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1 – 10 of over 79000
Article
Publication date: 9 September 2022

Stephen Case, Charlie E. Sutton, Joanne Greenhalgh, Mark Monaghan and Judy Wright

This study aims to examine the extent to which “What Works” reviews in youth justice enable understanding of the features of effectiveness (what works, for whom, in what…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the extent to which “What Works” reviews in youth justice enable understanding of the features of effectiveness (what works, for whom, in what circumstances and why?) specified in the Effects–Mechanisms–Moderators–Implementation–Economic cost (EMMIE) framework.

Design/methodology/approach

The EMMIE framework examined findings within a sample of “What Works” style reviews of preventative youth justice intervention effectiveness.

Findings

“What Works” style reviews of evaluations of preventative youth justice interventions often omit the requisite details required to examine all of the necessary elements of effectiveness contained within the EMMIE framework. While effectiveness measures were typically provided, the dominant evaluation evidence-base struggles to consider moderators of effect, mechanisms of change, implementation differences and cost-effectiveness. Therefore, “What Works” samples cannot facilitate sufficient understanding of “what works for whom, in what circumstances and why?”. The authors argue that Realist Synthesis can fill this gap and shed light on the contexts that shape the mechanisms through which youth justice interventions work.

Originality/value

The authors extended the approach adopted by an earlier review of effectiveness reviews (Tompson et al., 2020), considering more recent reviews of the effectiveness of preventative interventions using the EMMIE framework. Unlike previous reviews, the authors prioritised the utility of the EMMIE framework for assessing the factors affecting the effectiveness of preventative interventions in youth justice.

Details

Safer Communities, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 September 2022

Paul Lyons

The primary purpose of this paper is to identify for practitioners and readers of this journal several interventions represented in empirical research that have shown…

Abstract

Purpose

The primary purpose of this paper is to identify for practitioners and readers of this journal several interventions represented in empirical research that have shown promise with regard to the stimulation and/or reinforcement of employee work engagement. The aim is to identify a range of interventions that managers, supervisors or coaches may consider for a given setting as they go about enabling employee learning and performance improvement.

Design/methodology/approach

Examination of the research literature on work engagement provided initial guidance for study of interventions that link to enhancement and/or reinforcement of employee work engagement. Information was found that aids in developing an understanding of the dynamics of work engagement as well as identifying a variety of interventions successfully applied in many organizations in several countries. The fundamental approach used in the study is a scoping review. Overall, the paper is generally discursive and details are offered based on review of empirical study and meta-analyses.

Findings

Findings are represented by a detailed explanation of the construct of work engagement, its theoretical grounding and its relationship with performance and achievement. A summary of interventions identified across many empirical studies provides guidance for managers and leaders, primarily, and organizations with regard to interventions to aid with employee learning, growth and performance improvement.

Research limitations/implications

Research implications deal mainly with issues linked to the concept of work engagement and the primary tool used for its measurement.

Practical implications

Substantial information is presented to give a manager, coach or supervisor a detailed view of the construct of work engagement and how one may influence employee growth with regard to the concept. Several interventions are identified, all of which have been shown to be effective. The manager can examine these interventions and make choices about how to influence the employees in her/his unit.

Originality/value

While hundreds of studies of work engagement have identified and highlighted a variety of interventions used to stimulate or reinforce work engagement with employees, there have been few efforts made to provide practitioners/managers with an array of interventions that have been shown, repeatedly, to be effective. The present study provides such an array.

Details

Journal of Workplace Learning, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-5626

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 August 2022

Ariel M.S. Richer and Ariel L. Roddy

The purpose of the current study is to conduct a systematic review of peer-reviewed work on culturally tailored interventions for alcohol and drug use in Indigenous adults…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the current study is to conduct a systematic review of peer-reviewed work on culturally tailored interventions for alcohol and drug use in Indigenous adults in North America. Substance use has been reported as a health concern for many Indigenous communities. Indigenous groups experienced the highest drug overdose death rates in 2015, the largest percentage increase in the number of deaths over time from 1999 to 2015 compared to any other racial group. However, few Indigenous individuals report participating in treatment for alcohol or drug use, which may reflect the limited engagement that Indigenous groups have with treatment options that are accessible, effective and culturally integrative.

Design/methodology/approach

Electronic searches were conducted from 2000 to April 21, 2021, using PsycINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, MEDLINE and PubMed. Two reviewers classified abstracts for study inclusion, resulting in 18 studies.

Findings

Most studies were conducted in the USA (89%). Interventions were largely implemented in Tribal/rural settings (61%), with a minority implemented in both Tribal and urban contexts (11%). Study samples ranged from 4 to 742 clients. Interventions were most often conducted in residential treatment settings (39%). Only one (6%) intervention focused on opioid use among Indigenous people. Most interventions addressed the use of both drugs and alcohol (72%), with only three (17%) interventions specifically intended to reduce alcohol use.

Originality/value

The results of this research lend insight into the characteristics of culturally integrative treatment options for Indigenous groups and highlight the need for increased investment in research related to culturally tailored treatment across the diverse landscape of Indigenous populations.

Details

The Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-6228

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 August 2022

Mo Chen and Shelley Kreibich

This study aims to use a sequentially implemented intervention package to reduce the occurrence of perseverative requesting and other problem behavior in a young girl with…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to use a sequentially implemented intervention package to reduce the occurrence of perseverative requesting and other problem behavior in a young girl with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

Design/methodology/approach

In this single-case study, subsequent to a functional analysis and a preference assessment, an intervention package consisting of three components (i.e. a tolerance for delay to reinforcement, choice-making and visual schedule) was implemented sequentially to address perseverative requesting and other problem behavior maintained by access to preferred items/activities in a young girl with ASD.

Findings

Via the intervention package, the girl demonstrated higher self-control skills (i.e. delaying access to preferred items/activities, choosing more preferred items/activities with delayed access over less preferred ones with immediate access, completing tasks before having access to preferred items/activities) with a reduction of perseverative requesting or other problem behavior.

Originality/value

The current case study presents concrete steps that could be applied to address tangible-maintained perseverative requesting using more natural and educationally relevant signals while improving the child’s appropriate skills (e.g. delay to reinforcement, self-control and task engagement).

Details

Advances in Autism, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3868

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 August 2022

James Avey, Alexander Newman and Kendall Herbert

The purpose of this study was to address calls for and test efficacy of an app based, short term resilience intervention for individual benefit.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to address calls for and test efficacy of an app based, short term resilience intervention for individual benefit.

Design/methodology/approach

Three independent samples of participants were assessed to determine the efficacy of an employee focused resilience intervention. Study 1 includes a cross sectional validation of the approach. Study 2 examines validity of the intervention using pre- and post-tests. Study 3 utilizes random assignment of groups (treatment and control) to determine invention results on resilience and individual psychological well-being.

Findings

Evidence suggests employees in the experimental group reported higher levels of resilience and psychological well-being as a result of the intervention. Further, the authors found no significant changes in resilience or psychological well-being amongst employees in the control group suggesting the intervention induced the effect.

Originality/value

Previous research attempting resilience interventions have been long, cumbersome and expensive for organizations. Basing the authors’ method on previous research regarded as micro interventions, this intervention is individualized, flexible and very cost effective for organizational application.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 June 2022

Mayur Trivedi, Minjan Patel, Divya Nair H and Bharati Sharma

As the investment in social and health protection remained poor in India, the most vulnerable citizens lack access to existing health related government initiatives with…

Abstract

Purpose

As the investment in social and health protection remained poor in India, the most vulnerable citizens lack access to existing health related government initiatives with transformational benefits due mostly to the lack of “accurate information”. The purpose of this paper is to explore and demonstrate the impact of participation of the community through a structured intervention that promotes awareness, enables the community to ensure entitlements, and enhances the utilization of government initiatives.

Design/methodology/approach

Through a baseline–endline study using a quasi-experimental design, this research provides empirical evidence of such intervention on awareness and utilization of health, nutrition and developmental initiatives. It involved survey of 400 households from the four study locations before and after the interventions. The pre-post estimation in the “proportion of respondents who were fully aware” was analyzed to measure changes in knowledge. Mc-Nemar test was applied to measure the statistical significance of these changes.

Findings

The results indicate that the intervention of “empowerment centers” has increased knowledge and utilization of the various government schemes, services and facilities that are routine and offer benefits all household members, in general, and women as well as children, in particular. The intervention was found to be successful in improving the local governance systems; empowering communities, linking communities and local level government systems across all sectors, as well as bringing in inter-sectoral linkages across governments systems.

Research limitations/implications

Although there have been many interventions of community participation for reducing inequities across the globe, there is a dearth of documentation and evidence generation. More efforts are required to evaluate such interventions, identify which interventions work and how they can be adapted to different contexts. This also requires exploration of the social processes and contextual realities underlying these interventions.

Originality/value

To the best knowledge of the authors, this research is one-of-its-kind that assessed an intervention targeting cross-cutting schemes and services, beyond just health interventions. The evidence points to the success of grassroots level inter-sectoral community actions, in the form of empowerment centers, to improve awareness and utilization of government interventions through participatory governance, and points to the expanding scope of learning and adapting such interventions to different contexts and scopes.

Details

International Journal of Health Governance, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-4631

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 July 2022

Yingge Zhou, Xindong Ye and Yujiao Liu

The purpose of this study is to build a personalized learning intervention system, which can support students' personalized learning, improve teachers' teaching efficiency…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to build a personalized learning intervention system, which can support students' personalized learning, improve teachers' teaching efficiency and students' learning effect.

Design/methodology/approach

The research proposes a personalized learning intervention method based on a collaborative filtering algorithm and knowledge map. The application of knowledge map makes learning content organized, and the use of collaborative filtering algorithm makes it possible to provide personalized learning recommendations for students. This personalized learning intervention system can monitor students' learning development and achieve the combination of personalized and efficiency. For the study, 152 seventh graders were assigned to a control group and an experimental group. Traditional learning intervention was used in the control group, and individualized learning intervention was used in the experimental group.

Findings

SPSS was used for data organization and analysis. The effectiveness of the personalized learning intervention system is verified by quasi-experimental research, and the influence of the system on students' learning effect is discussed. The result found that personalized learning interventions were more effective than traditional approaches in improving students’ achievement. However, for students of different learning levels, personalized learning intervention system has different effects on learning confidence and learning anxiety.

Originality/value

The personalized learning intervention system based on the collaborative filtering algorithm and knowledge map is effective in improving learning effect. And, it also has a certain influence on students' psychology.

Details

Interactive Technology and Smart Education, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-5659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 July 2022

Sue Ryan, Alaw Eldridge, Cormac Duffy, Ellen Crawley and Caroline O'Brien

This study aims to explore the demographic and reconviction data of individuals who had engaged in an established Intensive Intervention and Risk Management Service, a…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the demographic and reconviction data of individuals who had engaged in an established Intensive Intervention and Risk Management Service, a community service within the offender personality disorder pathway (OPD).

Design/methodology/approach

Demographic information and reconviction data from the Police National Computer was accessed for all participants (n = 69) released to the service over a 10-year period (2008– 2018), 45 of who met criteria to be included in the study. Their intervention period spans custody to community, with an expected period of 2 years engagement upon release.

Findings

Participants in the service had experienced significant traumatic histories, with four or more adverse childhood experiences. Individuals had a mean of 17 convictions for violent and/or sexual offences and an average of 11 years in custody prior to release. The average length of intervention at Resettle in the community was almost 19 months, with an additional minimum of six months in-reach prior to release. A total of 60% of individuals were recalled back to custody at least once during their intervention, with this being more likely for those who had been convicted of a violent rather than sexual offence. Within the group who were reconvicted, the reconvictions were for less serious offences than the index offence, with only 16% being convicted of an indictable offence. Almost two-thirds (64.4%) did not receive a further conviction post-intervention in the follow-up period.

Research limitations/implications

This follow-up study focused upon demographic and reconviction data from one established IIRMS. Although findings are not necessarily generalisable to other IIRMS and OPD pathway services, the demographic and reconviction data has important learning for how services may reflect upon engaging with individuals whose needs and risks had not previously been adequately met and managed upon release. This data are useful learning, for what may help individuals with complex needs upon release into the community after long sentences and how to best meet their needs. There are aspects of the Resettle IIRMS approach which could be applied to non-specialist services to encourage a holistic, compassionate and relational approach to reaching those with complex needs who pose significant risks to others.

Practical implications

This follow-up study has provided access to participants’ engagement with an established IIRMS. Although participants “opt in” to the service whilst in custody, engagement on release becomes a probation licence condition; a fixed boundary regarding attendance and engagement which, although enables robust risk management and reduces the likelihood of drop-out, also raises consideration about choice and control. The four day per week service provides an intensive intervention, for those with complex needs and limited prior experience of living safely (with minimal risk to self or others) in the community. Participants were previously offered little hope of release or effective support because of their risk, need, complexity and, in some cases, concern about whether their risk could be effectively managed. Although not a panacea for all, the results are suggestive of a service that is navigating the boundary between “care and control” to good effect for future resettlement and desistance.

Originality/value

The findings are important for service providers, commissioners and the public purse. The results are useful for the national development of IIRMS. The findings are also important for prisoners and people on probation to inform their decision-making regarding intervention choices and hope for what may be achievable.

Details

The Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 July 2022

Minakshi Kumari and Makarand S. Kulkarni

The reported study aims at connecting the two crucial aspects of manufacturing of future, i.e. advanced analytics and digital simulation, with an objective to facilitate…

Abstract

Purpose

The reported study aims at connecting the two crucial aspects of manufacturing of future, i.e. advanced analytics and digital simulation, with an objective to facilitate real-time control of manufacturing operations. The work puts forward a framework for designing prescriptive decision support system for a multi-machine manufacturing environment.

Design/methodology/approach

The schema of the decision support system design begins with the development of a simulation model for a manufacturing shop floor. The developed model facilitates prediction followed by prescription. As a connecting link between prediction and prescription mechanism, heuristics for intervention have been proposed. Sequential design and simulation-based demonstration of activities that span from development of a multi-machine shop floor model; a prediction mechanism and a scheme of intervention that ultimately leads to prescription generation are the highlights of the current work.

Findings

The study reveals that the effect of intervention on the observed predictors varies from one another. For a machine under observation, subject to same intervention scheme, while two of the predictive measures namely penalty and desirability stabilize after a certain point, a third measure, i.e. complexity, shows either an increase or decrease in percent change. The work objectively establishes that intervention plans have to be evaluated for every machine as well as for every environmental variable and emphasizes the need for dynamic evaluation and control mechanism.

Originality/value

The proposed prescriptive control mechanism has been demonstrated through a case of a high pressure die casting (HPDC) manufacturer.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 122 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 28 June 2022

Claire Kearns Murphy, Louise Kemps, Catherine McDonough and Suzanne McDonough

Early interventions focusing on exercise and lifestyle are important for individuals with a diagnosis of psychosis due to increased risk of poor physical health and…

Abstract

Purpose

Early interventions focusing on exercise and lifestyle are important for individuals with a diagnosis of psychosis due to increased risk of poor physical health and reduced life expectancy. This study aims to test the feasibility of a multicomponent lifestyle intervention for individuals with first episode psychosis (FEP).

Design/methodology/approach

Individuals attending an Irish FEP service were invited to engage in an eight-week programme including individual and group exercise sessions, group educational sessions and one dietician consultation. Physical activity, physical health, mental health, cognition and personal goals measures were completed pre- and post-intervention and analysed using descriptive statistics. Feasibility data was collected via a non-standardised participant questionnaire and informal data on completion of measures and engagement with the programme.

Findings

Ten participants with a diagnosis of FEP completed the intervention. Participants were satisfied with the intervention and adherence rates were high for weekly individual gym sessions but lower for group exercise and education sessions. Mean time spent engaging in physical activity increased and sedentary behaviours decreased. Participants indicated increased readiness for change with 90% moving to the action or maintenance stages of change. Participants attained 74% of their personal goals. There were no changes in average body mass index, cognition or mental health. Data relating to blood pressure, blood tests and steps was missing or incomplete.

Originality/value

This study indicates an eight-week exercise and lifestyle programme is feasible and acceptable in a clinical setting. Recommendations relating to satisfaction, clinical markers and resource requirements are made for future studies.

Details

Irish Journal of Occupational Therapy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-8819

Keywords

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