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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1974

L.N. WILLMORE

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the structural changes and pattern of specialisation that followed the formation of the Central American Common Market (CACM) in…

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the structural changes and pattern of specialisation that followed the formation of the Central American Common Market (CACM) in the early 1960s. In the first section it is shown that the fear did exist that trade‐creating and “backwash” effects would dominate as a result of unrestricted free trade in the region. In sections two and three, evidence is presented to suggest that these fears have proved to be largely unfounded. The operation of market forces has led to an unplanned reciprocal exchange of manufactures for manufactures and non‐manufactures for non‐manufactures. Moreover, most of the structural changes within the manufacturing sector appear to have taken the form of intra‐industry specialisation, i.e. specialisation in the differentiated products of an industry with no need to abandon entire high‐cost industries.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2003

Alexander Pons, Hassan Aljifri and Khalid Fourati

This paper focuses on the disparity that exists between Arab and non‐Arab trading blocs and the potential that e‐commerce offers in narrowing this gap. The current Arab…

4432

Abstract

This paper focuses on the disparity that exists between Arab and non‐Arab trading blocs and the potential that e‐commerce offers in narrowing this gap. The current Arab intra‐trade state of affairs is analyzed, targeting potential trade opportunities. These prospects are evaluated, along with the adoption of technology to render advantages to the Arab world. Many countries have and continue to benefit from the acceptance of e‐commerce; understanding its applicability and effectiveness beyond and within the Arab trading blocs is of vital importance to increase trade. Our analysis presents a perspective on regional trade and utilization of technology within the global community and broadening trade possibilities among Arab countries.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 November 2020

Dionysios Karavidas

With the use of a two-region monopolistically competitive model, the paper primarly studies how unilateral changes in a country's intra-regional and/or inter-national…

Abstract

Purpose

With the use of a two-region monopolistically competitive model, the paper primarly studies how unilateral changes in a country's intra-regional and/or inter-national transport costs affect its own and its trading partner's welfare. Moreover, by considering a three-region monopolistically competitive model that consists of an external region and two integrated regions, with the one having a location advantage with respect to the external market, the paper studies how within-country asymmetries in transport costs affect trading partner's welfare.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper examines how investments in the infrastructure affect welfare in the home country and in its trading partner by primarily using a model with direction-specific intra-regional and inter-national trade costs. Moreover, it focuses on the within-country asymmetries in transportation costs and their impacts on trading partners' welfare.

Findings

The first model shows that a unilateral reduction in a country's transport costs is beneficial for its domestic firms, while it hurts firms located in its trading partner country. Other findings show that an equal bilateral reduction in inter-national transport costs is a Pareto improvement, since it is beneficial for both countries. The second model shows that a reduction in intra-regional transport costs benefits the two integrated regions, while it has no impact on the welfare of the external region.

Originality/value

Two monopolistically competitive models are considered, in order to study how investments in the infrastructure affect welfare in the home country and in its trading partner. Interestingly, the models sheds light on an important mechanism, that of firm-delocation effect.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 48 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 30 June 2004

Alan M Rugman

Since the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) of 1994, the economic interdependence of Canada and the United States has continued to grow. With Mexico now…

Abstract

Since the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) of 1994, the economic interdependence of Canada and the United States has continued to grow. With Mexico now beginning to integrate itself much more strongly with the U.S. economy, NAFTA has emerged as a strong economic block with nearly as high a degree of integration as the E.U. Furthermore, NAFTA’s economic integration is growing at a faster rate. The data to support these findings are examined in this paper.

Details

North American Economic and Financial Integration
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-094-4

Article
Publication date: 11 March 2011

Louise Curran and Soledad Zignago

This paper aims to exploit a new trade database to explore the extent to which trade, and the industrial division of labor which it represents, is regional in nature.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to exploit a new trade database to explore the extent to which trade, and the industrial division of labor which it represents, is regional in nature.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis focuses especially on intermediates trade, in three key regions – the EU, NAFTA and ASEAN+3 – which together represent 78 percent of global trade.

Findings

The results indicate that levels of regional integration in trade and changes in that integration vary by region and by direction of flow. Notably, the EU has higher levels of intra‐regional trade than the other two. These results vary by technology, with high‐tech trade less regionally biased than others.

Originality/value

Trade data has been little used in the debate on the regionalization of business activity. In addition, the paper highlights trends, not just in total trade, but within intermediate products and by technology.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 February 2022

Ryuichi Shibasaki, Masahiro Abe, Wataru Sato, Naoki Otani, Atsushi Nakagawa and Hitoshi Onodera

This study predicts the growth of Africa's international trade from 2011 to 2040 by accounting for the uncertainties in the continent.

Abstract

Purpose

This study predicts the growth of Africa's international trade from 2011 to 2040 by accounting for the uncertainties in the continent.

Design/methodology/approach

This study applies a scenario planning method (SPM) to develop multiple future scenarios considering uncertainties inherent in African socio-economies related to the success or failure of economic and industrial policies (EIPs) and economic corridor development policies (ECDPs). Subsequently, based on these future scenarios, the growth of African international trade from 2011 to 2040 is predicted using the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) model.

Findings

The predictions reveal that if the EIPs and the ECDPs are successfully implemented, Africa, as a whole, will experience a significant increase in trade, estimated at US$ 1,905 billion and US$ 1,599 billion for exports and imports, respectively, compared to the scenario in which they fail. However, the effects vary greatly by country or region and industrial sector. The results also show that African intra-regional trade is rapidly expanding and is the second-largest after trade with Europe followed by other continents.

Originality/value

SPM, which allows us to reflect the uncertainties affecting African international trade prediction, is applied to build the future scenarios. The study comprehensively predicts African future international trade by setting a wide range of exogenous variables and parameters (input conditions for the GTAP model) related to EIPs and ECDPs.

Details

Maritime Business Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2397-3757

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 December 2017

Philippe De Lombaerde

African regional integration and market-building processes have not lived up to their expectations in terms of the development of intra-regional international business and…

Abstract

Purpose

African regional integration and market-building processes have not lived up to their expectations in terms of the development of intra-regional international business and the contribution to reaching broader socioeconomic development goals. The purpose of this paper is to critically reflect on the indicator-based monitoring tools that have been designed and used to assess these processes.

Design/methodology/approach

The assessment is based on a comparative analysis of all relevant cases for which information is publicly available. Complementary expert opinion has also been taken into account.

Findings

This study finds that there is room for improvement of the existing monitoring systems, both with respect to their governance and technical aspects, so that they can have more impact on the respective integration processes and can better guide the business strategies.

Originality/value

This is the first systematic comparative assessment of indicator-based monitoring systems for African regional integration.

Details

critical perspectives on international business, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-2043

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 1998

Naresh K. Malhotra, James Agarwal and Imad Baalbaki

While demand for many products has become more homogeneous across countries, cultural factors have strongly inhibited this change as well. In a multicultural world…

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Abstract

While demand for many products has become more homogeneous across countries, cultural factors have strongly inhibited this change as well. In a multicultural world, cultural heterogeneity will continue to remain the most significant barrier to one global market. Cultures are resilient and enduring and so is the concept of global multiculturalism. At the global level, trading blocs may be viewed as a cluster of geographically close countries that share abstract and/or material culture in varying degrees. It is interesting to note that the three major regional trading blocs (i.e. the European Union, North American Free Trade Agreement, and the Association of South East Asian Nations) can be characterized by significant differences in culture. With the rapid emergence of trading blocs in the multicultural market, our paper attempts to meet several objectives. First, we discuss the growing importance and underlying motives of regional trading blocs in a multicultural setting. The level of trading arrangements between nations is described and a brief overview of the three major trading blocs is then presented. The level of heterogeneity of each trading bloc is examined with implications for market segmentation. The critical role of strategic alliances in the context of regional trading blocs is discussed next. Finally, we recommend marketing strategies for firms marketing to countries within its trading bloc as well as to countries outside its trading bloc.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 15 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 August 2013

Tsunehiro Otsuki, Keiichiro Honda and John S. Wilson

The purpose of this study is to discuss the progress and challenges of South Asia in trade liberalization and facilitation, and to quantitatively demonstrate the potential…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to discuss the progress and challenges of South Asia in trade liberalization and facilitation, and to quantitatively demonstrate the potential benefits of trade facilitation in South Asia.

Design/methodology/approach

The quantitative study simulates the trade gains to the region based on the gravity model estimation for 101 world countries.

Findings

The gains to the region are estimated to be $31 billion in 2007 and $26 billion in 2010 if South Asia and the “rest of the world” raised levels of trade facilitation halfway to the world average. Of those trade gains, about 80 per cent (in 2007) and 67 per cent (in 2010) of the total gains to South Asia will be generated from South Asia's own efforts.

Originality/value

Thus this study demonstrates the importance of trade facilitation as an instrument for expansion of trade both within South Asia and with the rest of the world, as well as policy recommendations regarding the priority area for reform.

Details

South Asian Journal of Global Business Research, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-4457

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2003

Ransford W. Palmer and Dawn Richards Elliott

This paper examines the principal factors affecting the growth of intra‐group trade for four Latin American and Caribbean economic groups. Its findings suggest that the…

Abstract

This paper examines the principal factors affecting the growth of intra‐group trade for four Latin American and Caribbean economic groups. Its findings suggest that the share of a group member's leading export sold within the group is an important determinant of intra‐group trade. For member countries that depend heavily on extra‐group markets, intra‐group trade is indirectly affected by the impact of extra‐group trade on gross domestic product.

Details

International Journal of Development Issues, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1446-8956

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