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Article
Publication date: 10 February 2012

Joana R.C. Kuntz and Jorge F.S. Gomes

The purpose of the present paper is to advance a testable model, rooted on well‐established control and self‐regulation theory principles, explaining the causal links…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the present paper is to advance a testable model, rooted on well‐established control and self‐regulation theory principles, explaining the causal links between change‐related sensemaking, interpretation, readiness and subsequent behavioural action.

Design/methodology/approach

Following a review of the two motivation theories and clarification of change‐related sensemaking, interpretation, and readiness concepts, the paper proposes a series of research propositions (illustrated by a conceptual model) clarifying how these concepts interact with self‐regulating mechanisms. In addition, the feedback model exemplifies how cognitive processes triggered by new knowledge structures relate to behavioural action.

Findings

The model expands upon other existing frameworks by allowing the examination of multi‐level factors that account for, and moderate causal links between, change‐related sensemaking, interpretation, readiness, and behavioural action. Suggestions for future research and guidelines for practice are outlined.

Practical implications

The variables and processes depicted in the model provide guidelines for change management in organisations, both for individuals and for groups. By eliciting important self‐regulating functions, change agents will likely facilitate sensemaking processes, positive interpretations of change, change readiness, and effective change behaviours.

Originality/value

This paper makes two contributions to the literature. First, it offers a comprehensive and dynamic account of the relationships between change‐related sensemaking, interpretation, readiness, and behavioural action decision‐making. Second, it elucidates the impact of human agency properties, namely the interplay of efficacy perceptions, social learning, and self‐regulating mechanisms on these change‐related cognitive processes and subsequent behavioural outcomes.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2016

Jukka-Pekka Bergman, Antti Knutas, Pasi Luukka, Ari Jantunen, Anssi Tarkiainen, Aleksander Karlik and Vladimir Platonov

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of cognitive diversity on strategic issue interpretation among the boards of directors making sense of sustainability…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of cognitive diversity on strategic issue interpretation among the boards of directors making sense of sustainability management. The study also investigated the centrality of the corporate sustainability issues to identify common interpretative patterns in the shared cognitive maps among the companies. In addition, the aim was to advance quantitative methods for the analysis of decision-makers’ cognition.

Design/methodology/approach

The research was an exploratory study analyzing 43 individual cognitive maps collected through surveys from the boards of nine cleantech companies. For the elicitation of the cognitive maps, the study used the hybrid cognitive mapping technique. The diversity of the shared cognitive maps was analyzed using the distance ratio formula and the graph analysis method with eigenvector to measure the centrality of the strategic issue interpretation in the maps.

Findings

This study provides evidence through the analysis of distance ratios on the existence of cognitive diversity among companies within the same industry. Surprisingly, despite the cognitive diversity, the study identified strong common patterns on strategic issue interpretations among the companies. In addition, the study shows that the sustainability management issues have gained minor attention from the boards of directors.

Research limitations/implications

The initial industry sample provided relatively restricted perspectives on managerial cognition, and to confirm the findings regarding the effects of industry on the shared cognitive maps of top decision-makers, wider industry-level data are needed.

Practical implications

This study provides an approach to facilitate the process of strategic decision-making for top decision-makers by identifying the shared beliefs of the selected strategic theme and to concentrate on the most central strategic issues in the company and industry. It reveals asymmetry between the significance of sustainability issues in an open agenda and the real position of sustainability concepts in the shared cognitive maps in the green industry. Also, the study advances cognitive mapping techniques for application in the board’s decision-making.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to brightening the black box of corporate governance by shedding light on the interaction of the concepts of corporate sustainability and other key strategic issues within the shared cognitive maps of the boards. It also provides new empirical knowledge on top decision-making processes and the effects of cognitive diversity on the strategic issue interpretations within the corporate boards of the green industry, and it further develops the methodology for the quantification of cognitive diversity and the content of cognitive maps.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1996

PETER INGWERSEN

The objective of the paper is to amalgamate theories of text retrieval from various research traditions into a cognitive theory for information retrieval interaction. Set…

Abstract

The objective of the paper is to amalgamate theories of text retrieval from various research traditions into a cognitive theory for information retrieval interaction. Set in a cognitive framework, the paper outlines the concept of polyrepresentation applied to both the user's cognitive space and the information space of IR systems. The concept seeks to represent the current user's information need, problem state, and domain work task or interest in a structure of causality. Further, it implies that we should apply different methods of representation and a variety of IR techniques of different cognitive and functional origin simultaneously to each semantic full‐text entity in the information space. The cognitive differences imply that by applying cognitive overlaps of information objects, originating from different interpretations of such objects through time and by type, the degree of uncertainty inherent in IR is decreased. Polyrepresentation and the use of cognitive overlaps are associated with, but not identical to, data fusion in IR. By explicitly incorporating all the cognitive structures participating in the interactive communication processes during IR, the cognitive theory provides a comprehensive view of these processes. It encompasses the ad hoc theories of text retrieval and IR techniques hitherto developed in mainstream retrieval research. It has elements in common with van Rijsbergen and Lalmas' logical uncertainty theory and may be regarded as compatible with that conception of IR. Epistemologically speaking, the theory views IR interaction as processes of cognition, potentially occurring in all the information processing components of IR, that may be applied, in particular, to the user in a situational context. The theory draws upon basic empirical results from information seeking investigations in the operational online environment, and from mainstream IR research on partial matching techniques and relevance feedback. By viewing users, source systems, intermediary mechanisms and information in a global context, the cognitive perspective attempts a comprehensive understanding of essential IR phenomena and concepts, such as the nature of information needs, cognitive inconsistency and retrieval overlaps, logical uncertainty, the concept of ‘document’, relevance measures and experimental settings. An inescapable consequence of this approach is to rely more on sociological and psychological investigative methods when evaluating systems and to view relevance in IR as situational, relative, partial, differentiated and non‐linear. The lack of consistency among authors, indexers, evaluators or users is of an identical cognitive nature. It is unavoidable, and indeed favourable to IR. In particular, for full‐text retrieval, alternative semantic entities, including Salton et al.'s ‘passage retrieval’, are proposed to replace the traditional document record as the basic retrieval entity. These empirically observed phenomena of inconsistency and of semantic entities and values associated with data interpretation support strongly a cognitive approach to IR and the logical use of polyrepresentation, cognitive overlaps, and both data fusion and data diffusion.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 52 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 4 May 2010

T.K. Das and Rajesh Kumar

The purpose of this paper is to propose a framework for understanding how alliance partners interpret alliance functioning and how these interpretations shape their…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a framework for understanding how alliance partners interpret alliance functioning and how these interpretations shape their subsequent behaviors. Also, to discuss how interpretive schemes in cross‐national strategic alliances impact upon the management of the problems arising from the cultural conflicts and discrepancies inherent in such alliances.

Design/methodology/approach

Proceeding from the notion that interpretive schemes have important implications for the evolution of cross‐national alliances, the paper describes the two fundamental interpretive schemes that relate to sensemaking – that of sensemaking of and in chaos, and examines how an appreciation of these interpretive schemes enable us to better manage cultural conflicts and discrepancies that inevitably arise in cross‐national alliances.

Findings

The framework makes clear that the two types of interpretive schemes − “sensemaking of chaos” and “sensemaking in chaos” − need to be appreciated as interpretive frames that are present among the alliance managers to effectively interact and influence partner firms.

Practical implications

Briefly, the two types of the interpretive schemes call for different strategies for developing them. Alliance partners embedded in different national cultures rely on interpretive schemes to make sense of the conflicts and discrepancies that emerge in cross‐national alliances.

Originality/value

The paper responds to the need of managers with alliance responsibilities for a framework to help develop the most effective ways of managing interpretive schemes in alliances for productive interactions and performance.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2019

Ahreum Lee and Hokyoung Ryu

The purpose of this paper is to explore how people differently create meaning from photos taken by either a lifelogging camera (LC) (i.e. automatic capture) or a mobile…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how people differently create meaning from photos taken by either a lifelogging camera (LC) (i.e. automatic capture) or a mobile phone camera (MC) (i.e. manual capture). Moreover, the paper investigates the different changes in the interpretative stance of lifelog photos and manually captured photos over time to figure out how the LC application could support the users’ iconological interpretation of their past.

Design/methodology/approach

A 200-day longitudinal study was conducted with two different user groups that took and reviewed photos taken by either a LC or a MC. The study was structured in two phases: a photo collection phase, which lasted for five days (Day 1‒Day 5), and a three-part semi-structured interview phase, which was conducted on Days 8, 50 and 200.

Findings

Results revealed that the interpretative stance of the LC group changed greatly compared to the MC group that kept a relatively consistent interpretative stance over time. A significant difference between the two groups was revealed on Day 200 when the lifelog photos provoked a more iconological and less pre-iconographical interpretative stance. This stance allowed the viewers of lifelog photos to systemically interpret the photos and look back upon their past with different viewpoints that were not recognized before.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to further understand the dynamic change in interpretative stance of lifelog photos compared to manually captured photos through a longitudinal study. The results of this study can support the design guidelines for a LC application that could give opportunities for users to create rich interpretations from lifelog photos.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 44 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

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Article
Publication date: 11 December 2017

Xiaoguang Wang, Ningyuan Song, Lu Zhang and Yanyu Jiang

The purpose of this paper is to understand the subjects contained in the Dunhuang mural images as well as their relation structures.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand the subjects contained in the Dunhuang mural images as well as their relation structures.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper performed content analysis based on Panofsky’s theory and 237 research papers related to the Dunhuang mural images. UNICET software was also used to study the correlation structures of subject network.

Findings

The results show that the three levels of subject have all captured the attention of Dunhuang mural researchers, the iconology occupy the critical position in the whole image study, and the correlation between iconography and iconology was strong. Further analysis reveals that cultural development, production, and power and domination have high centralities in the subject network.

Research limitations/implications

The research samples come from three major Chinese journal databases. However, there are still many authoritative monographs and foreign publications about the Dunhuang murals which are not included in this study.

Originality/value

The results uncover the subject hierarchies and structures contained in the Dunhuang murals from the angle of image scholarship which express scholars’ intention and contribute to the deep semantic annotation on digital Dunhuang mural images.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 74 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 July 2014

Pauline Rafferty and Fawaz Albinfalah

The purpose of this conceptual paper is to consider the possibility of designing a story-based image indexing system based on users’ descriptions of images. It reports a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this conceptual paper is to consider the possibility of designing a story-based image indexing system based on users’ descriptions of images. It reports a pilot study which uses users’ descriptions of two images.

Design/methodology/approach

Eight interviews were undertaken to investigate storytelling in user interpretations of the images. Following this, storytelling was explored as an indexing input method. In all, 26 research subjects were asked to create stories about the images, which were then considered in relation to conventional story elements and in relation to Hidderley and Rafferty's (2005) image modality model.

Findings

The results of the semi-structured interviews revealed that the majority of interpretations incorporated story elements related to setting, character, plot, literary devices, and themes. The 52 image stories included story elements identified in the first part of the project, and suggested that the image modality model is robust enough to deal with the “writerly” images used in this study. In addition, using storytelling as an input method encourages the use of verbs and connotative level responses.

Originality/value

User indexing is generally based on paradigmatic approaches to concept analysis and interpretation in the form of tagging; the novelty of the current study is its exploration of syntagmatic approaches to user indexing in the form of storytelling. It is a pilot, proof of concept study, but it is hoped that it might stimulate further interest in syntagmatic approaches to user indexing.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 70 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2009

Hugh M. Pattinson and Arch G. Woodside

This case study research report aims to include collecting additional field interviews with the original and additional executives participating in the original case study…

Abstract

Purpose

This case study research report aims to include collecting additional field interviews with the original and additional executives participating in the original case study (on the Zaplet software applications firm) to enhance the interpretations by the original case study investigators as well as add‐in downstream events occurring after the original report. The focus of the study is to increase descriptive knowledge and understanding of innovation and diffusion processes in developing high‐tech disruptive software technologies.

Design/methodology/approach

The study includes an application of the long‐interview method and reinterpretation of original case data along with preparing and interpreting decision system analysis and chronological maps.

Findings

The reinterpretation and expansion of the original case study illustrate dramatic revisions in plans and implementing new applications following positive and negative responses by third‐parties and lead‐user customers to alpha and beta designs. Concrete field trials occur frequently in shaping where and how the firm goes about changing its direction. Third‐parties play critical roles in multiple time periods in shaping the firm's new product development direction.

Research limitations/implications

The case study reanalysis and expansion are generalizable to innovation and diffusion theory and not to a specific population of firms.

Practical implications

The paper illustrates the wisdom of Tom Peter's dictum, “Put it to tin quickly” and Dwight Eisenhower's focus on improvising, “The plan is nothing, planning is everything.”

Originality/value

Formal sensemaking of what happened helps to destroy the myth that executives must have the resources before innovating. Resources follow vision and action (implementing) is the hidden and great lesson of this paper – what Tom Peters means when he writes about the value in creating a “skunk works” – using “borrowed” time, material, places, and creative juices to make things happen.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2014

Muhammad Nazrul Islam and Franck Tétard

The purpose of this empirical study was to address two important concerns of Web usability: how user-intuitive interface signs affect Web usability and how applying…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this empirical study was to address two important concerns of Web usability: how user-intuitive interface signs affect Web usability and how applying semiotics (i.e. the doctrine of signs) in user interface (UI) design and evaluation helps to improve usability.

Design/methodology/approach

An empirical research approach is followed here to conduct three user tests. These tests were conducted on a Web application with 17 test participants. Data were gathered through laboratory-based think-aloud usability test, questionnaires and interviews. Following an empirical research approach, statistics and user behavior analysis were used to analyze the data.

Findings

This study explores two important concerns of UI design and evaluation. First, users’ interpretation accuracy of interface signs impact on Web usability. The study found that users’ interpretation of signs might be accurate, moderate, conflicting, erroneous or incapable; user-intuitive interface signs led participants to interpret signs’ meaning accurately; and users’ inaccurate interpretation of one or a few task-related interface sign(s) led users to usability problems, resulting in participants performing tasks with lower task-completion performance. Second, considering semiotics perception in UI design and evaluation is important to improve Web usability. This study showed that interface signs, when re-designed considering the semiotics guidelines, have increased the end-users’ interpretation accuracy and the interface signs’ intuitiveness. This study also provides a small set of semiotics guidelines for sign design and evaluation.

Originality/value

This study empirically demonstrated that signs’ intuitiveness impact on Web usability and that considering the semiotics perception in sign design and evaluation is important to improve Web usability. These outcomes are valuable in a number of ways to HCI researchers and practitioners: the results provide awareness of the importance of user-intuitive interface signs in UI design; practitioners can easily adopt the concept of interpretation accuracy classification to conduct a sign test to obtain an “overall impression of interface signs’ intuitiveness”; practitioners can easily adopt the methodological approach followed in this study to conduct usability test without additional resources; and the results raised important fundamental questions for future research such as “what does a practitioner need to be aware of when designing or evaluating interface signs?”

Details

Journal of Systems and Information Technology, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1328-7265

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 October 2009

Megan Winget

The purpose of this paper is to examine the art historical antecedents of providing subject access to images. After reviewing the assumptions and limitations inherent in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the art historical antecedents of providing subject access to images. After reviewing the assumptions and limitations inherent in the most prevalent descriptive method, the paper seeks to introduce a new model that allows for more comprehensive representation of visually‐based cultural materials.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents a literature‐based conceptual analysis, taking Panofsky's theory of iconography and iconology as the starting‐point. Panofsky's conceptual model, while appropriate for art created in the Western academic tradition, ignores or misrepresents work from other eras or cultures. Continued dependence on Panofskian descriptive methods limits the functionality and usefulness of image representation systems.

Findings

The paper recommends the development of a more precise and inclusive descriptive model for art objects, which is based on the premise that art is not another sort of text, and should not be interpreted as such.

Practical implications

The paper provides suggestions for the development of representation models that will enhance the description of non‐textual artifacts.

Originality/value

The paper addresses issues in information science, the history of art, and computer science, and suggests that a new descriptive model would be of great value to both humanist and social science scholars.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 65 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

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