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Book part
Publication date: 6 September 2018

Mateus Rennó Santos and Alexander Testa

Purpose – This chapter explains what is known about international homicide trends, highlights gaps in existing literature, and proposes avenues for future research that…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter explains what is known about international homicide trends, highlights gaps in existing literature, and proposes avenues for future research that will expand understanding about international homicide.

Design/methodology/approach – We review extant literature on international homicide trends, and draw on data from the World Health Organization from 1990 to 2015 to identify patterns in contemporary international homicide trends.

Findings – We demonstrate evidence of an international homicide drop across most regions around the world. Nonetheless, the homicide decline is not a global event as several countries – particularly countries with high homicide rates – did not experience reductions in homicide during this period. The key question remains as to what the causes of changes in international homicide rates are and why many countries experience very similar reductions in homicide while a few experienced increasing violence. We propose potential explanations and suggest areas for future research.

Originality/value – This chapter documents an international homicide decline occurring between 1990 and 2015. We also demonstrate that homicide trends are likely influenced by factors beyond local phenomena and domestic policies since homicide rates largely track together for regions throughout the world. Accordingly, the chapter suggests potential avenues for future research that can help better explain this trend.

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Article
Publication date: 9 April 2018

Ali Asghar Pourezzat, Mohammad Hoseini Moghadam, Maryam Sani Ejlal and Ghazaleh Taheriattar

Through an examination of macro-historical studies on the governance of Iran, the purpose of this study is to identify the most significant and important events and trends

Abstract

Purpose

Through an examination of macro-historical studies on the governance of Iran, the purpose of this study is to identify the most significant and important events and trends in the rise and fall of Iranian governments and introduce alternative futures in a range of possible, plausible and preferable forms of future governance. To carry out a foresight study of alternative futures of Iranian governance, the authors used futures studies, based on the detection of the most critical driving forces, which are also the most important uncertainties. Futures studies as an interdisciplinary field of study help to identify the events and trends that affect political change and offer scenarios of four alternative futures for the governance of Iran: Smart and Stable Government, Authoritarian Development-oriented Government, Irrational Government and Irrational Breakable Government. The authors believe that Iran’s endeavors to promote democracy, taking the changing international trends into account, make a more trustworthy future for Iran both possible plausible.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on macro-history approach and by using “shared history”, future triangle and then scenario planning, the future of Governance in Iran has been analyzed.

Findings

Whenever the government has distanced itself from the public and has neglected the trend of international change, it has been faced with a period of collapse and annihilation. And whenever these two important factors are understood, the result is a trend of development and growth. Therefore, the most favored image of Iran’s future relies on the maintenance and promotion of public participation and on increasing attention to the sustainable realities of international relations.

Originality/value

The complexities of events and trends affecting the rise and fall of previous governments of Iran make it necessary to use an interdisciplinary approach to understand the events that have emerged or are emerging in its governance. In this study, from futures studies point of view, transformation of governance has been studied.

Details

foresight, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6689

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Article
Publication date: 29 November 2013

Pernilla Gripenberg, Charlotta Niemistö and Carla Alapeteri

The purpose of this paper is to explore gender differences in career prospects and changes in attitudes to international assignments over recent decades in Finland. This…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore gender differences in career prospects and changes in attitudes to international assignments over recent decades in Finland. This is relevant in light of the international immobility trend among staff with which MNCs especially are struggling, coupled with the persistent unequal ratio of male to female expatriates. The paper aims to increase the understanding of how gender and family relations affect international career prospects and what changes have evolved over time.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper compares differences and changes in opportunities to and preferences for long-term international assignments between male and female business graduates in Finland. It uses survey data on attitudes to expatriation from 1994 to 2008.

Findings

A general shift from individual career centeredness towards family centeredness was detected between the two points in time. Paradoxically, this research shows that while gender equality seems to be increasing between spouses, it seems to be decreasing in who is being offered international assignments. The results give valuable insights into how the trend of international immobility has occurred and how the gender relations and gendered values are developing in society.

Practical implications

While the international immobility trend persists, women apparently remain as an under-utilized resource when searching for employees to send on long-term expatriate assignments. Global HR professionals should pay more attention to whom expatriate assignments are offered and to how dual career couples and families can be better supported in the expatriation process.

Originality /value

The paper contributes to the understanding of gendered careers and women's opportunities in international assignments with a unique comparison of changes over time.

Details

Journal of Global Mobility, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

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Book part
Publication date: 4 October 2013

Ibrahim Ogachi Oanda

What are the current trends that mark out the process of internationalization of higher education? In what directions do these trends influence the direction of research…

Abstract

What are the current trends that mark out the process of internationalization of higher education? In what directions do these trends influence the direction of research and development in African universities? Does internationalization of higher education have the potential to boost knowledge production relevant to Africa’s development needs or it will further hasten the marginalization of both African universities and African development agendas within the global network of scientific knowledge? Internationalization of education is not new. Historically, students have sought better higher education abroad influenced by the desire to benefit from better opportunities provided by universities in the developed countries. The current phase of higher education internationalization has however emerged more vigorously in the 21st century and is associated with the twin trends of globalization and liberalization. Proponents of globalization have argued that higher education is bound to be more strongly affected by worldwide economic developments. They also point out that higher education institutions in developing countries should embrace aspects of internationalization to boost their efforts to be ranked among the best league of universities globally. At the national level, internationalization of higher education is presented as a process that institutions in developing countries must embrace in order to address the persistent challenges of sustainable development. For universities in Africa, the literature argues that internationalization provides them with opportunities that cut across disciplines, institutions, knowledge-systems, and nation-state boundaries thereby exposing the institutions and academics to the world’s best scientific research and infrastructures. In summary, it is contended that internationalization is a strategy to realize success in human-capability and institutional-capacity development in the universities. This chapter revisits these assertions and their tenacity to developing a culture of research and innovation in African universities, and linking the universities to the continent’s development aspirations.

Details

The Development of Higher Education in Africa: Prospects and Challenges
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-699-6

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Book part
Publication date: 23 September 2019

Yi-Ming Wei, Qiao-Mei Liang, Gang Wu and Hua Liao

Abstract

Details

Energy Economics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-294-2

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Article
Publication date: 5 April 2013

Chandana (Chandi) Jayawardena, David McMillan, David Pantin, Martin Taller and Paul Willie

This paper aims to analyse the evolution, current challenges, best practices, and trends in the international hotel industry.

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyse the evolution, current challenges, best practices, and trends in the international hotel industry.

Design/methodology/approach

The foundation for this paper was laid during a well‐attended Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes (WHATT) roundtable discussion between industry leaders and hospitality educators in May 2012. International hoteliering is discussed in the context of the theme for the 2012 Canadian WHATT roundtable and the strategic question: “What innovations are needed in the Canadian hotel industry and how might they be implemented to secure the industry's future?”

Findings

Through analysis of past and present trends, the paper predicts that current challenges such as labour shortages will continue to affect the industry in the near future.

Practical implications

In the conclusion the paper advocates innovative approaches for hospitality education, and states that Canada should learn from international trends and become more innovative and competitive if it is to secure the industry's future.

Originality/value

The paper draws on the vast experience in international hotel management of the co‐authors. As the team of authors represents both industry and academia, this paper will be of immense value to students, educators, researchers as well as managers. The co‐authors include a former president of the world's largest professional association for hotel managers (HCIMA/Institute of Hospitality) and a former CEO of the world's largest trade association for hotel managers (International Hotel and Restaurant Association).

Details

Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4217

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1999

Patrick McAllister

This paper analyses trends in direct international property investment by British investing institutions in the 1980s and 1990s. Although it is well established that there…

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2579

Abstract

This paper analyses trends in direct international property investment by British investing institutions in the 1980s and 1990s. Although it is well established that there is home country bias in all investment sectors, evidence is presented which suggests that it is more pronounced in the direct property sector. The main focus is on barriers to international property investment and, therefore, potential sources of segmentation in the property sector. The research addresses a number of issues relating to levels of international property investment, the linkages between the nature of the core business and investment strategies and the relative importance of high diversification costs. This is carried out by an analysis of the most recent data on British institutional investment trends and by a survey questionnaire of British property professionals involved in asset allocation decisions for the investing institutions. The results indicate that: information costs are the most important barrier to international direct property investment, the high cost of executing a global diversification strategy inhibits international property investment, and institutions who have clients and see business opportunities in international centres are more likely to be interested in international property investment opportunities. The data on asset allocation trends support the view that the property market is significantly less integrated than the other securities markets.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

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Article
Publication date: 24 May 2013

Chi Hong Nguyen

This paper aims to provide an overall picture of Vietnamese international student mobility which remains silent in Vietnamese international education and migration research.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide an overall picture of Vietnamese international student mobility which remains silent in Vietnamese international education and migration research.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper traces the evolvement of Vietnamese student outflows in a historical approach by analyzing official documents published by governmental agencies, public media and international education and migration literatures.

Findings

While the early Vietnamese student movements from the early 20th century to the 1986 Open Door period were mostly shaped by political purposes, the current trend is influenced by social and political transformations in Vietnam and host countries and by changes in the practices of higher education internationalization policies in host countries. It also argues that the present movement of Vietnamese students, which is seen as the government's strategic approach to improve the quality of the existing workforce for their industrialization process by 2020, becomes politicized as human capital is recognized as the focal force for the country's development and global integration.

Originality/value

By analyzing the factors behind Vietnamese international student mobility, the paper hopes to contribute an understanding of the international student movements and professional migration in Vietnam which are still under‐researched.

Details

Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 20 August 2013

Alexander W. Wiseman and Emily Anderson

This chapter introduces readers to the Annual Review of Comparative and International Education and approaches to reviewing the field broadly, by examining the ways that…

Abstract

This chapter introduces readers to the Annual Review of Comparative and International Education and approaches to reviewing the field broadly, by examining the ways that scholars and professionals in the field reflect on comparative and international education (CIE). It begins with a synthesis of the reviews and reflective pieces published since the mid-20th century, and then critiques the field for being neither consistently nor systematically reflective. The chapter then summarizes several of the benefits of consistent and systematic reflection through a process of annual review. The chapter concludes with an overview and synthesis of each of the sections, which provide the structure of the Annual Review, and poses questions that drive systematic reflection through each section of the volume and the field as a whole.

Details

Annual Review of Comparative and International Education 2013
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-694-1

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1986

Madhav Kacker

The article attempts to synthesise major developments in global retailing and presents a scenario of important global trends since the 1960s. Implications are also offered…

Abstract

The article attempts to synthesise major developments in global retailing and presents a scenario of important global trends since the 1960s. Implications are also offered for international retailers.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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