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International specialisation in production via thedevelopment of international trade and factormovements is the basis of much of the developedworld′s prosperity. This…
International specialisation in production via the development of international trade and factor movements is the basis of much of the developed world′s prosperity. This article is concerned with the forces that drive specialisation in manufacturing in the developed countries, and particularly the role played by regional economic integration in the European Community. A distinction is drawn between specialisation that takes place within (intra) and between (inter) industries with emphasis here on the latter. Specifically, the analysis seeks to explain differences in the sectoral composition of industry between pairs of countries using regression analysis. Factor endowments, per capita incomes and country size are found to influence industrial similarity. Membership of the EC and participation in the EC‐EFTA free trade areas are associated with increased inter‐industry specialisation. Movement towards a European Economic Space could accentuate this phenomenon, with important adjustment implications.
This paper proposes to use changes in intra‐industry specialization indicators over the period 1996‐2008 to assess the potential for factor adjustment pressures that may…
This paper proposes to use changes in intra‐industry specialization indicators over the period 1996‐2008 to assess the potential for factor adjustment pressures that may arise in the USA if the proposed USA‐Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement (TPA) is implemented. Results show that there is considerable scope for intra‐industry specialization between Colombia and the USA. The TPA should result in a larger increase in US exports to Colombia than US imports from Colombia, because Colombian exporters face much lower tariffs in the USA market than do US exporters in the Colombian market. Given the tariff asymmetry, scope for intra‐industry specialization, the relatively large size of the US market, and the small number of US industries that are likely to encounter factor adjustment pressures, the USA should ratify the agreement immediately.
Changes in intra‐industry specialization indicators are used to identify US industries that may face factor adjustment pressures as a result of the proposed USA‐Colombia TPA.
There is considerable scope for intra‐industry specialization between Colombia and the USA. Few US industries will be candidates for factor adjustment pressures.
The USA should ratify the TPA.
A new methodology is used to assess potential factor adjustment pressures associated with a TPA.
The purpose of this paper is to analyse the structural changes and pattern of specialisation that followed the formation of the Central American Common Market (CACM) in…
The purpose of this paper is to analyse the structural changes and pattern of specialisation that followed the formation of the Central American Common Market (CACM) in the early 1960s. In the first section it is shown that the fear did exist that trade‐creating and “backwash” effects would dominate as a result of unrestricted free trade in the region. In sections two and three, evidence is presented to suggest that these fears have proved to be largely unfounded. The operation of market forces has led to an unplanned reciprocal exchange of manufactures for manufactures and non‐manufactures for non‐manufactures. Moreover, most of the structural changes within the manufacturing sector appear to have taken the form of intra‐industry specialisation, i.e. specialisation in the differentiated products of an industry with no need to abandon entire high‐cost industries.
The distinction between nominal and effective tariffs (or protection) is well established in the theoretical literature, albeit in the context of the traditional analysis…
The distinction between nominal and effective tariffs (or protection) is well established in the theoretical literature, albeit in the context of the traditional analysis of inter‐industry trade flows. This analysis is based upon assumptions such as product and production homogeneity, non‐increasing returns, armslength trade, and small open economy country conditions. Relaxation of some or all of these assumptions has direct implications for effective protection analysis under any type of trade flows. As is now widely recognised, however, relaxation of these assumptions is also likely to be associated with intra‐industry specialisation and exchange. It is to this wider issue of effective protection analysis in the context of “within‐industry” specialisation (vertical and/or horizontal) and of two‐way trade, that this paper is addressed.
1982 US intra‐industry trade (IIT) for 308 four‐digit manufacturingproducts is related to industry characteristics in a cross‐sectionregression study of the sources of…
1982 US intra‐industry trade (IIT) for 308 four‐digit manufacturing products is related to industry characteristics in a cross‐section regression study of the sources of two‐way trade. Results indicate the empirical relevance of models which present IIT as the result of international external economies in the production of differentiated producers goods. IIT as a means of satisfying consumers′ tastes for variety does not seem to be important, but oligopoly models of two‐way trade in consumer goods are supported owing to the association with concentration ratios. In contrast to recent studies which concluded that scale economies inhibit IIT in manufactured products, an examination of four different proxies for internal economies reveals that neither IIT nor inter‐industry trade based on comparative advantage is influenced significantly by scale effects, whether measured by size of establishment or by the productivity advantages of large plants.
This article modifies a framework developed in industrial organisation analysis to identify the nature of the gains associated with pure intra‐industry exchange, and to…
This article modifies a framework developed in industrial organisation analysis to identify the nature of the gains associated with pure intra‐industry exchange, and to isolate the factors which may influence their magnitude. The analysis suggests that since the magnitude of any gains is dependent on a number of variables no general statements can be made about the gains from intra‐industry exchange relative to inter‐industry exchange.
It seems to be well understood that the simultaneous import and export of goods which have different production functions, but which are aggregated into the same industry…
It seems to be well understood that the simultaneous import and export of goods which have different production functions, but which are aggregated into the same industry in classification schemes such as the SITC, is quite consistent with the standard trade theory of the Heckscher‐Ohlin‐Samuelson (HOS) model. For example, Grubel and Lloyd (1975, p.87) admit that two‐way trade in products such as wood and metal furniture, or nylon and wool yarn, which have similar end uses but different input requirements, can be explained readily by the HOS model (1979, p. 88). Gray explicitly distinguishes between “categorical aggregation” which occurs when there is two‐way trade in goods with different production functions and is consistent with the HOS model, and “true intra‐industry trade” which occurs when a country imports and exports “goods with virtually identical production functions”.