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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1993

Jacob Bercovitch and Allison Houston

This article analyzes two of the determinants of the effectiveness of the mediation process, namely the impact of different mediators and mediation behavior on mediation

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1846

Abstract

This article analyzes two of the determinants of the effectiveness of the mediation process, namely the impact of different mediators and mediation behavior on mediation outcomes in international relations. We review the literature and consider this relationship in terms of specific hypotheses concerning (1) the identity of a mediator, (2) previous interactions with the parties, (3) previous mediation attempts, and (4) the nature of mediation strategy. An original data set of 97 international disputes and 364 mediation attempts in the post‐1945 period is utilized to test our hypotheses. Multivariate analysis suggests the significance of high mediator rank, directive strategy, and close political alignment in achieving successful outcomes. We use these results to posit and test a series of causal models of mediation.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 4 February 2014

Sinisa Vukovic

This paper aims to provide a structured overview of the most important research conducted in the field of international mediation. Although there are still strong…

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5317

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide a structured overview of the most important research conducted in the field of international mediation. Although there are still strong similarities between the processes of international and domestic mediation, lack of a clear structure on the international level suggests that international mediation activities could be separately academically scrutinized. This literature review is aimed at illustrating the unique nature of international mediation.

Design/methodology/approach

Various factors that affect the overall process and the outcome of international mediation efforts were clustered in four distinct yet interrelated groups. The first section illustrates various mediators' characteristics that might induce the disputants to accept mediation and agree to specific terms that were mediated in the process. In the second section two distinct factors affecting the mediation outcome were explained: contextual and behavioral. Finally, in the third sections various types of mediators were discussed.

Findings

The article shows the intricate complexities of international mediation, highlighting four distinct features that might have an effect on the mediation outcome: mediator's characteristics, contextual features, behavioral factors, and types of mediators.

Originality/value

This article attempts to offer a comprehensive overview of the current state of the art in international mediation, and suggests potential areas of future research.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 4 February 2014

Allard Duursma

A rapidly expanding body of literature on international mediation, as well as the central role international mediation plays in modern-day conflict resolution, make it…

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3300

Abstract

Purpose

A rapidly expanding body of literature on international mediation, as well as the central role international mediation plays in modern-day conflict resolution, make it necessary to review and analyze this vastly evolving field of study. This study seeks to review the most significant trends and debates in the literature on international mediation, with an emphasis on the literature of the past six years.

Design/methodology/approach

Reflecting Wall et al.'s staged conceptualization of the mediation process; this review essay is divided in three sections that cover the antecedents of mediation, possible mediation approaches, and the outcomes these approaches yield – making it possible to review and analyze the diverse sets of theories within the field of mediation, as well the various methodological approaches employed to test these theories.

Findings

Much research to date has focused on how international mediation in armed conflicts affects the likelihood of reaching a negotiated agreement, while other possible outcomes of mediation have been understudied. Accordingly, research needs to be done on the effects of mediation attempts that did not lead to a peace agreement, as well as the accumulative effect of peace agreements. Furthermore, the relation between negative peace and mediation has been studied extensively, but how mediation affects the degree of positive peace has received scant scholarly attention. Finally, the interlinkages between the different phases of the mediation process need to be examined more extensively.

Originality/value

This review identifies the state of the art knowledge concerning the international mediation process, which allows peacemakers to make informed decisions in order to prevent and resolve armed conflict in the twenty-first century.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 10 October 2016

Aran Martin

Success and failure in mediation are widely understood to determine whether a state will receive positive or negative reputation outcomes from undertaking a mediation role…

Abstract

Purpose

Success and failure in mediation are widely understood to determine whether a state will receive positive or negative reputation outcomes from undertaking a mediation role in an international conflict. Research from mediation in domestic settings contradicts this view, finding that peer mediators in school and community settings received positive mediator outcomes from undertaking their role, even when they failed to facilitate an agreement between disputants. This paper aims to test this assumption and argues that mediation success and failure are only weakly correlated with observable reputation outcomes for mediating states and proposes an alternative explanatory framework.

Design/methodology/approach

The hypothesis was inductively generated through a comparative analysis of single-state mediation attempts selected from the Uppsala Conflict Database Project MILC data set. The cases selected were South Africa’s mediation attempts in Côte d’Ivoire from 2004 to 2005 and Comoros from 2003 to 2004, and Mexico’s mediation attempts in Colombia (National Liberation Army) in 2004 and Guatemala (Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity) between 1994 and 1996. To contextualise the findings and develop the explanatory framework, South African mediation attempts in Burundi and the DRC are discussed in the closing sections of the paper.

Findings

This paper finds that mediation success and failure are only weakly correlated with mediator outcomes. Mediator outcomes are explained by the activity level of the mediating state in providing mediation services; the positive intention of the mediator to assist in resolving the conflict; the scale of the conflict mediated; the severity of spill over effects from the conflict in question; the regional importance of the conflict; the proximity of the government which a mediating state looks to develop relations with to the conflict; the importance of the mediation attempt within the peace process; the level of contestation of the mediation attempt, meaning the extent to which mediation attempts are themselves sites of regional or global international power politics; and the success or failure of the mediation attempt.

Originality/value

An explanatory framework for state mediator outcomes in which the outcome of a mediation attempt for the third-party state is not determined solely, or even primarily, by mediation success or failure bridges mediation research applying to international and domestic issue areas and provides additional information for policy makers regarding the costs and benefits of committing their state to processes of mediation in conflicts with low probabilities of resolution. This is particularly important for state policy makers, given that mediation is successful on average in only one out of every three attempts.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1994

Jill M. Purdy and Barbara Gray

This study evaluates an attempt to develop a mediation program within a state environmental agency. A number of concerns arose during the agency's efforts to use mediation

Abstract

This study evaluates an attempt to develop a mediation program within a state environmental agency. A number of concerns arose during the agency's efforts to use mediation, including the neutrality of mediators, the types of cases mediated, the voluntary participation of parties, and acceptance of the mediated agreement. These issues were examined through a case study of a conflict that was mediated by the agency. Based on issues in the case, criteria are suggested which help guard against the problems that arise when government agencies serve a mediating role. These criteria may be useful to any organization that contemplates using mediation to help resolve conflict.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 4 December 2017

Hong-Youl Ha, Jang-Gyem Kim and Yongkyun Chung

The purpose of this paper is to select the best model among alternative models explaining the relationship maintenance in mediation.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to select the best model among alternative models explaining the relationship maintenance in mediation.

Design/methodology/approach

Four alternative models are employed in order to select best fit model through the test of each construct using Korean and Indonesian firm data.

Findings

The settlement model out of four alternative models is the best fit model in both Korea and Indonesia. The nexus of experience-settlement is not similar between Korea and Indonesia. The nexus of cost-saving-settlement is similar between two countries.

Practical implications

The field manager and policy maker get useful information from the findings. In particular, Korea and Indonesia belong to different cultural clusters.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the mediation literature through the suggestion of hypothesized model of relationship maintenance intention in mediation.

Details

Journal of Korea Trade, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1229-828X

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Article
Publication date: 19 April 2011

Penny Brooker

The purpose of this paper is to examine the codes of professional conduct observed by construction mediators in England and Wales with the aim of assessing whether they…

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1414

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the codes of professional conduct observed by construction mediators in England and Wales with the aim of assessing whether they raise awareness about party self‐determination and inform users about variations in mediator approaches.

Design/methodology/approach

The research collated a list of construction mediation providers drawn from members of the Civil Mediation Council, professional bodies working in construction and other leading providers. A search was then made of mediation providers' web sites to find published codes of conduct.

Findings

A substantial number of providers do not emphasize party self‐determination or the steps taken to inform users about mediator approaches in their online codes. Some organisations provide online access to “Mediation Agreements” which determine how the process and mediator approach is selected but generally codes do not place a specific duty on mediators to ensure parties enter mediation with informed consent about their approach.

Research limitations/implications

Online searches may not have found specific mediator codes if organisations publish overarching professional codes of practice for members, if the documents labels do not identify them as a mediator code, or if web sites are not searchable. Further research should investigate how codes of conduct affect construction mediators' practice.

Practical implications

Codes of conduct from countries and international organisations provide exemplars of good practice. Mediation providers in England and Wales should consider revising mediator codes to give weight to the principle of party self‐determination and to articulate a duty that mediators inform users about their approach to ensure they obtain informed consent.

Originality/value

This is an original analysis of construction codes of conduct observed by mediators in England and Wales. A comparative analysis of codes from international sources contributes to the current debate on regulation and future policy developments.

Details

International Journal of Law in the Built Environment, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-1450

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2000

Josh A. Arnold

This study examined the influence of mediator insight on disputants' perceptions and behaviors in negotiation. Participants played the role of student employee…

Abstract

This study examined the influence of mediator insight on disputants' perceptions and behaviors in negotiation. Participants played the role of student employee representatives and bargained with student management representatives over a number of issues. During the course of the negotiation, a mediator made recommendations as to how the conflict should be resolved. The experiment varied (1) the amount of information disputants believed mediators possessed about their interests and needs and (2) mediator recommendations (e.g., integrative, compromise, non/ integrative). The results indicated that perceived insight (i.e., the level of information about the conflict) had strong effects on disputants' perceptions of mediator credibility. Perceptions of mediator credibility, in turn, were found to influence disputants' general perceptions of the mediator (e.g., acceptability, confidence, satisfaction) and perceptions of the mediator's recommendations.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2015

Peter T. Coleman, Katharina G. Kugler, Kyong Mazzaro, Christianna Gozzi, Nora El Zokm and Kenneth Kressel

Research on conflict mediation presents a scattered, piecemeal understanding of what determines mediators’ strategies and tactics and ultimately what constitutes…

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1405

Abstract

Purpose

Research on conflict mediation presents a scattered, piecemeal understanding of what determines mediators’ strategies and tactics and ultimately what constitutes successful mediation. This paper presents research on developing a unifying framework – the situated model of mediation – that identifies and integrates the most basic dimensions of mediation situations. These dimensions combine to determine differences in mediator’s strategies that in turn influence mediation processes and outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach used by this paper was twofold. First, the existing empirical literature was reviewed on factors that influence mediator’s behaviors. Based on the findings of this review, a survey study was conducted with experienced mediators to determine the most fundamental dimensions of mediation situations affecting mediators’ behaviors and mediation processes and outcomes. The data were analyzed through exploratory factor analysis and regression analysis.

Findings

The results of the study show that four of the most fundamental dimensions of mediation situations include: low vs high intensity of the conflict, cooperative vs competitive relationship between the parties, tight vs flexible context and overt vs covert processes and issues. Each of these factors was found to independently predict differences in mediators’ behaviors and perceptions of processes and outcomes. These dimensions are then combined to constitute the basic dimensions of the situated model of mediation.

Originality/value

The situated model of mediation is both heuristic and generative, and it shows how a minimal number of factors are sufficient to capture the complexity of conflict mediation in a wide range of contexts.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1996

William Ross and Jessica LaCroix

The present paper reviews the research literature on trust in bargaining and mediation. Several models of trust within the bargaining process are also described. It is…

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3526

Abstract

The present paper reviews the research literature on trust in bargaining and mediation. Several models of trust within the bargaining process are also described. It is concluded that trust means different things, depending upon the relationship under investigation. Trust among negotiators can refer to a personality trail (how trusting a negotiator is of others) or to a temporary state. Within the state perspective, trust often refers to one of three orientations: (1) cooperative motivational orientation (MO), (2) patterns of predictable behavior, (3) a problem‐solving orientation. Trust between a negotiator and constituents usually refers to a cooperative MO (i.e., shared loyalty) between these two groups. The addition of a mediator can impact both the opposing negotiators' relationship and each negotiator‐constituent relationship; the mediator also has direct and indirect relationships with the parties and their constituents. Future directions for research on trust are identified.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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