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Article
Publication date: 26 June 2009

Marie‐Claude Beaulieu, Marie‐Hélène Gagnon and Lynda Khalaf

The purpose of this paper is to examine financial integration across North American stock markets from January 1984 to December 2003.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine financial integration across North American stock markets from January 1984 to December 2003.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses an arbitrage pricing theory framework. The risk factors considered are the three Fama and French factors augmented with momentum for both countries as well as their international counterparts. Both the domestic and international four factor models in cross section and test for partial, mild, and strong financial integration are estimated. The domestic and international model are estimated on domestic portfolios and on a subset of Canadian cross listings matched with American stocks.

Findings

Results can be summarized as follows: first, results show stronger evidence of mild rather than partial or strong integration in both domestic portfolios and interlisted stocks. Second, interlisted stocks appear at first glance to be more integrated than the domestic portfolios, but this result can be attributed to the poor explanatory power of the models applied to interlisted stocks. Once the authors rule out the case where the model does not generate statistically important risk premiums for both countries, the evidence of integration is similar in both domestic and interlisted stocks. Third, the domestic and international models have similar explanatory power, although the domestic model performs better with the Canadian interlisted stocks are found.

Originality/value

The results suggest that, in an international context, a portfolio manager is better off using the four factor model as a benchmark in cross sections rather than the single market. Furthermore, if the agency problem described in Karolyi is ignored, Canadian interlisted stocks and Canadian domestic portfolios have the same diversification potential.

Details

International Journal of Managerial Finance, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1743-9132

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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2020

Dazhi Zheng, Thomas C. Chiang and Edward Nelling

This chapter examines a multifactor model for stock returns in nine Asian markets (Japan, China, South Korea, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia, and…

Abstract

This chapter examines a multifactor model for stock returns in nine Asian markets (Japan, China, South Korea, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand). The authors develop a model using the market risk premium, size, book-to-market, profitability, investment, momentum, price-to-earnings ratio, and dividend yield factors for each market. The empirical results suggest that this eight-factor model can better explain the variations of stock returns than the original Fama–French three-factor model. Factor-based models using local data outperform those using data from US markets. In addition, the evidence suggests that the eight-factor model can better explain stock returns when the market is under stress.

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Book part
Publication date: 2 June 2008

Yunfang Hu, Kazuo Nishimura and Koji Shimomura

Based on the Jones (1971) model, we construct two dynamic models of international trade in which the rate of time preference is either constant or time-varying. The main…

Abstract

Based on the Jones (1971) model, we construct two dynamic models of international trade in which the rate of time preference is either constant or time-varying. The main purpose is to study whether and under what conditions the results derived in the Jones model still hold in the dynamic framework. It is shown that the results of dynamic models may be similar or different to those obtained in the static model. For example, it is possible that, in both static and dynamic models, an increase in the commodity price raises this commodity's output and the return to the specific factor in this sector. However, the effects on the wage rate may be different due to the factor accumulation impact in the dynamic framework.

Details

Contemporary and Emerging Issues in Trade Theory and Policy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-541-3

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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2018

Jörg Döpke and Lars Tegtmeier

The purpose of this paper is, to study macroeconomic risk factors driving the expected stock returns of listed private equity (LPE). The authors use LPE indices divided…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is, to study macroeconomic risk factors driving the expected stock returns of listed private equity (LPE). The authors use LPE indices divided into different styles and regions from January 2004 to December 2016 and a set of country stock indices to estimate the macroeconomic risk profiles and corresponding risk premiums. Using a seemingly unrelated regressions (SUR) model to estimate factor sensitivities, the authors document that LPE indices exhibit stock market βs that are greater than 1. A one-factor asset pricing model using world stock market returns as the only possible risk factor is rejected on the basis of generalized method of moments (GMM) orthogonality conditions. In contrast, using the change in a currency basket, the G-7 industrial production, the G-7 term spread, the G-7 inflation rate and a recently proposed indicator of economic policy uncertainty as additional risk factors, this multifactor model is able to price a cross-section of expected LPE returns. The risk-return profile of LPE differs from country equity indices. Consequently, LPE should be treated as a separate asset class.

Design/methodology/approach

Following Ferson and Harvey (1994), the authors use an unconditional asset pricing model to capture the structure of returns across LPE. The authors use 11 LPE indices divided into different styles and regions from January 2004 to December 2016, and a set of country stock indices as spanning assets to estimate the macroeconomic risk profiles and corresponding risk premiums.

Findings

Using a seemingly unrelated regressions (SUR) model to estimate factor sensitivities, the authors document that LPE indices exhibit stock market ßs that are greater than 1. The authors estimate a one-factor asset pricing model using world stock market returns as the only possible risk factor by GMM. This model is rejected on the basis of the GMM orthogonality conditions. By contrast, a multifactor model built on the change in a currency basket, the G-7 industrial production, the G-7 term spread, the G-7 inflation rate and a recently proposed indicator of global economic policy uncertainty as additional risk factors is able to price a cross-section of expected LPE returns.

Research limitations/implications

Given data availability, the authors’ sample is strongly influenced by the financial crisis and its aftermath.

Practical implications

Information about the risk profile of LPE is important for asset allocation decisions. In particular, it may help to optimally react to contemporaneous changes in economy-wide risk factors.

Originality/value

To the best of authors’ knowledge, this is the first LPE study which investigates whether a set of macroeconomic factors is actually priced and, therefore, associated with a non-zero risk premium in the cross-section of returns.

Details

Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2020

Ashna Chandra, Justin Paul and Meena Chavan

This paper reviews the literature on internationalization barriers of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) from developing countries. The purposes of the study are: (1) to…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper reviews the literature on internationalization barriers of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) from developing countries. The purposes of the study are: (1) to explicitly point out specific factors influencing the growth and internationalization of SMEs from developing countries and (2) to identify the research gaps to provide lucid and succinct directions for future research in this area.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors selected relevant papers from journals listed on Web of Science and Scopus databases.

Findings

It was found that there are large number of questions remain unanswered regarding the internationalization of SMEs from developing countries regarding the factors determining their growth and internationalization.

Originality/value

This review distinctively accentuates previous studies on such barriers influencing the growth of SMEs from developing countries and systematically synthesize the issues faced by those SMEs. Thus, the authors seek to provide a comprehensible platform for researchers working in this area.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 26 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Book part
Publication date: 6 January 2016

Pilar Poncela and Esther Ruiz

In the context of Dynamic Factor Models, we compare point and interval estimates of the underlying unobserved factors extracted using small- and big-data procedures. Our…

Abstract

In the context of Dynamic Factor Models, we compare point and interval estimates of the underlying unobserved factors extracted using small- and big-data procedures. Our paper differs from previous works in the related literature in several ways. First, we focus on factor extraction rather than on prediction of a given variable in the system. Second, the comparisons are carried out by implementing the procedures considered to the same data. Third, we are interested not only on point estimates but also on confidence intervals for the factors. Based on a simulated system and the macroeconomic data set popularized by Stock and Watson (2012), we show that, for a given procedure, factor estimates based on different cross-sectional dimensions are highly correlated. On the other hand, given the cross-sectional dimension, the maximum likelihood Kalman filter and smoother factor estimates are highly correlated with those obtained using hybrid procedures. The PC estimates are somehow less correlated. Finally, the PC intervals based on asymptotic approximations are unrealistically tiny.

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2013

George Milunovich and Stefan Trück

The purpose of this paper is to investigate contagion between real estate investment trusts (REITs) within and across three geographical regions: North America, Europe and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate contagion between real estate investment trusts (REITs) within and across three geographical regions: North America, Europe and Asia‐Pacific. The paper also examines excess comovement between the considered national REIT markets on the one hand, and broad equity indices on the other. In particular, the authors are interested in contagion between the considered markets during the 2007‐2009 GFC period in comparison to the entire 2004‐2011 sample period.

Design/methodology/approach

Using an international factor pricing framework similar to Bekaert, Harvey and Ng, the paper defines contagion as excess comovement between two financial markets, after removing the effects of the underlying economic fundamentals, i.e. risk factors, and time‐changing volatility. Controlling for economic factors is important for distinguishing between pure contagion and information spillovers, which may transmit through existing economic channels. The authors then analyse excess correlations between the derived standardized residuals, for REITS and equity markets in order to investigate excess comovement between the indices during the whole sample and GFC period.

Findings

The paper finds no evidence of excess comovement between the considered REIT and equity indices during non‐crisis sample intervals. However, the paper finds contagion between several national REITs and regional or global equity markets during the GFC period. The paper reports statistically significant excess correlations between national REITs and regional and world real estate markets during the entire sample period, while there is only limited evidence to suggest that the correlation amongst REIT markets has increased during the GFC period. The paper concludes that a similar degree of dependence persisted among national REIT markets over the crisis and non‐crisis sample periods for most markets.

Originality/value

Despite the ongoing debate on contagion in financial markets, there is only a small body of literature investigating contagion specifically for property or real estate markets. This is even more surprising, since the GFC originated from a subprime mortgage crisis and was, therefore, heavily related to real estate. The paper extends the literature by testing for contagion between REITs considering eleven national markets across three geographical regions. In contrast, the existing literature is typically constrained to a significantly smaller number of markets. The paper also explicitly takes into account the impact of the recent GFC, and tests for contagion over this period.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

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Book part
Publication date: 2 June 2008

Sugata Marjit and Eden S.H. Yu

The collection of essays in this volume provides fairly comprehensive analyses of contemporary theoretical and policy issues in international trade. As technological…

Abstract

The collection of essays in this volume provides fairly comprehensive analyses of contemporary theoretical and policy issues in international trade. As technological revolution eliminates communications costs and the countries gear towards more open trade regimes through negotiations at the WTO, the world effectively gets smaller. The evolution of research in trade theory and policy has closely followed the trends in global economy. Issues such as how trade affects distribution of income across and within nations, generates resources for growth, leads to bilateral and multilateral cooperation and conflicts, and many others have been picked up and analyzed systematically in various chapters of this volume. Before we go into the details of the relevant sections and constituent chapters, it is worthwhile to emphasize two special features of this volume.

Details

Contemporary and Emerging Issues in Trade Theory and Policy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-541-3

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Article
Publication date: 31 May 2013

George Q. Huang, Abraham Zhang and Xiaming Liu

Global manufacturers have faced unprecedented cost pressures in China because of Chinese currency appreciation, rising labour costs, higher oil prices and reduced…

Abstract

Purpose

Global manufacturers have faced unprecedented cost pressures in China because of Chinese currency appreciation, rising labour costs, higher oil prices and reduced value‐added tax rebates. This paper aims to reassess the decision of operating global manufacturing facilities in China.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed integer programming model is developed for a typical global manufacturing supply chain that includes production in the Pearl River Delta region and trade in Hong Kong. A case study with a footwear product is used to illustrate model application and present detailed analyses.

Findings

The modelling results affirm the need of relocating labour‐intensive production that mainly competes on low costs. Nevertheless, coastal China offers considerable benefits from industrial clustering and a logistics advantage in comparison with inland China and Asian countries where labour costs are still relatively low. Hong Kong remains a robust location choice for trade operations because of its favourable tax policies.

Practical implications

Retaining production in China faces high risks from Chinese currency appreciation, while relocation to lower‐cost Asian countries is more vulnerable to risks from high oil prices. An intermediate trade operation in Hong Kong can be used to hedge against risks from unfavourable tax policy changes at manufacturing locations.

Originality/value

China has risen to an important position in global manufacturing because of its cost advantages. This paper analyzes the new phenomenon of dramatically increasing cost pressures in China. It develops a first‐of‐its‐kind supply chain configuration model for the popular front‐shop‐back‐factory business model in China.

Details

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 24 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

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Article
Publication date: 8 July 2021

Deepak Jaiswal, Rishi Kant, Pankaj Kumar Singh and Rambalak Yadav

The use of electric vehicles has received popularity as alternative fuel vehicles to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and energy cost, which are expected to perform a…

Abstract

Purpose

The use of electric vehicles has received popularity as alternative fuel vehicles to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and energy cost, which are expected to perform a crucial role in the near future of emerging mobility markets. The purpose of this empirical study is to analyse the role of electric vehicle knowledge in predicting consumer adoption intention directly and indirectly in the backdrop of an emerging market.

Design/methodology/approach

The study approached an extended version of “Technology acceptance model” (TAM) based on the integrated framework of “knowledge-beliefs-intention”. The model was tested via direct and indirect path analyses with the data collected from Indian respondents using an online survey.

Findings

The results indicate the robustness of the present research model, which shows that consumer adoption is significantly driven by electric vehicle knowledge, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and perceived risk. Electric vehicle knowledge has emerged as the most powerful cognitive measure, which directly affects the adoption intention along with the measures of “TAM”. Additionally, this also poses a higher indirect effect on adoption intention in the integrated model.

Research limitations/implications

The study has focused on potential young and educated consumers, which may not be warranted to generalise the research findings, while youth or millennials are more receptive to adopt innovative and clean technology products like electric vehicle. Based on the findings, implications are offered for encouraging electric vehicles in the backdrop of emerging automobile markets.

Originality/value

Concerning this cognitive phenomenon of knowledge, scant literature has been explored the role of subjective knowledge in consumer adoption for electric vehicles, particularly in the emerging markets like India. Thus, the present study analyses how consumers' knowledge about electric vehicle affects their decision to adopt this in the near future of Indian zero-emission mobility market.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

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