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This chapter provides evidence on how young technology startups are employing intellectual property (IP) protection when innovating and competing in the United States…
This chapter provides evidence on how young technology startups are employing intellectual property (IP) protection when innovating and competing in the United States. Although researchers and teachers of university technology transfer often think only in terms of patents and the Bayh-Dole Act, this chapter suggests that adopting a more nuanced view of IP rights is appropriate. After reviewing the primary non-patent types of IP protection available in the U.S. (copyright, trademark, and trade secret), we explain that while patents are often considered the strongest protection, for some entrepreneurs – particularly those operating in the U.S. software and Internet sectors – patents may be the least important means of capturing value from innovation. We present evidence from the 2008 Berkeley Patent Survey to demonstrate that IP is used by U.S. startups in very different ways, and to different effects, across technology sectors and other company-specific characteristics. Contrary to the common assumption in academic discourse, we show that different forms of IP protection often serve as complements, rather than substitutes.
How does career boundary-crossing affect an entrepreneur’s new venture? When entrepreneurs cross industry or functional boundaries to lead startups, they may lack specific…
How does career boundary-crossing affect an entrepreneur’s new venture? When entrepreneurs cross industry or functional boundaries to lead startups, they may lack specific experience needed for performance. Conversely, the diverse experiences they carry can enhance exploration and lead to the emergence of innovation in startups. We highlight important consequences of career boundary-crossing, using a multi-industry longitudinal sample of high-technology firms. We find that entrepreneurs who cross functional boundaries are more likely to lead their startups into new product areas. We also find that entrepreneurs’ industry boundary-crossing is associated with startup failure, but it also increases the probability of an IPO.
As market valuation shifts from earnings toward growth potential, entrepreneurial companies have become a more important part of a contract manufacturer’s customer…
As market valuation shifts from earnings toward growth potential, entrepreneurial companies have become a more important part of a contract manufacturer’s customer portfolio. As a contract manufacturer emphasizes small, potentially fast‐growing companies, the risk of customer failure increases. However, the opportunity cost of missing a possible star customer justifies exposing the contract manufacturer to considerable risk that the entrepreneurial venture will fail. Explores characteristics of the ideal entrepreneurial supply chain from the viewpoint of contract manufacturers interested in doing business with startups. Emphasis is placed on a customer selection process and on nurturing the high‐risk startup customers. By choosing to do business with startups, but providing nurturing processes, the contract manufacturer simultaneously reduces the risks of missed opportunities and failed startup ventures.
The primary goal of a startup is to find a viable business model that can generate value for its customers while being effectively captured by the startup itself. This…
The primary goal of a startup is to find a viable business model that can generate value for its customers while being effectively captured by the startup itself. This business model, however, is not easily defined, being a consequence of the application of tools involving trials, data analyses and testing. The Lean Startup (LS) methodology proposes a process for agile and iterative validation of business models. Given the popularity and importance of such methodology in professional circles, the purpose of this paper is to conduct a historical literature review of existing academic and professional literature, correlating LS concepts and activities to previous theory and alternative business model validation methods.
A historically oriented systematic literature review employing snowball sampling was conducted in order to identify academic and professional literature and references for iterative validation of business models. A total of 12 scholarly journals and professional magazines dealing with strategy, innovation, entrepreneurship, startups and management were used as data sources. The extensive literature review resulted in 963 exploratory readings and 118 papers fully analyzed.
The results position the LS as a practical-oriented and up-to-date implementation of strategies based on the Learning School of strategy making and the effectuation approach to entrepreneurship; the authors also identify a number of methods and tools that can complement the LS principles.
This paper identified and synthesized the scientific, academic and professional foundations that precede, support and complement the main concepts, processes and methods advocated by the LS methodology.
Using a novel monthly data set, this study aims to examine the factors affecting the funding of Indian start-ups.
Given the panel structure of the data, the fixed effects regression technique has been used.
The findings reveal that years of operation is a key factor. Amongst others, angel investors and equity financing are the key drivers of startup financing. Government policy does not appear to have gained adequate traction, although the improvement in the business reform action by state governments has begun to exert a salutary effect.
From a policy standpoint, the study provides insights into what policies and practices can be exploited to streamline the funding bottlenecks affecting startups in the Indian context.
Notwithstanding being a country with a significant presence in the startup space, there are admittedly limited studies, which examine this issue for India. Viewed from this standpoint to the best of the knowledge, the analysis is one of the early studies to shed light on the factors driving the funding of startups in the Indian context.
Through a discussion of the case, students will be able to conduct “Pros and Cons” analysis for entering a new market. Conduct “SWOT” analysis for entering a new market…
Through a discussion of the case, students will be able to conduct “Pros and Cons” analysis for entering a new market. Conduct “SWOT” analysis for entering a new market. Explain how to create a Blue Ocean Market Space, by implementing the concept of value-innovation. Demonstrate the role of “strategy canvas” and “The four action framework” in creating Blue Ocean Market Space.
This case describes a situation in which Vivek Vyas (Vyas) and Vimal Popat (Popat) first generation entrepreneurs starts their venture shradhanajali.com in June 2011. The monthly revenues range in between INR 75,000 and INR 80,000. Shradhanjali.com has garnered customers from major parts of India, USA, Canada, UK and Africa. It was in 2019 when Vyas and Popat co-founders of Shradhanjali.com were in their office at Rajkot, Gujarat reading an article in financial express, which had a mention of India’s 10 most wacky startups which used technology and internet to get closer to users. One of the startups reported by financial express was offering people to book cremation for the funeral of the deceased loved ones. Looking at the article Popat thought to enter a new market space by mid of 2020, where new offering to customers to book online pujas across temples in India on the birth and death anniversaries of their loved ones. The purpose of this case is to provide an opportunity for the participants to make use of management tools such as Pros and Cons; and SWOT analysis to decide whether shradhanjali.com should penetrate more into this world of e-commerce and offer online puja service to their customers. However, the two co-founders are undecided whether to add online puja service in their service portfolio as they do now know the way forward to convert the idea of online puja into a viable business? Participants need to take into consideration the data given for shradhajali.com and make assumptions and resolve the dilemma through which Vyas and Popat are going through.
Complexity academic level
The case involves various issues with first generation online startup in strategic management field such “Pros and Cons” analysis and challenges faced during the new market creation phase. Thus, this case can be used for covering multiple perspectives related to blue ocean strategy (e.g. application of strategy canvas and the four action framework).
Teaching notes are available for educators only.
CSS 11: Strategy.