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Book part
Publication date: 26 January 2022

Katherine C. Cotter

Globalization introduces new challenges related to increased levels of diversity and complexity that organizations cannot meet without capable global leaders. Such leaders…

Abstract

Globalization introduces new challenges related to increased levels of diversity and complexity that organizations cannot meet without capable global leaders. Such leaders are currently lacking, so a theory-based approach to global leader development is needed. A critical intermediary outcome that enables competent global leadership performance is global leader self-complexity, defined by the number of unique leader identities contained within a leader's self-concept (self-differentiation) and the extent to which the identities are integrated with the leader's sense of self (self-integration). This research aims to generate and test a theory of the development of global leader self-complexity through identity construction during international experiences. In Study 1, I gathered qualitative data through retrospectively interviewing 27 global leaders about identity-related changes following their international experiences. Using a grounded theory approach, I developed a theoretical model of global leader identity construction during international experiences, which I empirically tested using quantitative data in Study 2. Specifically, I tested the hypothesized relationships through structural equation modeling with cross-sectional survey data from a sample of 610 global leaders. Findings from both studies indicate global leader identity construction during international experiences primarily occurs through interacting with locals and local culture over a sustained period, motivated by appreciation of cultural differences and resulting in increased global leader self-complexity. These results advance understanding of the global leader self-complexity construct (i.e., what develops) and global leader development processes (i.e., how it develops). Additionally, the findings have practical implications for global leader development initiatives.

Book part
Publication date: 24 October 2015

Hui Xu, Harry A. Taute, Paul Dishman and Jing Guo

The relationship between internationalization efforts of businesses and resulting performance has long been debated in the international marketing literature. Specially…

Abstract

Purpose

The relationship between internationalization efforts of businesses and resulting performance has long been debated in the international marketing literature. Specially, under the environmental uncertainty, perception and experience of managers are important for internationalization performance.

Methodology/approach

This study proposes an integrated research framework and mechanism between perceived international risk and international marketing performance, adopting international experience as moderator variable and entry mode as mediating variable. Survey was conducted on 1,612 managers of 420 Chinese international enterprises by email and received 463 valid questionnaires.

Findings

The results show that there is a significant negative relationship between perceived international risk and international performance. Direct influence and perceived international risk have an indirect influence on international performance through entry mode; the influence on the international performance from perceived international risk is moderated by international experience, the regression coefficient between perceived international risk and international performance is the quadratic function of international experience.

Originality/value

Different from previous literature, this study found the complex relationship between risk and performance.

Details

International Marketing in the Fast Changing World
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-233-7

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 February 2022

Chih-Wei Peng and She-Chih Chiu

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of chief executive officer (CEO) international work experience, functional background and career concerns on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of chief executive officer (CEO) international work experience, functional background and career concerns on managerially-distorted investment decisions.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper focuses on S&P 500 publicly held US manufacturing companies during the period from 2009 to 2012. The data related to the CEOs’ international experience and their functional background experience are manually collected from Business Week’s Corporate Elite. Financial data is retrieved from COMPUSTAT database. The data for CEO tenure and age are retrieved from the ExecuComp database. Besides ordinary least squares regression, this paper conducts two-stage least squares regression analysis. Endogeneity and additional tests are also considered in this paper.

Findings

The findings show that CEO international work experience may not reduce under-investment, but it may exacerbate over-investment. CEO throughput functional background may exacerbate under-investment, but it may not reduce over-investment. Furthermore, CEO career concerns are useful in reducing the inefficient investments caused by international work experience and throughput functional background. These results remain similar when potential self-selection bias, as well as alternative measures of career concerns and investment efficiency, are considered.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the existing literature in the following ways: first, while a significant amount of attention has been paid to how investment decisions are affected by financial reporting quality and material internal control weaknesses, there has been little evidence accumulated related to how managers’ international experience, professional background and career concerns affect investment inefficiency. The authors attempt to fill this gap. Second, the authors manually collect the international experience and functional backgrounds of CEOs working for S&P 500 US manufacturing companies. This unique data set makes it possible to complement previous studies by investigating the effects of managerial international experience and functional background on investment behavior. Finally, previous theoretical studies have long recognized that managers’ career concerns affect their corporate investment decisions. These studies suggest that young CEOs have a greater incentive to signal their abilities by adopting more active and possibly riskier investment strategies, thus raising the moral hazard problem with regard to firm investments. The authors enrich these studies by showing that work experience alleviates the moral hazard problem with respect to young CEOs’ investment decisions.

Details

Pacific Accounting Review, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0114-0582

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 31 October 2012

Simone Volet and Cheryl Jones

This chapter provides a critical analysis of the literature on individuals in cultural transitions in higher education, namely, international students in culturally…

Abstract

This chapter provides a critical analysis of the literature on individuals in cultural transitions in higher education, namely, international students in culturally unfamiliar contexts; teachers of international students and culturally more diverse classrooms; and local students in increasingly culturally diverse classes. All these individuals are actors exposed to new and shifting cultural experiences expected to impact their motivation and engagement. Two broad perspectives emerging from the literature were used to organize the chapter: a perspective of adaptation representing research grounded in unilateral, bilateral or reciprocal conceptualizations, and a perspective of transformation, capturing experiential learning research leading to personal and academic development. The analysis highlights how motivation is a critical, yet under-examined construct. This leads to numerous suggestions for future research including: addressing the neglected role of agency in research on international students' sociocultural adaptation and the lack of research on successful processes of adaptation; examining the confounding issue of socialization into new cultural-educational environments and level of proficiency in the medium of instruction, which impacts on engagement; and scrutinizing the posited link between deep-level motivated engagement in cultural transitions and the emergence of transformative experiences. A case is made for research on individuals' engagement and motivation in cultural transitions to be conceptually and methodologically stronger and broader, moving from studies of single groups of individuals in need of adaptation, to investigations of the co-regulated, reciprocal adaptations of actors and agents operating in complex sociocultural contexts where power dynamics related to knowledge and language affect participation and engagement with cultural 'others'.

Details

Transitions Across Schools and Cultures
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-292-9

Article
Publication date: 17 June 2021

Jie Hao, Zhenzhen Xie and Kunpeng Sun

The purpose of this study is to examine if the international experience of a family firm’s chairman, second-generation managers and other top managers all have impacts of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine if the international experience of a family firm’s chairman, second-generation managers and other top managers all have impacts of different strengths using information about Chinese family firms’ international expansion.

Design/methodology/approach

Matching tactics and dynamic Heckman 2-stage analysis were applied to data on 766 publicly-listed Chinese family businesses covering 2008–2014.

Findings

The international experience of the chairman, second-generation family managers and other senior managers all were found to correlate with the proportion of a firm’s revenue earned abroad, as well as with the number of its cross-border mergers and acquisitions. The impact of a chairman’s international experience is stronger than the impact of the other two groups when internationalization is measured in terms of the proportion of revenue earned overseas. The second-generation managers’ international experience is the most influential when internationalization is measured in terms of the number of cross-border mergers and acquisitions.

Originality/value

This paper bridges agency theory with upper echelons theory in the context of the family business. The findings contribute to the scholarly understanding of family business by illuminating the mechanisms through which second-generation managers may influence family firms’ internationalization. They also enrich the knowledge of family firms in China.

Article
Publication date: 10 September 2018

Huong Le and Jade McKay

The purpose of this paper is to examine the voice of Chinese and Vietnamese international students through studying the similarities and differences in their learning…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the voice of Chinese and Vietnamese international students through studying the similarities and differences in their learning experiences and the reasons underlying their experience.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 57 Chinese and Vietnamese international students participated in focus groups and interviews regarding their experiences of higher education and their suggestions for improvement.

Findings

The findings show that Chinese and Vietnamese students had varying levels of challenges and different progress in the adaptation process and that Chinese students were more vocal and less satisfied with their experience of higher education than Vietnamese students. This is due to the mismatch in their expectation and the actual experience and the cultural influence.

Research limitations/implications

The sample size is relatively small. This study only looked at Vietnamese and Chinese students in one university, which might have limitations in relation to subjectivity and bias.

Practical implications

The findings provide useful implications for educators, institutional leaders and support staff to improve facilities, teaching quality and service to students.

Originality/value

In the current era of internationalisation, commercialisation and mobility in institutions around the world, this study advances current research and provides timely insight into the experiential differences of the Chinese and Vietnamese student experience and their voice.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 32 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 July 2020

Akbar Azam, Fabiola Bertolotti, Cristina Boari and Mian Muhammad Atif

The purpose of this paper is to test whether Top Management Team (TMT) international experience is positively associated to international information acquisition from…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test whether Top Management Team (TMT) international experience is positively associated to international information acquisition from managerial international contacts and whether international information partially mediates the positive relationship between TMT international experience and international strategic decision rationality.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected through a survey of small- and medium-sized of international Pakistani software firms.

Findings

This study reports that TMT international experience-international strategic decision rationality relationship to international information acquisition and that this information acquisition partially mediates the TMT international experience, i.e. international strategic decision rationality relationship.

Practical implications

When selecting the members of their TMT, international firms should pay careful attention to their international experience.

Originality/value

Previous research demonstrates that TMT international experience has a positive effect on international strategic decision rationality and that this effect is transferred to performance. This study shows that the positive effect of TMT international experience is derived from the personal international knowledge and the international information collected from managers’ international contacts. This ability to make rational international strategic decisions could have a positive effect on decision-making and firm performance.

Details

Review of International Business and Strategy, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-6014

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 August 2017

Cosmin Ionut Nada and Helena Costa Araújo

The aim of this paper is to explore qualitatively and holistically the experience of international students in the context of Portuguese higher education. This paper…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to explore qualitatively and holistically the experience of international students in the context of Portuguese higher education. This paper interrogates the potential that an experience abroad provides for multicultural learning and for enhancing interaction between students with different cultural backgrounds.

Design/methodology/approach

To provide depth to the understanding of their experiences abroad, the narratives of 12 international students in Portugal were constructed and analysed interpretatively. The findings presented in this paper result from a solid set of data based on 41 interviews with an average duration of two hours each.

Findings

Regarding students’ levels of multicultural contact, the findings presented in this paper are not consistent with previous research literature which indicates a tendency for segregation among international and local students. Aside from one exception, all the interviewed students were rather comfortable to interact with their local peers and even established meaningful friendships with them. Concerning students’ learning throughout the sojourn, the findings indicate that the experience of living in a different country provides numerous opportunities for multicultural learning.

Research limitations/implications

Even though the findings suggest that multicultural learning is part of international students’ lives, it is beyond the scope of this paper to identify institutional strategies to further support students’ learning.

Originality/value

The study adds to knowledge production in the field of multicultural education by bringing data from Portugal, a country seldom approached in the research literature.

Details

Journal for Multicultural Education, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-535X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 November 2016

Mário Henrique Ogasavara, Dirk Michael Boehe and Luciano Barin Cruz

Based on integrating learning, resource-based and social network theories, the purpose of this paper is to shed fresh light on the association between export experience

1406

Abstract

Purpose

Based on integrating learning, resource-based and social network theories, the purpose of this paper is to shed fresh light on the association between export experience and export performance by seeking to better understand the links between them, and assessing the boundary conditions, moderators, mediators, and non-linear relationships in greater depth.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper mobilizes a quantitative research design using a survey of Brazil-based exporters. The authors test the hypotheses proposed in this study by employing moderated mediation regression models.

Findings

The authors find support for a J-shape relationship between export experience and export market performance. In particular, the authors find that innovation and international marketing resources mediate the effect of export experience on export market performance, and the authors unveil that this mediation effect is contingent on the strength of international business network ties.

Originality/value

This study advances the export marketing literature by explaining how export experience drives export success in two ways: first, by clarifying the ambiguity in extant theoretical explanations and previous empirical findings regarding the shape of the relationship between export experience and export performance. Second, this study reconciles the disagreement as to whether superior export performance results from exporters’ existing resources or from their learning by exporting. Thus, the paper is valuable for scholars and export managers or policymakers alike by providing recommendations on how less experienced firms can overcome the initial period of weak export performance.

Article
Publication date: 16 October 2017

Peng-Yu Li and Fang-Yi Lo

The purpose of this paper is to incorporate the resource-based perspective with upper echelon theory to examine the effect of top management teams’ (TMTs) managerial…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to incorporate the resource-based perspective with upper echelon theory to examine the effect of top management teams’ (TMTs) managerial resources on international diversification.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors sampled 360 listed companies in the USA that operated in the information technology industry in 2009, the year after the financial crisis.

Findings

The findings show that TMTs’ tenure has a negative impact on international diversification but international experience exerts a positive impact on international diversification. Furthermore, TMTs’ educational background diversity and international experience contribute to a reduction in the negative effect of tenure on international diversification.

Originality/value

Prior studies have investigated the role of TMT in international diversification, but they pay less attention to the interactive effect of the variety of managerial resources on international diversification. In particular, the authors examined the effect of a variety of management resources on the level of international diversification under the uncertain environment.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 55 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

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