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Article
Publication date: 5 November 2020

Brenden Kuerbis and Milton Mueller

The data communications protocol supporting the internet protocol version 4 (IPv4) is almost 40 years old, and its 32-bit address space is too small for the internet. A…

Abstract

Purpose

The data communications protocol supporting the internet protocol version 4 (IPv4) is almost 40 years old, and its 32-bit address space is too small for the internet. A “next-generation” internet protocol version 6 (IPv6), has a much larger, 128-bit address space. However, IPv6 is not backward compatible with the existing internet. For 20 years, the internet technical community has attempted to migrate the entire internet to the new standard. This study aims to address important but overlooked questions about the internet’s technical evolution: will the world converge on IPv6? Will IPv6 die out? or will we live in a mixed world for the foreseeable future?

Design/methodology/approach

The research offers an economically-grounded study of IPv6’s progress and prospects. Many promoters of IPv6 sincerely believe that the new standard must succeed if the internet is to grow, and assume that the transition is inevitable because of the presumed depletion of the IPv4 address resources. However, by examining the associated network effects, developing the economic parameters for transition, and modeling the underlying economic forces, which impact network operator decisions, the study paints a more complex, nuanced picture.

Findings

The report concludes that legacy IPv4 will coexist with IPv6 indefinitely. IPv6 is unlikely to become an orphan. For some network operators that need to grow, particularly mobile networks where the software and hardware ecosystem is mostly converted, IPv6 deployment can make economic sense. However, the lack of backward compatibility with non-deployers eliminates many network effects that would create pressure to convert to IPv6. A variety of conversion technologies, and more efficient use of IPv4 addresses using network address translation, will support a “mixed world” of the two standards for the foreseeable future.

Originality/value

The authors’ conceptualization and observations provide a clearer understanding of the economic factors affecting the transition to IPv6.

Details

Digital Policy, Regulation and Governance, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-5038

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1994

R.E. Leon

In this article we review the Internet's protocols and mainstream services. Section I provides an overview of the Internet's history and its bodies. Section 2 looks at the…

Abstract

In this article we review the Internet's protocols and mainstream services. Section I provides an overview of the Internet's history and its bodies. Section 2 looks at the Internet's overall architecture and goals. The IP protocol which deals with data encapsulation and host addressing is reviewed in Section 3, whilst transport control protocols are discussed in Section 4. Section 5 looks at the mainstream services based on TCP/IP protocols, i.e. telnet, ftp, electronic mail, newsgroups and finger.

Details

Online and CD-Rom Review, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1353-2642

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2006

Milton L. Mueller

The purpose of this article is to broaden our understanding of internet governance policy options by reviewing and assessing proposals for reforming the institutional

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to broaden our understanding of internet governance policy options by reviewing and assessing proposals for reforming the institutional mechanisms used to allocate and assign IPv6 addresses.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper begins by identifying the two main economic and technical constraints on IP addressing: route aggregation and address conservation. It then reviews the reform proposals that have been made and assesses the debates that have occurred around those proposals, bearing in mind the key issues of aggregation and conservation. In particular, it attempts to explore whether competition in IP addressing between authorities with diverse policies would be feasible and beneficial.

Findings

The debate over addressing policy is in its early stages and has a long way to go. A review of the debate so far suggests that the introduction of economic incentives in addressing might improve route aggregation rather than worsen it. With respect to conservation and aggregation incentives, policy diversity might help internet service providers find a more optimal trade‐off between the needs of users and the needs of the suppliers of connectivity.

Originality/value

The policy alternatives discussed here could have a major impact on the future of the internet, as address allocation and assignment directly affect the way the internet functions and the distribution of costs and benefits between users and suppliers.

Details

info, vol. 8 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6697

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1997

Schubert Foo, Siu Cheung Hui, See Wai Yip and Yulan He

Knowledge of the Internet Protocol (IP) address is essential for connection establishment in certain classes of synchronous distributed applications, such as Internet

Abstract

Knowledge of the Internet Protocol (IP) address is essential for connection establishment in certain classes of synchronous distributed applications, such as Internet telephony and video‐conferencing systems. A problem of dynamic IP addressing arises when the connection to the Internet is through an Internet service provider, since the IP address is dynamically allocated only at connection time. Proposes and draws a contrast between a number of generic methods that can be classified as online and offline methods for the resolution of dynamic IP addressing. Online methods, which include the World Wide Web, exchange server and the dynamic Domain Name System, are only effective when both the caller and recipient are logged on to the Internet. On the other hand, offline methods, which include electronic mailing and directory service look‐up, provide an additional means to allow the caller to leave messages when the recipient is not logged on to the Internet. Of these methods, the dynamic Domain Name System and directory service look‐up appear to be the best for resolving dynamic IP addressing.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article
Publication date: 29 June 2010

Peter Dell

IPv6 is the replacement for the internet's incumbent protocol, IPv4. IPv6 adoption is required to allow the internet to continue to grow; however, there has been almost no

Abstract

Purpose

IPv6 is the replacement for the internet's incumbent protocol, IPv4. IPv6 adoption is required to allow the internet to continue to grow; however, there has been almost no uptake since its standardization in the late 1990s. This paper seeks to explain how this non‐adoption may be a consequence of current policies paradoxically intended to promote IPv6.

Design/methodology/approach

Economic theories of exhaustible resources and permit markets are used to provide an explanation for the lack of adoption of IPv6.

Findings

The current policy approach will not yield a significant adoption of IPv6 until after the IPv4 address space is exhausted and may also constrain internet growth after IPv4 exhaustion occurs.

Practical implications

Current policies intended to promote IPv6 diffusion through the internet must be reconsidered. The economics of permit markets in particular can inform discussions about IPv4 address transfer markets.

Originality/value

Economic analyses of IPv6 adoption are almost non‐existent and very few prior studies are known. This paper helps to rectify this important gap in the literature.

Details

info, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6697

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Article
Publication date: 29 May 2009

Da‐Yu Kao and Shiuh‐Jeng Wang

Cyber technology is an extremely complicated field and the internet is being increasingly used as a place to commit crimes using personal computers, as well as…

Abstract

Purpose

Cyber technology is an extremely complicated field and the internet is being increasingly used as a place to commit crimes using personal computers, as well as network‐based computers. Although cyber investigation is still in the early stages of its development, the burgeoning use of the internet has increased the necessity for digital investigations. The purpose of this paper is to increase awareness of the latest in digital comparison for cyber‐crime investigation with the studies of IP‐address and time in computer systems.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach to improving a cyber‐crime investigation is proposed in three stages: independent verification of digital clues, corresponding information from different sources, and preparation of a valid argument.

Findings

If the police and other authorities do not stay on top of this problem, they may lose the battle to control this cyber‐crime explosion. The paper discusses how Taiwanese police investigate cyber‐crime and the experience is able to propagate when analyzing IP‐address and time with crime‐case. It is believed that this proposed approach creates a comprehensive guide that provides support and assistance to crime investigators.

Practical implications

IP‐address and time, both indicated in this paper, are the key ingredients to identify the suspect in the beginning of investigation works. As the study shows: there is no guarantee that there always will be the “right” evidence to prove everything; investigators should try their utmost to avoid making mistakes; criminal investigators must find additional clues and proof to validate their suspicions.

Originality/value

This paper illustrates an approach to the investigation of cyber‐crime in the case of studying IP‐address and time. It is believed that the research can efficiently assist law enforcement officials in dealing with ever‐increasing cyber‐crime by using effective digital evidence.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 23 September 2013

Milton Mueller, Brenden Kuerbis and Hadi Asghari

This article aims to quantify the emerging transfer market for internet protocol (IPv4) numbers and provides an initial assessment of factors and policies impacting those

Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to quantify the emerging transfer market for internet protocol (IPv4) numbers and provides an initial assessment of factors and policies impacting those transactions.

Design/methodology/approach

The research draws on Regional Internet Registry records and conducts basic analysis of stocks, flows and proportions to assess the nature of this emerging market for IP number blocks and explore some of its implications for internet governance.

Findings

There is a thriving and growing market for IPv4 number blocks. The market is improving the efficiency of IPv4 address allocation by moving numbers from unused or under-utilized holders to organizations that need them more. Buyers willingly pay for number blocks they could get for free in order to benefit from more liberal needs assessments and stronger property rights.

Research limitations/implications

Information about prices is not available and some transfers may take place through leasing arrangements, which are not covered by this paper. Future research should continue to investigate the transfer market, including activity skirting or occurring outside the current RIR policy environment.

Practical implications

RIRs should liberalize needs assessments and remove other sources of friction to the transfer market.

Originality/value

No known prior assessment of the transfer market has been conducted. The research has value for policymakers and industry decision makers.

Details

info, vol. 15 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6697

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2000

Thomas O’Daniel and Chew Kok Wai

At the Multimedia University, Malaysia, a first‐year undergraduate course in electronic commerce was given the task of evaluating commercial Web sites. The existence of…

Abstract

At the Multimedia University, Malaysia, a first‐year undergraduate course in electronic commerce was given the task of evaluating commercial Web sites. The existence of the host was verified when it was added to the sample, and again six months later. The sample was then analysed for correlation between domain names and regional allocation of IP addresses. Three characteristics of the sample stand out. First, in many cases the top‐level domain name does not correspond to the location of the host; there is a noticeable bias toward hosting sites with regional domain names in North America. Second, dot COM and certain regional domains seem to dominate the Internet commercial landscape. Finally, there is a measurable rate of attrition over time, which may or may not be truly significant.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

Kyle Kucera, Michel Plaisent, Prosper Bernard and Lassana Maguiraga

Spyware is a controversial software technology that allows the surreptitious collection of personal information from computers linked to the internet. The purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

Spyware is a controversial software technology that allows the surreptitious collection of personal information from computers linked to the internet. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of spyware in internet shareware and freeware and to investigate the personal information collected.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology was a two‐phase, multi‐case study. The first phase determined that five of the 50 most popular pieces of Windows®‐based freeware and shareware available to internet users from CNETDownload.com were suspected of containing spyware: these were included as data sources for phase two. The purpose of phase two was to confirm the existence of spyware and to identify the types and frequencies of any personal data transmissions. For this phase, data were collected and analyzed utilizing a passive network monitor program to examine packets of data transmitted from a personal computer to external destinations on the internet.

Findings

The findings confirmed the existence and use of spyware in three of five suspected cases. However, the data indicated that there was a low occurrence of spyware and that these programs have the capability to collect numerous types of personal data. The main limitation is that these results are based on a snapshot of data obtained during five days.

Practical implications

The study has practical implications for internet users, who should be aware that spyware exists and understand its potential threat. Spyware developers should provide the user with an effective removal tool. Finally, marketers are cautioned that spyware might alienate customers.

Originality/value

This paper confirms the potential for misuse of these programs.

Details

Journal of Enterprise Information Management, vol. 18 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0398

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2001

Panos Louvieris and John Driver

Focuses on the forthcoming next generation Internet’s address system (IPv6) which will potentially redefine the way marketers approach the segmentation of interactive…

Abstract

Focuses on the forthcoming next generation Internet’s address system (IPv6) which will potentially redefine the way marketers approach the segmentation of interactive cybermarkets. Explores the ramifications of Internet‐based purchasing systems to buyer behaviour. Differences and similarities of next generation direct marketing compared with classic and neoclassic direct marketing approaches are evaluated. Sensitivity to changes and differences in customer decision‐loyalty type are explored from the perspective of building high value customer relationships, where decision‐loyalty type is considered to be a key resegmentation variable for personalised interactive cybermarketing.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

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