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Examines the tenth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched aspects…
Examines the tenth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched aspects. Subjects discussed include cotton fabric processing, asbestos substitutes, textile adjuncts to cardiovascular surgery, wet textile processes, hand evaluation, nanotechnology, thermoplastic composites, robotic ironing, protective clothing (agricultural and industrial), ecological aspects of fibre properties – to name but a few! There would appear to be no limit to the future potential for textile applications.
Examines the ninth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched aspects…
Examines the ninth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched aspects. Subjects discussed include cotton fabric processing, asbestos substitutes, textile adjuncts to cardiovascular surgery, wet textile processes, hand evaluation, nanotechnology, thermoplastic composites, robotic ironing, protective clothing (agricultural and industrial), ecological aspects of fibre properties – to name but a few! There would appear to be no limit to the future potential for textile applications.
Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to economic and non-economic activities. Researchers have increasingly focused on the adoption and use of ICT by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) as the economic development of a country is largely dependent on them. Following the success of ICT utilisation in SMEs in developed countries, many developing countries are looking to utilise the potential of the technology to develop SMEs. Past studies have shown that the contribution of ICT to the performance of SMEs is not clear and certain. Thus, it is crucial to determine the effectiveness of ICT in generating firm performance since this has implications for SMEs’ expenditure on the technology. This research examines the diffusion of ICT among SMEs with respect to the typical stages from innovation adoption to post-adoption, by analysing the actual usage of ICT and value creation. The mediating effects of integration and utilisation on SME performance are also studied. Grounded in the innovation diffusion literature, institutional theory and resource-based theory, this study has developed a comprehensive integrated research model focused on the research objectives. Following a positivist research paradigm, this study employs a mixed-method research approach. A preliminary conceptual framework is developed through an extensive literature review and is refined by results from an in-depth field study. During the field study, a total of 11 SME owners or decision-makers were interviewed. The recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using NVivo 10 to refine the model to develop the research hypotheses. The final research model is composed of 30 first-order and five higher-order constructs which involve both reflective and formative measures. Partial least squares-based structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) is employed to test the theoretical model with a cross-sectional data set of 282 SMEs in Bangladesh. Survey data were collected using a structured questionnaire issued to SMEs selected by applying a stratified random sampling technique. The structural equation modelling utilises a two-step procedure of data analysis. Prior to estimating the structural model, the measurement model is examined for construct validity of the study variables (i.e. convergent and discriminant validity).
The estimates show cognitive evaluation as an important antecedent for expectation which is shaped primarily by the entrepreneurs’ beliefs (perception) and also influenced by the owners’ innovativeness and culture. Culture further influences expectation. The study finds that facilitating condition, environmental pressure and country readiness are important antecedents of expectation and ICT use. The results also reveal that integration and the degree of ICT utilisation significantly affect SMEs’ performance. Surprisingly, the findings do not reveal any significant impact of ICT usage on performance which apparently suggests the possibility of the ICT productivity paradox. However, the analysis finally proves the non-existence of the paradox by demonstrating the mediating role of ICT integration and degree of utilisation explain the influence of information technology (IT) usage on firm performance which is consistent with the resource-based theory. The results suggest that the use of ICT can enhance SMEs’ performance if the technology is integrated and properly utilised. SME owners or managers, interested stakeholders and policy makers may follow the study’s outcomes and focus on ICT integration and degree of utilisation with a view to attaining superior organisational performance.
This study urges concerned business enterprises and government to look at the environmental and cultural factors with a view to achieving ICT usage success in terms of enhanced firm performance. In particular, improving organisational practices and procedures by eliminating the traditional power distance inside organisations and implementing necessary rules and regulations are important actions for managing environmental and cultural uncertainties. The application of a Bengali user interface may help to ensure the productivity of ICT use by SMEs in Bangladesh. Establishing a favourable national technology infrastructure and legal environment may contribute positively to improving the overall situation. This study also suggests some changes and modifications in the country’s existing policies and strategies. The government and policy makers should undertake mass promotional programs to disseminate information about the various uses of computers and their contribution in developing better organisational performance. Organising specialised training programs for SME capacity building may succeed in attaining the motivation for SMEs to use ICT. Ensuring easy access to the technology by providing loans, grants and subsidies is important. Various stakeholders, partners and related organisations should come forward to support government policies and priorities in order to ensure the productive use of ICT among SMEs which finally will help to foster Bangladesh’s economic development.
Reintroduces alienation theory and research. Considers alienation in a cybernetic sense as a generic term for different types of information processing problems in individuals. Considers these, more often than not, to be ultimately caused by developments in their social environment and reflecting back on that environment. Discusses the emergence of virtual communities, giving as an example the Thematic Group on Sociocybernetics and Social Systems. Describes its function and composition in a virtual community context. Considers whether Norbert Wiener foresaw the emergence of virtual communities and examines the link with the society envisaged by Niklas Luhmann.
Information and communications technologies are encroaching on every sphere of modern life. New modes of networking and cross‐referencing are revolutionizing our…
Information and communications technologies are encroaching on every sphere of modern life. New modes of networking and cross‐referencing are revolutionizing our management of data and thus the concept of knowledge itself. Now the advent of embedded technology and artificial intelligence promise to re‐open the debate about whether we are becoming masters of technology or its slaves. Co‐ordinating public policy with product‐oriented R&D has never been more important, for either the economic or cultural future of Europe.
This paper provides an exploration of the concept and content of agile manufacturing (AM). It describes the nature of the content of AM and synthesises the literature to…
This paper provides an exploration of the concept and content of agile manufacturing (AM). It describes the nature of the content of AM and synthesises the literature to propose a comprehensive definition of purpose and process. Real agile manufacturing (RAM) is viewed as a strategic process; it is about surviving and prospering in the competitive environment of continuous and unpredictable change by reacting quickly and effectively to changing markets. The paper argues that RAM is evolutionary, in that it is developed from existing systems of management and technologies. However, it is also revolutionary because the full application of RAM involves a departure from existing systems. RAM is shown to be based upon four fundamentals. First, each partner must benefit; thus multiple winners (manufacturers, suppliers, customers) is the objective. Second, integration (recourses, methods, technologies, departments or organisations) is the means of achieving RAM. Third, IT is demonstrated to be an essential condition. Finally, core competence is seen to be the key.
The aim of this paper is to investigate the pros and cons of Iranian library management software, focusing on the usage of open source technology. It seeks to analyse the…
The aim of this paper is to investigate the pros and cons of Iranian library management software, focusing on the usage of open source technology. It seeks to analyse the viewpoints of librarians in the University of Isfahan as a sample to extend the findings to the Iranian Library management software community.
In order to get the opinions of librarians, the descriptive method is used. The required data are collected by literature review, questionnaire and open interview from university top managers, software technical staff, libraries managers, librarians, end users, and companies providing similar products. However, because of time limitations, the authors could only gather data by researcher‐made checklist of the librarians (informants) who directly have worked with University of Isfahan in the libraries.
The main problem of many library management software platforms in Iran is that the focus of development is mainly on technical issues rather than management, operational, and end‐user concerns. This is highlighted when open source software is used because it is common for an off‐the‐shelf product to be used with less consideration of the nontechnical issues. This is the reason that Iranian libraries are moving to replace their software with commercial versions.
There was insufficient cooperation of some librarians in identifying capabilities and deficiencies of UILMS and limited cooperation of some technical experts in reviewing the software.
Considering the lack of standard checklists, this paper presents a relatively complete checklist to evaluate the library software.
The paper presents the results of the author's recent study of new media and productivity in a group of UK information scientists. The journal article was the primary…
The paper presents the results of the author's recent study of new media and productivity in a group of UK information scientists. The journal article was the primary focus of the study. Publishing was modelled in terms of stakeholder groups and analysed using a methodology from systems design, with the discipline of information science interpreted as a virtual site. The methodology used was qualitative, as the author intended to capture perceptions of social and economic practice, as well as descriptions of that practice. The outcome of the analysis is a profile of the group who were observed which is grounded in their perceptions of the publishing process, their perceptions of the research process, and their working habits.
This paper aims to propose a framework that integrated the technology acceptance model (TAM), theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and technology-organization-environment…
This paper aims to propose a framework that integrated the technology acceptance model (TAM), theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and technology-organization-environment (TOE) and extended the constructs to enrich literature and capture some peculiarities of small and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs). Individually, the frameworks of extant TAM, TPB and TOE are insightful to the understanding of e-commerce adoption but a bit parochial in their constructs and so, can rarely provide clear lenses to deal with SMEs.
The adoption of e-commerce depends largely on the users’ conscious assessment of the influencing constructs as proposed, among others, in theories of reasoned action, TAM, TPB and TOE. This paper reviewed, synthesized and extended the constructs of these models in an integrated framework. The proposed integrated framework led to 18 propositions to promote and facilitate future research, and to guide explanation and prediction of e-commerce adoption in an organized system.
The introduced constructs in the integrated framework (e.g. company mission, individual difference factors, perceived trust and perceived service quality) introduce socio-technical systems and improve the theoretical base of adoption.
Neither the adoption drivers nor the constructs in the theoretical framework are mutually exclusive and exhaustive; rather, they are complementary and could incorporate other factors. Although the theoretical implications of the findings of this paper extend the scope of adoption drivers, the proposed framework needs to be tested empirically.
The integrated and extended theoretical framework links three adoption drivers and attempts to improve existing knowledge on e-commerce adoption and to provide bases for more informed decision(s).