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Book part

Hui Xu, Harry A. Taute, Paul Dishman and Jing Guo

The relationship between internationalization efforts of businesses and resulting performance has long been debated in the international marketing literature. Specially…

Abstract

Purpose

The relationship between internationalization efforts of businesses and resulting performance has long been debated in the international marketing literature. Specially, under the environmental uncertainty, perception and experience of managers are important for internationalization performance.

Methodology/approach

This study proposes an integrated research framework and mechanism between perceived international risk and international marketing performance, adopting international experience as moderator variable and entry mode as mediating variable. Survey was conducted on 1,612 managers of 420 Chinese international enterprises by email and received 463 valid questionnaires.

Findings

The results show that there is a significant negative relationship between perceived international risk and international performance. Direct influence and perceived international risk have an indirect influence on international performance through entry mode; the influence on the international performance from perceived international risk is moderated by international experience, the regression coefficient between perceived international risk and international performance is the quadratic function of international experience.

Originality/value

Different from previous literature, this study found the complex relationship between risk and performance.

Details

International Marketing in the Fast Changing World
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-233-7

Keywords

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Book part

Simone Volet and Cheryl Jones

This chapter provides a critical analysis of the literature on individuals in cultural transitions in higher education, namely, international students in culturally…

Abstract

This chapter provides a critical analysis of the literature on individuals in cultural transitions in higher education, namely, international students in culturally unfamiliar contexts; teachers of international students and culturally more diverse classrooms; and local students in increasingly culturally diverse classes. All these individuals are actors exposed to new and shifting cultural experiences expected to impact their motivation and engagement. Two broad perspectives emerging from the literature were used to organize the chapter: a perspective of adaptation representing research grounded in unilateral, bilateral or reciprocal conceptualizations, and a perspective of transformation, capturing experiential learning research leading to personal and academic development. The analysis highlights how motivation is a critical, yet under-examined construct. This leads to numerous suggestions for future research including: addressing the neglected role of agency in research on international students' sociocultural adaptation and the lack of research on successful processes of adaptation; examining the confounding issue of socialization into new cultural-educational environments and level of proficiency in the medium of instruction, which impacts on engagement; and scrutinizing the posited link between deep-level motivated engagement in cultural transitions and the emergence of transformative experiences. A case is made for research on individuals' engagement and motivation in cultural transitions to be conceptually and methodologically stronger and broader, moving from studies of single groups of individuals in need of adaptation, to investigations of the co-regulated, reciprocal adaptations of actors and agents operating in complex sociocultural contexts where power dynamics related to knowledge and language affect participation and engagement with cultural 'others'.

Details

Transitions Across Schools and Cultures
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-292-9

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Article

Akbar Azam, Fabiola Bertolotti, Cristina Boari and Mian Muhammad Atif

The purpose of this paper is to test whether Top Management Team (TMT) international experience is positively associated to international information acquisition from…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test whether Top Management Team (TMT) international experience is positively associated to international information acquisition from managerial international contacts and whether international information partially mediates the positive relationship between TMT international experience and international strategic decision rationality.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected through a survey of small- and medium-sized of international Pakistani software firms.

Findings

This study reports that TMT international experience-international strategic decision rationality relationship to international information acquisition and that this information acquisition partially mediates the TMT international experience, i.e. international strategic decision rationality relationship.

Practical implications

When selecting the members of their TMT, international firms should pay careful attention to their international experience.

Originality/value

Previous research demonstrates that TMT international experience has a positive effect on international strategic decision rationality and that this effect is transferred to performance. This study shows that the positive effect of TMT international experience is derived from the personal international knowledge and the international information collected from managers’ international contacts. This ability to make rational international strategic decisions could have a positive effect on decision-making and firm performance.

Details

Review of International Business and Strategy, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-6014

Keywords

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Article

Gloria Sraha, Revti Raman Sharma, Dave Crick and James M. Crick

This study aims to contribute to the existing understanding of export practices in sub-Saharan African firms with a contextual focus on Ghanaian exporters operating in…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to contribute to the existing understanding of export practices in sub-Saharan African firms with a contextual focus on Ghanaian exporters operating in business-to-business (B2B) markets. Underpinned by resource-based theory and its association with the relational view, it examines how the interplay between various decision makers’ international experience, export commitment and distribution adaptation decisions influence firms’ performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a mixed methods approach, using survey data from 116 internationalising Ghanaian businesses across three sectors, supplemented with qualitative insights from 18 follow-up interviews.

Findings

The study establishes a full mediation effect of export commitment on the association between international experience and export performance; also, the moderating effect of distribution adaptation on export commitment – performance relationships. Unique insights are provided into the perceived role of trustworthy, intermediaries as “stakeholders” that add to a respective firm’s resource base; that is, in building capabilities in overseas markets and informing evolving business model decisions to overcome potential export barriers.

Originality/value

The insights from sub-Saharan African firms provide contextual value given the relatively under-represented existing research from the region. Original insights highlight ways in which decision makers build capabilities and that they do not always follow a forward moving internationalisation process, so use different measures of performance regarding B2B product-market ventures over time.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 35 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

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Article

Chipoong Kim, Chul Chung and Chris Brewster

The literature on international staffing in multinational enterprises (MNEs) often focuses on staffing choices based on nationality categories (e.g. parent-country…

Abstract

Purpose

The literature on international staffing in multinational enterprises (MNEs) often focuses on staffing choices based on nationality categories (e.g. parent-country nationals, host-country nationals, third-country nationals) for key positions in subsidiaries when examining their impacts on subsidiary outcomes. Considering both nationality and international experience, the purpose of this paper is to suggest an integrative typology to identify and classify various types of traditional and alternative subsidiary staffing options and evaluate them in relation to social capital and knowledge flows across MNE organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a social capital view of MNEs, the authors propose a typology of subsidiary staffing options founded on the dimensions of nationality and the location of prior international experience of incumbents of key positions. Then traditional as well as alternative staffing options from the literature are identified and evaluated corresponding to each type of staffing option in the framework.

Findings

The typology identifies nine types of subsidiary staffing options. It includes and classifies the traditional and alternative staffing options, while highlighting types which need further research. The study also suggests impacts of the traditional and alternative staffing type on social capital and knowledge flows in MNEs.

Originality/value

The new typology identifies various types of subsidiary staffing options comprehensively and evaluates them systematically. HRM specialists can classify subsidiary managers based on the typology and examine which staffing option would be desirable given a specific subsidiary context. The research also provides novel insights on what needs to be considered to select and develop subsidiary managers who can build internal and external social capital in MNEs.

Details

Journal of Global Mobility: The Home of Expatriate Management Research, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

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Article

Huong Le and Jade McKay

The purpose of this paper is to examine the voice of Chinese and Vietnamese international students through studying the similarities and differences in their learning…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the voice of Chinese and Vietnamese international students through studying the similarities and differences in their learning experiences and the reasons underlying their experience.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 57 Chinese and Vietnamese international students participated in focus groups and interviews regarding their experiences of higher education and their suggestions for improvement.

Findings

The findings show that Chinese and Vietnamese students had varying levels of challenges and different progress in the adaptation process and that Chinese students were more vocal and less satisfied with their experience of higher education than Vietnamese students. This is due to the mismatch in their expectation and the actual experience and the cultural influence.

Research limitations/implications

The sample size is relatively small. This study only looked at Vietnamese and Chinese students in one university, which might have limitations in relation to subjectivity and bias.

Practical implications

The findings provide useful implications for educators, institutional leaders and support staff to improve facilities, teaching quality and service to students.

Originality/value

In the current era of internationalisation, commercialisation and mobility in institutions around the world, this study advances current research and provides timely insight into the experiential differences of the Chinese and Vietnamese student experience and their voice.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 32 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article

Cosmin Ionut Nada and Helena Costa Araújo

The aim of this paper is to explore qualitatively and holistically the experience of international students in the context of Portuguese higher education. This paper…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to explore qualitatively and holistically the experience of international students in the context of Portuguese higher education. This paper interrogates the potential that an experience abroad provides for multicultural learning and for enhancing interaction between students with different cultural backgrounds.

Design/methodology/approach

To provide depth to the understanding of their experiences abroad, the narratives of 12 international students in Portugal were constructed and analysed interpretatively. The findings presented in this paper result from a solid set of data based on 41 interviews with an average duration of two hours each.

Findings

Regarding students’ levels of multicultural contact, the findings presented in this paper are not consistent with previous research literature which indicates a tendency for segregation among international and local students. Aside from one exception, all the interviewed students were rather comfortable to interact with their local peers and even established meaningful friendships with them. Concerning students’ learning throughout the sojourn, the findings indicate that the experience of living in a different country provides numerous opportunities for multicultural learning.

Research limitations/implications

Even though the findings suggest that multicultural learning is part of international students’ lives, it is beyond the scope of this paper to identify institutional strategies to further support students’ learning.

Originality/value

The study adds to knowledge production in the field of multicultural education by bringing data from Portugal, a country seldom approached in the research literature.

Details

Journal for Multicultural Education, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-535X

Keywords

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Article

Mário Henrique Ogasavara, Dirk Michael Boehe and Luciano Barin Cruz

Based on integrating learning, resource-based and social network theories, the purpose of this paper is to shed fresh light on the association between export experience

Abstract

Purpose

Based on integrating learning, resource-based and social network theories, the purpose of this paper is to shed fresh light on the association between export experience and export performance by seeking to better understand the links between them, and assessing the boundary conditions, moderators, mediators, and non-linear relationships in greater depth.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper mobilizes a quantitative research design using a survey of Brazil-based exporters. The authors test the hypotheses proposed in this study by employing moderated mediation regression models.

Findings

The authors find support for a J-shape relationship between export experience and export market performance. In particular, the authors find that innovation and international marketing resources mediate the effect of export experience on export market performance, and the authors unveil that this mediation effect is contingent on the strength of international business network ties.

Originality/value

This study advances the export marketing literature by explaining how export experience drives export success in two ways: first, by clarifying the ambiguity in extant theoretical explanations and previous empirical findings regarding the shape of the relationship between export experience and export performance. Second, this study reconciles the disagreement as to whether superior export performance results from exporters’ existing resources or from their learning by exporting. Thus, the paper is valuable for scholars and export managers or policymakers alike by providing recommendations on how less experienced firms can overcome the initial period of weak export performance.

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Article

Peng-Yu Li and Fang-Yi Lo

The purpose of this paper is to incorporate the resource-based perspective with upper echelon theory to examine the effect of top management teams’ (TMTs) managerial…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to incorporate the resource-based perspective with upper echelon theory to examine the effect of top management teams’ (TMTs) managerial resources on international diversification.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors sampled 360 listed companies in the USA that operated in the information technology industry in 2009, the year after the financial crisis.

Findings

The findings show that TMTs’ tenure has a negative impact on international diversification but international experience exerts a positive impact on international diversification. Furthermore, TMTs’ educational background diversity and international experience contribute to a reduction in the negative effect of tenure on international diversification.

Originality/value

Prior studies have investigated the role of TMT in international diversification, but they pay less attention to the interactive effect of the variety of managerial resources on international diversification. In particular, the authors examined the effect of a variety of management resources on the level of international diversification under the uncertain environment.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 55 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

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Article

Ibraiz Tarique and Ellen Weisbord

The “adult third culture kid” (ATCK) is an individual who has spent significant periods of childhood living outside his or her parents’ culture(s). Research is needed to…

Abstract

Purpose

The “adult third culture kid” (ATCK) is an individual who has spent significant periods of childhood living outside his or her parents’ culture(s). Research is needed to identify specific experiential variables responsible for the development of components of cross-cultural competencies (CC) in ATCKs. The goal of this study is to gain insight into these relationships and provide a foundation for continuing investigation by examining how early international experience and personality variables impact CC in ATCKs. Specifically, the study examines how four components of early international experience and two characteristics of stable CC impact three dynamic characteristics of CC.

Design/methodology/approach

Study participants (159) had spent their childhood years living in one or more foreign countries. In all, 54 percent of the sample was women, and the average age was 22 (SD=1.52). None of the subjects had any international work experience, allowing us to look at the impact of non-work experience without the confounding effect found in other research of this type. Data were collected at the beginning and end of a three-week period.

Findings

There are five important predictors of CC in ATCKs: variety of early international experience (number of different countries lived in), language diversity (the number of languages they speak), family diversity (the number of different ethnicities in their family's background), and the personality trait of openness to experience.

Research limitations/implications

The generalizability of study findings is limited by the nature and size of the sample. In addition, the single source sample of this study is also a limitation, as single source samples are subject to common method bias. We reduced this potential bias by using a time lag (Podsakoff et al., 2003) to create a temporal separation between the measurement of the predictors and the dependent variables, a procedural remedy suggested by Podsakoff et al. (2003).

Practical implications

The practical uses for the findings of this study by human resource management (HRM) professionals are in the areas of hiring and assignment of expatriate managers. Study findings provide HRM professionals with an initial set of criteria to assist in the process of identification and training of expatriate managers. Global organizations have traditionally used training to increase the pool of effective global managers. This study provides initial evidence that identification of individuals with early international experiences should prove a useful addition to the process of selecting candidates for foreign assignment.

Social implications

The practical uses for the findings of this study by HRM professionals are in the areas of hiring and assignment of expatriate managers. Study findings provide HRM professionals with an initial set of criteria to assist in the process of identification and training of expatriate managers. Global organizations have traditionally used training to increase the pool of effective global managers. This study provides initial evidence that identification of individuals with early international experiences should prove a useful addition to the process of selecting candidates for foreign assignment.

Originality/value

To the best of our knowledge this is one of the first studies to empirically examine ATCKs and provides a starting point for future researchers in this area. Obtaining a sample of ATCKs is extremely challenging.

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