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Book part
Publication date: 2 December 2019

Frank Fitzpatrick

Abstract

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Understanding Intercultural Interaction: An Analysis of Key Concepts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-397-0

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2010

Ana Guedes and Alex Faria

This paper aims to draw on international relations (IR) literature to analyze, from a critical standpoint, recent developments in international business (IB) and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to draw on international relations (IR) literature to analyze, from a critical standpoint, recent developments in international business (IB) and international management (IM) in the USA, and the emerging debate between mainstream and critical researchers in Anglo‐American literature. It also aims to show that these important undertakings overshadow the political role of international disciplines and constrain the development of a critical perspective in IB from Latin America.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on an interdisciplinary approach, this paper addresses the main debates on IR regarding the “international” and the control of international fields of knowledge by the great powers to foster a critical perspective in IB from Latin America.

Findings

Critique from a universal perspective which does not differentiate IB and IM in the Anglo‐American literature is important, but constrains the appraisal of specific national and regional issues that are of vital importance to the development of a critical perspective in IB from Latin America.

Practical implications

This critical perspective moves beyond disciplinary boundaries and raises implications for research and teaching of IB and IM in Latin America.

Originality/value

This paper problematizes, from a perspective focused on the political economy of knowledge, the overlooking of debates about the “international” and of specific conditions that both enable and constrain the development of fields of knowledge from a less asymmetrical standpoint.

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Critical perspectives on international business, vol. 6 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-2043

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Book part
Publication date: 24 August 2011

Breda Kenny and John Fahy

The study this chapter reports focuses on how network theory contributes to the understanding of the internationalization process of SMEs and measures the effect of…

Abstract

The study this chapter reports focuses on how network theory contributes to the understanding of the internationalization process of SMEs and measures the effect of network capability on performance in international trade and has three research objectives.

The first objective of the study relates to providing new insights into the international market development activities through the application of a network perspective. The chapter reviews the international business literature to ascertain the development of thought, the research gaps, and the shortcomings. This review shows that the network perspective is a useful and popular theoretical domain that researchers can use to understand international activities, particularly of small, high technology, resource-constrained firms.

The second research objective is to gain a deeper understanding of network capability. This chapter presents a model for the impact of network capability on international performance by building on the emerging literature on the dynamic capabilities view of the firm. The model conceptualizes network capability in terms of network characteristics, network operation, and network resources. Network characteristics comprise strong and weak ties (operationalized as foreign-market entry modes), relational capability, and the level of trust between partners. Network operation focuses on network initiation, network coordination, and network learning capabilities. Network resources comprise network human-capital resources, synergy-sensitive resources (resource combinations within the network), and information sharing within the network.

The third research objective is to determine the impact of networking capability on the international performance of SMEs. The study analyzes 11 hypotheses through structural equations modeling using LISREL. The hypotheses relate to strong and weak ties, the relative strength of strong ties over weak ties, and each of the eight remaining constructs of networking capability in the study. The research conducts a cross-sectional study by using a sample of SMEs drawn from the telecommunications industry in Ireland.

The study supports the hypothesis that strong ties are more influential on international performance than weak ties. Similarly, network coordination and human-capital resources have a positive and significant association with international performance. Strong ties, weak ties, trust, network initiation, synergy-sensitive resources, relational capability, network learning, and information sharing do not have a significant association with international performance. The results of this study are strong (R2=0.63 for performance as the outcome) and provide a number of interesting insights into the relations between collaboration or networking capability and performance.

This study provides managers and policy makers with an improved understanding of the contingent effects of networks to highlight situations where networks might have limited, zero, or even negative effects on business outcomes. The study cautions against the tendency to interpret networks as universally beneficial to business development and performance outcomes.

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Interfirm Networks: Theory, Strategy, and Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-024-7

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Article
Publication date: 13 May 2020

Som Sekhar Bhattacharyya

The purpose of this study is international business strategy (IBS) has evolved into a complex and vast domain of study. Given this fact, the author first proposed a set of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is international business strategy (IBS) has evolved into a complex and vast domain of study. Given this fact, the author first proposed a set of screens that a firm’s IBS manager was required to assess before venturing into a foreign country. Then the author developed an integrated IBS framework to secure a holistic view regarding IBS. Finally, the author proposed a typology to classify IBS archetypes.

Design/methodology/approach

The author undertook a systematic and integrated literature review of IBS literature. The literature review was carried out with a conceptual perspective in mind. Incremental and argumentative logic was applied to develop the integrated IBS framework from a wide domain of literature. Furthermore, the typology on IBS initiatives was also developed based upon a classification scheme developed in the framework.

Findings

The author developed the integrated conceptual framework based upon six building blocks which were conceptual elements. The framework consisted of the antecedent variable as internationally deployable organizational resources and capabilities (IDORC), the mediating variables as internationally implementable organizational process (IIOP), internationally executable practices and activities (IEPA) and international market product service offerings (IMPSO). The moderating variable was international initiatives management direction and control (IIMDC), while the dependent variable was international market performance assessment (IMPA). Thus, IDORC, IIOP, IEPA, IMPSA, IIMDC and IMPA were the building blocks of IBS framework. There were 12 types of IBS typologies based upon the dominant role played by the home and host countries in the six building block elements of IBS mentioned. The 12 typologies were domestic reproduction (DR), foreign country centric offerings (FCCO), international offerings perspective (IOP), foreign country-driven activities (FCDA), international-driven activities (IDA), foreign country-driven process (FCDP), international-driven process (IDP), foreign country initiatives domestically controlled (FCIDC), international initiatives domestically controlled (IIDC), international initiatives home-dominant foreign dyad controlled (IIHDFDC), international independent initiative (III) and international coordinated network approach (ICNA).

Research limitations/implications

In this study, an integrated framework on IBS was developed. In the theoretical framework, antecedent (DORC), mediating (IIOP, IEPA and IMPSA), moderating (IIMDC) and dependent variables (IMPA) have been incorporated. This was the first theoretical contribution of this paper toward IBS theorization. Second contribution of this paper was toward typology development regarding IBS initiatives archetypes. The 12 typologies were DR, FCCO, IOP, FCDA, IDA, FCDP, IDP, FCIDC, IIDC, IHDFDC, III and ICNA. The IBS typology is based upon the six constituent concepts developed from literature.

Practical implications

Managers who are responsible for the planning and execution of IBS initiatives could from the integrated IBS framework comprehend what would be the steps required to plan and execute an IBS strategy in its entirety for success in foreign markets. Furthermore, managers could understand the various mediation and moderation roles regarding the IBS factors present in any firm internationalization effort. This would help managers not only to amplify the mediating effects but also to tweak the efforts of moderation so as to arrive at better internationalization performance. The section on typology on IBS initiatives would help managers to secure a better fit for the IBS initiative of the firm. The typology would anchor managerial perspectives regarding how the home country firm organizational contributions on resources and capabilities, processes, practice activities and products and services need to be offered in foreign countries.

Originality/value

To the best of author’s knowledge, this is one of the first frameworks regarding an integrated perspective on IBS and a typology on IBS based upon a set of antecedent (resources and capabilities), mediation (process, activities and market offerings), moderation (management control) and dependent (performance) variables building on firm resource-based view perspectives.

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Review of International Business and Strategy, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-6014

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2010

Eduardo Ibarra‐Colado, Alex Faria and Ana Lucia Guedes

The purpose of the paper is to problematise the emerging interest on international management from a critical point of view, considering the potential contribution of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to problematise the emerging interest on international management from a critical point of view, considering the potential contribution of Latin American perspectives and to introduce the content of the special issue on “Critical international management and international critical management: perspectives from Latin America”.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper shows the relevance acquired recently by international management and the international advance of critical management studies, but also demonstrates their inherent limitations because of their universalistic standpoint that inhibit them to consider the governance issues of international management that are obvious from a Latin American standpoint.

Findings

The paper finds the relevance of some Latin American perspectives to break down the universalistic point of view of IM and CMS introducing a “pluriversalistic” geopolitical position to consider alternate projects to neoliberal globalisation contributing to realise the necessary decolonial shift to produce symmetrical dialogue across the border.

Originality/value

The paper shows that the contributions included in the special issue open new ways to critically consider and renew international management as a field of knowledge, but also demonstrates the relevance to think on the internationalisation of critical management during the recent years. They contribute to foster the new constitution of knowledge production around complex/diachronic issues reconceptualising research projects as co‐operative ventures of multiple voices and orientations from multiple places.

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Critical perspectives on international business, vol. 6 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-2043

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1999

Rocco R. Vanasco

The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) of 1977 and its amendment – the Trade and Competitive Act of 1988 – are unique not only in the history of the accounting and…

Abstract

The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) of 1977 and its amendment – the Trade and Competitive Act of 1988 – are unique not only in the history of the accounting and auditing profession, but also in international law. The Acts raised awareness of the need for efficient and adequate internal control systems to prevent illegal acts such as the bribery of foreign officials, political parties and governments to secure or maintain contracts overseas. Its uniqueness is also due to the fact that the USA is the first country to pioneer such a legislation that impacted foreign trade, international law and codes of ethics. The research traces the history of the FCPA before and after its enactment, the role played by the various branches of the United States Government – Congress, Department of Justice, Securities Exchange commission (SEC), Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the Internal Revenue Service (IRS); the contributions made by professional associations such as the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICFA), the Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA), the American Bar Association (ABA); and, finally, the role played by various international organizations such as the United Nations (UN), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC). A cultural, ethical and legalistic background will give a better understanding of the FCPA as wll as the rationale for its controversy.

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Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 14 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2010

Alex Faria, Eduardo Ibarra‐Colado and Ana Guedes

This paper aims to problematize the lack of different worldviews on international management (IM), and the virtual silence in Latin America regarding this field within the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to problematize the lack of different worldviews on international management (IM), and the virtual silence in Latin America regarding this field within the context of the ongoing crisis of neoliberal policies and discourse.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper embraces a decolonial Latin American perspective based on developments in international relations (IR). A major reason for this dialogue is that critical debates within IR have been overlooked by both mainstream and critical literature on management, despite the intrinsic relation between decolonial arguments and IR and the increasing importance of management, and IM, within the realm of international relations to both “centers” and “peripheries”.

Findings

The interdisciplinary dialogue put forward in this paper goes beyond those borders established by the “center” and imposed on subalterns. Accordingly then, this might be taken as a particular way of putting into practice a decolonial Latin American perspective. It aims to go beyond some “universal” standpoint as the IR literature shows that the universal standpoint in relation to the “peripheries” tends to be mobilized by the “centers”. It is understood that the construction of a critical Latin American perspective is a way of creating better conditions for “cross‐cultural encounters” not only in global terms, but also within Latin America.

Practical implications

Rethinking IM through a critical perspective inspired by IR has implications for teaching, research and other types of practice in both IM and IR in Latin America.

Originality/value

The paper aims to foster a Latin American perspective rather than a general perspective. Instead of merely disengaging the “center”, the paper embraces, from a critical position inspired by IR, the current argument in US literature that the core of IM comprises a strong commitment to cross‐cultural issues, diversity, and eclecticism.

Details

Critical perspectives on international business, vol. 6 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-2043

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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2015

Md Shah Azam

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to…

Abstract

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to economic and non-economic activities. Researchers have increasingly focused on the adoption and use of ICT by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) as the economic development of a country is largely dependent on them. Following the success of ICT utilisation in SMEs in developed countries, many developing countries are looking to utilise the potential of the technology to develop SMEs. Past studies have shown that the contribution of ICT to the performance of SMEs is not clear and certain. Thus, it is crucial to determine the effectiveness of ICT in generating firm performance since this has implications for SMEs’ expenditure on the technology. This research examines the diffusion of ICT among SMEs with respect to the typical stages from innovation adoption to post-adoption, by analysing the actual usage of ICT and value creation. The mediating effects of integration and utilisation on SME performance are also studied. Grounded in the innovation diffusion literature, institutional theory and resource-based theory, this study has developed a comprehensive integrated research model focused on the research objectives. Following a positivist research paradigm, this study employs a mixed-method research approach. A preliminary conceptual framework is developed through an extensive literature review and is refined by results from an in-depth field study. During the field study, a total of 11 SME owners or decision-makers were interviewed. The recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using NVivo 10 to refine the model to develop the research hypotheses. The final research model is composed of 30 first-order and five higher-order constructs which involve both reflective and formative measures. Partial least squares-based structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) is employed to test the theoretical model with a cross-sectional data set of 282 SMEs in Bangladesh. Survey data were collected using a structured questionnaire issued to SMEs selected by applying a stratified random sampling technique. The structural equation modelling utilises a two-step procedure of data analysis. Prior to estimating the structural model, the measurement model is examined for construct validity of the study variables (i.e. convergent and discriminant validity).

The estimates show cognitive evaluation as an important antecedent for expectation which is shaped primarily by the entrepreneurs’ beliefs (perception) and also influenced by the owners’ innovativeness and culture. Culture further influences expectation. The study finds that facilitating condition, environmental pressure and country readiness are important antecedents of expectation and ICT use. The results also reveal that integration and the degree of ICT utilisation significantly affect SMEs’ performance. Surprisingly, the findings do not reveal any significant impact of ICT usage on performance which apparently suggests the possibility of the ICT productivity paradox. However, the analysis finally proves the non-existence of the paradox by demonstrating the mediating role of ICT integration and degree of utilisation explain the influence of information technology (IT) usage on firm performance which is consistent with the resource-based theory. The results suggest that the use of ICT can enhance SMEs’ performance if the technology is integrated and properly utilised. SME owners or managers, interested stakeholders and policy makers may follow the study’s outcomes and focus on ICT integration and degree of utilisation with a view to attaining superior organisational performance.

This study urges concerned business enterprises and government to look at the environmental and cultural factors with a view to achieving ICT usage success in terms of enhanced firm performance. In particular, improving organisational practices and procedures by eliminating the traditional power distance inside organisations and implementing necessary rules and regulations are important actions for managing environmental and cultural uncertainties. The application of a Bengali user interface may help to ensure the productivity of ICT use by SMEs in Bangladesh. Establishing a favourable national technology infrastructure and legal environment may contribute positively to improving the overall situation. This study also suggests some changes and modifications in the country’s existing policies and strategies. The government and policy makers should undertake mass promotional programs to disseminate information about the various uses of computers and their contribution in developing better organisational performance. Organising specialised training programs for SME capacity building may succeed in attaining the motivation for SMEs to use ICT. Ensuring easy access to the technology by providing loans, grants and subsidies is important. Various stakeholders, partners and related organisations should come forward to support government policies and priorities in order to ensure the productive use of ICT among SMEs which finally will help to foster Bangladesh’s economic development.

Details

E-Services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-325-9

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Book part
Publication date: 10 December 2015

Chun Kit Lok

Smart card-based E-payment systems are receiving increasing attention as the number of implementations is witnessed on the rise globally. Understanding of user adoption…

Abstract

Smart card-based E-payment systems are receiving increasing attention as the number of implementations is witnessed on the rise globally. Understanding of user adoption behavior of E-payment systems that employ smart card technology becomes a research area that is of particular value and interest to both IS researchers and professionals. However, research interest focuses mostly on why a smart card-based E-payment system results in a failure or how the system could have grown into a success. This signals the fact that researchers have not had much opportunity to critically review a smart card-based E-payment system that has gained wide support and overcome the hurdle of critical mass adoption. The Octopus in Hong Kong has provided a rare opportunity for investigating smart card-based E-payment system because of its unprecedented success. This research seeks to thoroughly analyze the Octopus from technology adoption behavior perspectives.

Cultural impacts on adoption behavior are one of the key areas that this research posits to investigate. Since the present research is conducted in Hong Kong where a majority of population is Chinese ethnicity and yet is westernized in a number of aspects, assuming that users in Hong Kong are characterized by eastern or western culture is less useful. Explicit cultural characteristics at individual level are tapped into here instead of applying generalization of cultural beliefs to users to more accurately reflect cultural bias. In this vein, the technology acceptance model (TAM) is adapted, extended, and tested for its applicability cross-culturally in Hong Kong on the Octopus. Four cultural dimensions developed by Hofstede are included in this study, namely uncertainty avoidance, masculinity, individualism, and Confucian Dynamism (long-term orientation), to explore their influence on usage behavior through the mediation of perceived usefulness.

TAM is also integrated with the innovation diffusion theory (IDT) to borrow two constructs in relation to innovative characteristics, namely relative advantage and compatibility, in order to enhance the explanatory power of the proposed research model. Besides, the normative accountability of the research model is strengthened by embracing two social influences, namely subjective norm and image. As the last antecedent to perceived usefulness, prior experience serves to bring in the time variation factor to allow level of prior experience to exert both direct and moderating effects on perceived usefulness.

The resulting research model is analyzed by partial least squares (PLS)-based Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) approach. The research findings reveal that all cultural dimensions demonstrate direct effect on perceived usefulness though the influence of uncertainty avoidance is found marginally significant. Other constructs on innovative characteristics and social influences are validated to be significant as hypothesized. Prior experience does indeed significantly moderate the two influences that perceived usefulness receives from relative advantage and compatibility, respectively. The research model has demonstrated convincing explanatory power and so may be employed for further studies in other contexts. In particular, cultural effects play a key role in contributing to the uniqueness of the model, enabling it to be an effective tool to help critically understand increasingly internationalized IS system development and implementation efforts. This research also suggests several practical implications in view of the findings that could better inform managerial decisions for designing, implementing, or promoting smart card-based E-payment system.

Details

E-services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-709-7

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Book part
Publication date: 23 August 2021

Mohammad Nurunnabi

The purpose of this study is to review a synthesis of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) implementation in developing countries in an attempt to provide…

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to review a synthesis of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) implementation in developing countries in an attempt to provide directions for future research. The in-depth analysis was performed with the use of the data analysis tool available in the Scopus databases. The study initially reviewed 145 papers and in particular 35 papers were analysed. Fifteen articles (43%) were published in seven journals including International Journal of Accounting, Critical Perspectives on Accounting, Advances in Accounting, International Journal of Accounting and Information Management, Asian Review of Accounting, Journal of Applied Accounting Research, and Asian Journal of Business and Accounting. Specifically, 89% citations were from 14 articles, but 9 (25%) articles were without any citations. Most of the studies focus on qualitative followed by quantitative, and very few studies were based on mixed methods. Researchers should focus on few areas for future research on IFRS implementation in developing countries including theory implications, policy prescriptions, and case of particular standard.

Details

International Financial Reporting Standards Implementation: A Global Experience
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-440-4

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