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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2016

Melanie Sauerland, Svenja Mehlkopf, Alana C Krix and Anna Sagana

– The purpose of this paper is to test how modifying one’s alibi statement interacts with exposure to deceptive interrogation techniques.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test how modifying one’s alibi statement interacts with exposure to deceptive interrogation techniques.

Design/methodology/approach

In all, 90 participants walked about a university building for 15 minutes and either stole an envelope from a staff pigeonhole (guilty condition) or put the envelope there along the way (innocent condition). Subsequently, participants were asked to provide an alibi for the past 15 minutes. Guilty and half of the innocent participants were instructed to omit that they had been in the vicinity of the pigeonholes. The rest of the innocent participants were asked to tell the truth. Several days later, participants were questioned about six statements taken from their alibis, three of which contained altered information.

Findings

As expected, participants were largely blind to our alterations, with detection rates ranging from 1 to 36 percent. Contrary to cognitive load predictions, detection rates did not vary as a function of truthfulness. Rather, guilty participants were less likely to detect alterations than innocents.

Research limitations/implications

Memory distrust and guilty suspects’ aim to keep a low profile might be possible explanations for these findings.

Practical implications

It is recommended that law enforcement officers and other legal practitioners refrain from using deceptive interrogation techniques and such techniques that can cause inconsistencies in suspects’ reports. Researcher should make it their task to educate these professional groups about the natural occurrence of memory related, non-deceptive inconsistencies in successive statements.

Originality/value

This research uses a new methodology to study the effect of deceptive interrogation techniques on both innocent and guilty suspects. The findings are relevant for legal practitioners and researchers.

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2010

William R. King and Thomas M. Dunn

This paper aims to systematically compare the textbook‐based criminal justice and psychological literatures on detecting deception in field settings to determine the…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to systematically compare the textbook‐based criminal justice and psychological literatures on detecting deception in field settings to determine the accuracy of the criminal justice literature in this area.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 18 criminal justice textbooks covering detecting deception were systematically reviewed and coded. The alleged indicators of deception were then compared with the psychological literature on the valid indicators of deception.

Findings

Many criminal justice textbooks on interviewing, interrogation, and criminal investigation claim that there are numerous accurate indicators of deception which can be readily used in field settings. The comparison of these claims with the research in psychology indicates that a great deal of the information found in criminal justice textbooks is erroneous. Further review indicates that in controlled studies criminal justice practitioners rarely detect deception at levels greater than chance or comparison groups of non‐practitioners. It is exceedingly difficult to detect deception in field settings without the help of technology or complicated instruments or aids.

Practical implications

Much of the information in criminal justice textbooks on detecting deception is erroneous and may have negatively affected practitioners to the extent that they are unable to detect deception effectively. Textbooks on interviewing, interrogation, and criminal investigation should be circumspect regarding an individual's ability to detect deception in field settings. Texts should refrain from presenting deception detection as a simple and accurate science. Practitioners should be cautious when attempting to detect deception in field settings.

Originality/value

The criminal justice and psychological literatures on detecting deception have not been synthesized before. This information will be useful to criminal justice practitioners who seek to detect deception.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 25 May 2012

Timothy W. Armistead

The purpose of this paper is to discuss unresolved problems that are reflected in the social scientific research on the linguistic detection of deception in statements…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss unresolved problems that are reflected in the social scientific research on the linguistic detection of deception in statements, with particular attention to problems of methodology, practical utility for law enforcement statement analysts, and epistemology.

Design/methodology/approach

The author reviewed the design, data, statistical calculations, and findings of English language peer‐reviewed studies of the linguistic detection of deception in statements. In some cases, the author re‐analyzed the study data.

Findings

Social scientific research holds promise for the development of new methods of linguistic detection of deception that are more thoroughly validated than the linguistic methods law enforcement investigators have been using for many years. Nonetheless, published studies reflect one or more of the following sources of weakness in developing and evaluating detection models: the use of analytes (statements) of uncertain validity; the problematic universality and practical utility of linguistic variables; the widespread use of deficient proportion‐of‐stimuli‐correct “hit rate” calculations to assess the accuracy of detection methods; a possibly irresolvable epistemological limit to the ability of any linguistic detection method to prove deception without confirmation by means external to the analysis.

Research limitations/implications

The research was limited to English language studies in the linguistic detection of deception literature and to the re‐calculation of data in the research literature. Whether the paper has implications for future studies depends on the success of two arguments that are made: the published research projects in the field reflect one or more of four methodological problems that create doubt about the validity and/or the practical utility of their results; and the linguistic detection of deception is subject to an epistemological problem which theoretically limits the ability of any linguistic method of detection to establish with certainty the status of any particular questioned statement.

Originality/value

This is the first published paper to identify and discuss a possibly irresolvable epistemological issue in the detection of deception by linguistic means, as well as unresolved issues of methodology and of utility to law enforcement analysts that characterize the research and the detection models in this field. It is also the first published paper to deconstruct the simple hit rate (and its variants) in order to demonstrate its deficiencies.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 11 September 2015

Michael Welch

This chapter delves into the controversy over detention and interrogation in the war on terror carried out by American operatives. While attending to political, legal, and…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter delves into the controversy over detention and interrogation in the war on terror carried out by American operatives. While attending to political, legal, and ethical concerns, critical attention is directed at the manner by which certain interrogation techniques have been framed as being “scientific” and therefore effective in extracting truthful disclosures from terror suspects.

Methodology/approach

Drawing on extensive legal and medical literature, the critique offers a postmodern analysis by raising serious questions over the effectiveness and legitimacy of enhanced interrogation espoused by the Bush administration. By doing so, the conceits of the war on terror are exposed and confronted.

Findings

In 2014, the report of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence (Study of the CIA’s Detention and Interrogation Program) was unclassified and released to the public. Among other revelations, the document clearly shows that interrogators and their psychological consultants committed torture. In doing so, they often relied on medical knowledge for harming, rather than healing. Ethical and legal remedies aimed at correcting those problems are recommended.

Originality/value

The chapter delivers a sophisticated critique that blends recently revealed evidence of torture with postmodern interpretation. While casting doubt on the effectiveness and legitimacy of enhanced interrogation, discussion throws critical light on incidents of human rights abuses committed by health professionals. Paradoxically, those physicians and psychologists opted to use their medical skills and expertise to inflict suffering rather than alleviating it. Those acts constitute egregious ethical and legal violations that warrant prosecution.

Details

Terrorism and Counterterrorism Today
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-191-0

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Forensic Psychologists
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-960-1

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2021

Ika Sari Wahyuni-TD, Hasnah Haron and Yudi Fernando

This study aims to investigate the direct and indirect effects of good governance and fraud prevention on the performance of Zakat institutions.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the direct and indirect effects of good governance and fraud prevention on the performance of Zakat institutions.

Design/methodology/approach

A theoretical model was developed based on stakeholder theory, and data were collected from Indonesian Zakat institutions through convenience sampling design. In total, 142 data sets were analysed using partial least squares-structural equation modelling statistical software.

Findings

The results showed that good governance and fraud prevention significantly impact the performance of Zakat institutions. Yet, there was no significant influence of the fairness principle of good governance on Zakat performance in either direct or indirect relationships with fraud prevention.

Practical implications

The results indicated that Zakat institutions as trusted agencies should pay more attention to fairness implementations to avoid fraud. Furthermore, fairness is an early signal that accountants can use to detect either fraudulent or mismanaged Zakat distribution.

Originality/value

This paper provides the empirical justification for a theoretical model of Zakat performance that was conceptualized using good governance principles and Sharīʿah forensic accounting principles.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2017

Julie Courvoisier

The purpose of this paper is to highlight how police officers, lawyers and prosecutors experienced the implementation of the mandatory presence of a lawyer during police…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to highlight how police officers, lawyers and prosecutors experienced the implementation of the mandatory presence of a lawyer during police interrogation since 2011 in Switzerland.

Design/methodology/approach

This research is based on semi-structured interviews conducted with these practitioners in order to expose their points of view regarding this novelty.

Findings

The presence of a lawyer during interrogation allows for a proper protection of the defendant’s rights. Even if this new collaboration between police and lawyers goes better than expected, some issues still remain. Lawyers can be helpful in some cases, but they also can be considered as an obstacle, especially for psychological aspects and the building of a relationship between police officers and suspects. The issue of videotaped interrogations seems to be currently important in Switzerland and most of these practitioners see this practice as potentially beneficial.

Practical implications

Police interrogation and the question of the defendant’s rights is often mediated, in particular by addressing the issue of false confessions. Knowing the advantages and drawbacks of having a lawyer during interrogation and how everyone experiences the practice can allow to adjust and to improve this new collaboration.

Originality/value

The case of Switzerland with the presence of a lawyer during police interrogations is quite special. Understanding how it works and also compared to videotaping is highly relevant not only for practitioners in criminal justice system.

Details

Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 31 May 2011

Eric Beauregard and Tom Mieczkowski

The purpose of this study is to identify factors in sex offenders that act to facilitate or inhibit confession to police. Moreover, it aims to assess possible interactions…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to identify factors in sex offenders that act to facilitate or inhibit confession to police. Moreover, it aims to assess possible interactions and differences among factors related to confession specifically for child molesters and those who attack adult victims (rapists).

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use a combination of CHAID and conjunctive analysis to analyze interactions and factors significantly associated with confession to police in a sample of 624 sex offenders.

Findings

The study identifies several factors, as well as interactions among those factors, related to confession to the police. Moreover, rapists and child molesters present different factors related to confession, the former being more related to the criminal event as to the latter being more related to the offender characteristics.

Practical implications

The findings point to the conclusion that investigators need to pay careful attention to the type of victim when preparing the interrogation. Moreover, these crime event characteristics are readily observable factors that can improve the estimation of the likelihood of obtaining a confession. Finally, the several interactions identified confirm the complexity of the decision making leading to confession to police as well as the need to look at the factors in combination as opposed to individually.

Originality/value

This paper is the first attempt to apply a combination of innovative multivariate statistics (CHAID) and a qualitative technique (conjunctive analysis) to investigate factors leading to confession for two specific types of sex offenders.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2012

Durant Frantzen and Salih Hakan Can

Experimental research on lie detection has indicated that accuracy rates hover around chance but that police are significantly better in detecting deception in “high”…

Abstract

Purpose

Experimental research on lie detection has indicated that accuracy rates hover around chance but that police are significantly better in detecting deception in “high” stakes rather than “low” stakes situations. This paper has three objectives: to compare confidence levels in lie detection for property crime and violent crime detectives; to compare differences in confidence levels for custodial and noncustodial interviews; and to evaluate the relationship between interrogation techniques and lie detection confidence.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses self‐report data from a sample of Texas police detectives.

Findings

The results of this study show that property crime detectives are significantly more confident in their lie detection ability than are violent crime detectives. The results also highlight the fact that police detectives are significantly less confident in their lie detection abilities when the suspect has been provided his or her Miranda warnings.

Originality/value

The study highlights the disparity in findings derived from self‐reported data and experimental studies on veracity judgments and the need to account for contextual factors that ultimately impact the ecological validity of this research.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1986

John Townsend

A couple of years ago I met a man who was to become a good friend of mine. I remember that first meeting very well. I was at a large business conference in London and he…

Abstract

A couple of years ago I met a man who was to become a good friend of mine. I remember that first meeting very well. I was at a large business conference in London and he was one of the speakers. After the last session of the day, I caught up with him as he was leaving and invited him to have a drink with me. We talked for over three hours and I was sorry when he said he had to go. I thanked him for a fascinating and stimulating conversation and took the liberty of asking him whether we could meet again (he was a well‐known writer and lecturer and extremely busy) and to my delight he agreed. Later that evening, reflecting on the meeting, I suddenly realised that my new‐found friend had hardly said a word during those three hours. He is one of those people who are artists in making other people talk about themselves and that was why I found him so fascinating. Of course, since then I have got my own back and learned a lot about him too. But at that first meeting, he got me to like him simply by being interested in me.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 10 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

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