteristics. In a way, the study attempts to insight into how employee’ reciprocate to the perceived obligation toward its organization. The study also aims to supplement the empirical evidence about the competing power of intrinsic and extrinsic factors of job in determining the job satisfaction. Although various studies exhibit positive relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment has been consistently reported. However, for the managerial implication, the identification of employee physiological and psychological needs to gauge the understanding of mechanism by which of employee’ reacts to its environment and develop attitude toward their job and organization is imperative. In this context, this study makes a humble attempt to clear the relationships in the perspective of reciprocation between organization and its employees. Thus, this study attempts to illustrate how feeling a need to reciprocate, those who experienced strong satisfaction with job characteristics appear to have had a sense of moral duty to the organization can be helpful in understanding the processes by which organizational inducements exert their influence on other employee attitudes and behaviors. Evidently, while the link between employees’ satisfaction with their job and high organizational commitment, on the one hand, and low intentions to leave on the other is fairly straightforward, yet there in need to study these variables as exogenous and endogenous to inquire about their causation. Also, the available present literature on the understudy concern genuinely lacks adequate empirical material about the competing power of intrinsic and extrinsic factors of job in determining the job satisfaction as such some author hold that intrinsic characteristic of job better predict job satisfaction while as another set of behavioral scientists found extrinsic job characteristics as prime determinant of job satisfaction compare to the intrinsic worth of their jobs. The present study was conducted in the state of depressed economy where unemployment rate is as high as 194 percent it was found interesting to investigate the about the competing power of intrinsic and extrinsic factors of job in determining the job satisfaction. The present study also attempts to supplement the empirical evidence in this direction.

Design/methodology/approach

Since the study use the tenets of situational theories of employee’ attitude which assume that employee’ attitude results from the psychological evaluation of one’s job characteristics or other aspects of the environment in the organization; therefore, the study integrates the job characteristics as the organizational offerings to its employee and employees attitude like job satisfaction, organizational commitment and employee’ turnover intentions as reciprocity reaction to the organizational offerings. The structural equation model was used to frames the intricacy job characteristics, job satisfaction and organizational commitment and employee turnover intentions. Ten job characteristics were identified with which employees experience at the workplace as organizational offerings. These include salary, recognition, co-workers, supervision, organizational policies, promotion, working condition, task requirement, job security and nature of work. Subsequently, these identified facets were divided into intrinsic and extrinsic factors of job satisfaction, and were considering as proxy to the organizational offerings to its employees. These job characteristics were identified during in-depth interviews and discussions with the respondents, while overall job satisfaction, organizational commitment and employees’ turnover intentions were considered as employee’s psychological reactions to the organizational offerings. The sample consists of 654 hospital employees, working at the different hospital across state. In order to ensure the representation of the entire human capital, employees working under different levels of occupational status and different sectors of economy were included in the for the purpose of data collection. The number of employees from each hospital has been selected through proportionate method. Employees from each hospital were selected on the basis of the chit method. Measurement tools Questionnaire method was used to collect the data for the present study. A five-point likert type scale was used for the sake of maintaining uniformity in measuring the variables. All the variables were measured with multiple-item scales, questionnaire item used to measure different constructs in this study are derived from the previously established studies. As such, multidimensional organizational commitment construct was measured using items drawn from Meyer and Allen (1991) scale. Job characteristics and employee’ turnover intentions scale was adapted from the study conducted by Ali Muhammad et al. (2008). The instrument used for the present study has universal application. Therefore the results thus produce are of universal significance. The reliability and validity of measurement tools for the study was established by the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA).

Findings

The findings from the study reveal employees’ subjective evaluation to the intrinsic and extrinsic factors of job contribute to the formation of their reciprocal perspective of psychological attitude toward its job and organization characterized as their job satisfaction and organizational commitment. As such, better evaluation of job content and job context by the employees leads to the sense of obligation and commitment toward the organization, hence reduces their intentions to discord organizational membership. The findings also reveal that employees tend to incline their job satisfaction more toward the extrinsic worth of job than the intrinsic worth. While as both, job satisfaction and organizational commitment, explains relatively equal variation in the employees’ turnover intentions. The relatively strong correlation of extrinsic characteristics of job could be attributed to the fact that professionals generally have limited control over extrinsic factors and have high degree of control over intrinsic elements. Therefore, their perceptions of the job are particularly dependent on the degree of satisfaction with the extrinsic factors (Pearson and Seiler, 1983).

Originality/value

Although there are various studies manifested the relationship between job satisfaction, organizational commitment and employee turnover intentions, for all that, the present work is an attempt to deem these relationships in a different panorama to bring more insight in the subject of organizational behavior. In this study, the relationship among the job characteristics, job satisfaction, organizational commitment and employee’ turnover intentions were considered in a perspective of reciprocity norms. The study opens new horizons to the researchers across the globe, whereby organizational and job characteristics are considered as catalyst for the employee’ attitude and can be study and analyze in a functional relationship model. A new regime of paradigm may investigate the functional relationship between employer offerings as an input and employee attitudes as an output, with more emphasis on the organizational equilibrium. Hence, study encompass the managerial implication by gauging the understanding of mechanism by which of employee’ reacts to the workplace environment and develop attitude toward their job and organization. In this way, the propositions expatiated in the present work improves the understanding for the implications of various motivational theories, different organizational theories and human resource management models. Moreover, this work substantiates and provides insight about the competing power of intrinsic and extrinsic job factors on job satisfaction and opens debate for the generalization of Herzberg’s motivation theory.

Details

Journal of Work-Applied Management, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2205-2062

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 June 2022

Mianlin Deng, Xiujun Li, Feng Wang and Wendian Shi

Previous research has demonstrated that affirming an individual’s self-worth in intrinsic, stable aspects (e.g. personal attributes) enhances their pro-relationship…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous research has demonstrated that affirming an individual’s self-worth in intrinsic, stable aspects (e.g. personal attributes) enhances their pro-relationship tendencies, as compared to affirming extrinsic aspects of the individual (e.g. performance). This is especially so among people in certain dissatisfying relationships (e.g. romantic relationships). Extending this finding to organizational contexts, the purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of affirmation type (intrinsic vs extrinsic affirmations) on responses to workplace offenses among employees with high versus low job satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

Studies 1 (N = 224) and 2 (N = 358) examined the effects of intrinsic versus extrinsic affirmations on responses to hypothetical and real workplace offenses. Furthermore, to compare the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic affirmations to the baseline level, Study 3 (N = 441) added a control condition and examined the effects of affirmation type (intrinsic vs extrinsic vs control) on responses to workplace offenses.

Findings

For employees with low (but not high) job satisfaction, (1) intrinsic (vs extrinsic) affirmations promoted more prosocial responses (forgiveness and reconciliation) to workplace offenses; (2) although not as effective as intrinsic affirmations, extrinsic affirmations (vs baseline) also triggered prosocial intentions toward workplace offenses.

Originality/value

First, the study enriches the literature on workplace offenses by focusing on an individual-level factor – self-worth – that can be intervened (e.g. affirming one’s self-worth) by organizations and managers so as to promote prosocial responses to workplace offenses. Second, the study expands the scope of the self-affirmation theory in organizational contexts by examining the effectiveness of intrinsic and extrinsic affirmations in coping with workplace offenses. Third, practically speaking, the study provides a brief intervention (the writing task of describing an intrinsic or extrinsic affirmation experience) that can boost pro-relationships in the workplace.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 33 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 November 2020

Ismatilla Mardanov

The purpose of the present study is to examine the determinants of employee contentment and its effects on job satisfaction, separation and performance; define employee…

2933

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the present study is to examine the determinants of employee contentment and its effects on job satisfaction, separation and performance; define employee contentment as employee happiness/enjoyment at work triggered by employee intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and organizational context; and consider employee contentment as the critical factor affecting job satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

The study utilizes survey data from 272 employees of Taiwanese construction companies and consulting firms in the construction industry. In confirmatory factor analysis, the items are from the short version of the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) and a newly developed organizational context questionnaire.

Findings

The MSQ items can be considered as perceived motivators of employees. These motivators and organizational characteristics (context) as manifest variables were loaded on distinct latent variables such as extrinsic and intrinsic motivation and organizational context, all of which in turn loaded on a single latent variable – employee contentment. The latter has a positive and statistically significant impact on job satisfaction, performance and intention to stay. While employee contentment has a stronger impact on performance, job satisfaction has a stronger impact on the intention to stay.

Originality/value

The present study utilizes the MSQ satisfaction themes as intrinsic and extrinsic motivators: employees' perceived feelings before the actual work process starts (intrinsic) and work outcomes occur (extrinsic). It examines employee contentment through these perceived feelings and organizational context, providing important research and practice implications.

Details

Evidence-based HRM: a Global Forum for Empirical Scholarship, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-3983

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 October 2019

Geunpil Ryu and Seong-Gin Moon

This study aims to examine the effect of workplace learning experience and intrinsic learning motive on job satisfaction and organizational commitment. In addition, the…

1823

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the effect of workplace learning experience and intrinsic learning motive on job satisfaction and organizational commitment. In addition, the study examined the moderating effect of intrinsic learning motives on the relationship between learning experience and job satisfaction and organizational commitment.

Design/methodology/approach

The current research used the Human Capital Corporate Panel survey data set, which aimed to explore how human resource development practices influence corporate performance. In all, 10,003 samples from 441 companies were used for data analysis.

Findings

Results indicate that taking part in workplace learning programs positively affects job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Likewise, intrinsic learning motives are also positively related to work attitudes. However, no interaction effect between the intrinsic learning motive and the learning experience was found, which may imply that an autonomous extrinsic learning motive is a better predictor for explaining job satisfaction than is a purely intrinsic learning motive within an organizational context.

Originality/value

Little research has examined the actual effect of workplace learning programs on employees’ attitudes regarding job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Furthermore, to the authors’ knowledge, no research has examined the moderating effect of intrinsic learning motive with workplace learning experience on employees’ positive work attitudes.

Details

Journal of Workplace Learning, vol. 31 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-5626

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 May 2020

Michael K. Mickson, Alex Anlesinya and Ebenezer Malcalm

This study examines the mediation role of diversity climate in the relationship between transformational leadership, transactional leadership and job satisfaction from the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines the mediation role of diversity climate in the relationship between transformational leadership, transactional leadership and job satisfaction from the two-factor perspectives of intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfactions among local government servants in Ghana.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses cross-sectional data from 322 employees in local government service of Ghana in the Greater Accra Region using purposive and stratified sampling methods. Bootstrapping method of mediation estimated using structural equation modelling is employed to test the hypothesized relationships.

Findings

The results find a differential effect of leadership behaviours on intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction, where transformation and transactional leadership relate positively to intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction respectively. Furthermore, the empirical findings reveal that diversity climate has mediated the relationship between transformational leadership and intrinsic job satisfaction, implying that diversity climate is an important process through which transformational leadership behaviours can elicit intrinsic job satisfaction among local government servants. Surprisingly, however, diversity climate does not serve as an important transmission mechanism in the relationship between transactional leadership and extrinsic job satisfaction.

Practical implications

This means that public sector leaders or managers can improve intrinsic job satisfaction among local government servants and by extension public sector employees by creating an ideal climate for diversity by transforming the work environment through leadership, specifically, transformational leadership behaviours.

Originality/value

Although studies abound on the link between leadership behaviours (transformational and transactional) and job satisfaction, the mediating effect of diversity climate as a mechanism in this relationship is very scarce and rare to find. Hence, our study has made original contributions to theory and practice by highlighting the role of diversity climate in converting leadership behaviours, specifically; transformational leadership into creating intrinsically satisfied workers in the public sector.

Details

World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5961

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2006

Osman M. Karatepe and Mehmet Tekinkus

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of work‐family conflict, emotional exhaustion, and intrinsic motivation on front‐line employees' job performance…

12460

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of work‐family conflict, emotional exhaustion, and intrinsic motivation on front‐line employees' job performance, job satisfaction, and affective organizational commitment in Turkish retail banks as its setting.

Design/methodology/approach

A total number of 363 usable questionnaires were personally retrieved from front‐line employees in the research location. The relevant writings were canvassed in order to design the survey instrument. The hypothesized relationships were tested using LISREL 8.30 through path analysis.

Findings

Results reveal that work‐family conflict increased emotional exhaustion and decreased job satisfaction. Intrinsic motivation was found to exert a significant negative impact on emotional exhaustion. Results demonstrate that high levels of intrinsic motivation resulted in high levels of job performance, job satisfaction, and affective commitment to the organization. The empirical results also indicate that emotional exhaustion exerted a significant negative effect on job satisfaction. As hypothesized, high levels of job performance led to increased job satisfaction. However, work‐family conflict and emotional exhaustion did not have any significant effects on job performance and affective organizational commitment. As expected, the empirical results provided support for the significant positive effects of job performance and job satisfaction on affective organizational commitment.

Research limitations/implications

Job performance was operationalized via self‐report measure. In future research, incorporating non‐work variables such as family, leisure and life satisfaction into the research model would shed further light on one's understanding about the relationships of work‐family conflict and emotional exhaustion with those variables.

Practical implications

Top managements of banks should be committed to establishing and maintaining family‐supportive work environments. By doing so, properly trained bank managers can create a culture that helps front‐line employees balance work requirements with non‐work responsibilities. In addition, these managers should provide ongoing training programs, which aim to teach front‐line employees how to manage time effectively and resolve problems associated with work‐family conflict and emotional exhaustion.

Originality/value

The present study makes useful additions to the current knowledge base by investigating the effects of work‐family conflict and intrinsic motivation on emotional exhaustion and the effects of work‐family conflict and emotional exhaustion on various job outcomes of front‐line bank employees in a developing economy.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Romina García-Chas, Edelmira Neira-Fontela and Concepción Varela-Neira

The purpose of this investigation is to analyze the role of perceived organizational support (POS) and intrinsic motivation in the relationship between high-performance…

5467

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this investigation is to analyze the role of perceived organizational support (POS) and intrinsic motivation in the relationship between high-performance work systems (HPWS) and job satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample used in this study consists of 180 engineers from 25 companies. The model entails a cross-level moderated mediation process that was tested using multilevel structural equation modeling.

Findings

This research shows that the effect of HPWS via POS on job satisfaction is stronger among engineers with low intrinsic motivation than engineers with high intrinsic motivation.

Practical implications

Given the findings of this paper, organizations are advised to consider the importance of HPWS perceptions and intrinsic motivation to help strengthen engineer satisfaction.

Originality/value

This is the first study to provide evidence for the mediating effect of POS in the relationship between employees’ shared perceptions of the HPWS implemented at their companies and their job satisfaction, and the moderating role of employee intrinsic motivation in the relationship between POS resulting from HPWS and job satisfaction.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 September 2018

Alborz Gheitani, Saheb Imani, Nader Seyyedamiri and Pantea Foroudi

In line with the general purpose mentioned, this paper aims to determine the impact of the Islamic work ethic (IWE) on job satisfaction and organizational commitment among…

2614

Abstract

Purpose

In line with the general purpose mentioned, this paper aims to determine the impact of the Islamic work ethic (IWE) on job satisfaction and organizational commitment among the employees of Bank Maskan by examining the mediating role of intrinsic motivation.

Design/methodology/approach

Analysis of data obtained from 220 questionnaires related to research variables with AMOS software shows a positive and significant relationship between IWE and job satisfaction and organizational commitment with the mediating role of intrinsic motivation.

Findings

The findings revealed a direct effect of IWE on job satisfaction, but there was no direct significant relationship between this variable and organizational commitment. Also, intrinsic motivation plays a partial and completely mediatory role in the relationship between IWE and job satisfaction and between IWE and organizational commitment.

Research limitations/implications

The impact of participation in strategic planning on managers’ creation of budgetary slack: The mediating role of autonomous motivation and affective organizational commitment.

Originality/value

As the nature of bank employees’ work is such that it confronts them with numerous ethical choices, the adherence to ethical standards, particularly IWE, can greatly affect their enthusiasm and, as a result, their satisfaction and organizational commitment.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 May 2021

Pei-Chi Chen and Nai-Wen Chi

Based on the service-profit chain perspective, this study investigates whether service-oriented human resource practices can enhance customer outcomes through motivational…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on the service-profit chain perspective, this study investigates whether service-oriented human resource practices can enhance customer outcomes through motivational mechanisms (i.e. intrinsic/extrinsic satisfaction) as well as emotional mechanisms (i.e. emotional labor strategies).

Design/methodology/approach

This study collected paired data from 220 service workers and their customers at different time points from 80 service firms. Multilevel path-analysis was conducted to test the proposed hypotheses.

Findings

Our results indicate that firm-level extensive training is positively related to service workers' intrinsic job satisfaction, which in turn increases deep acting. In addition, firm-level incentive compensation is positively associated with service workers' extrinsic job satisfaction, which in turn reduces surface acting. Finally, service employee's deep acting enhances customer loyalty and willingness to recommend via customer satisfaction.

Practical implications

The service organization should (1) stress the importance of incentive compensation to decrease surface acting via enhancing extrinsic job satisfaction and (2) provide extensive service training to improve service employees' intrinsic satisfaction and deep acting, leading to favorable customer outcomes.

Originality/value

The present study identifies the critical roles of motivational and emotional mechanisms in transferring service-oriented human resource practices to customer outcomes and employing rigorous research design to enhance the internal/external validity of our findings.

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