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Book part
Publication date: 7 October 2015

Md Nuruzzaman

The objective of this study is to investigate how country risk, different political actions from the government and bureaucratic behavior influence the activities in…

Abstract

The objective of this study is to investigate how country risk, different political actions from the government and bureaucratic behavior influence the activities in industry supply chains (SCs) in emerging markets. The main objective of this study is to investigate the influence of these external stakeholders’ elements to the demand-side and supply-side drivers and barriers for improving competitiveness of Ready-Made Garment (RMG) industry in the way of analyzing supply chain. Considering the phenomenon of recent change in the RMG business environment and the competitiveness issues this study uses the principles of stakeholder and resource dependence theory and aims to find out some factors which influence to make an efficient supply chain for improving competitiveness. The RMG industry of Bangladesh is the case application of this study. Following a positivist paradigm, this study adopts a two phase sequential mixed-method research design consisting of qualitative and quantitative approaches. A tentative research model is developed first based on extensive literature review. Qualitative field study is then carried out to fine tune the initial research model. Findings from the qualitative method are also used to develop measures and instruments for the next phase of quantitative method. A survey is carried out with sample of top and middle level executives of different garment companies of Dhaka city in Bangladesh and the collected quantitative data are analyzed by partial least square-based structural equation modeling. The findings support eight hypotheses. From the analysis the external stakeholders’ elements like bureaucratic behavior and country risk have significant influence to the barriers. From the internal stakeholders’ point of view the manufacturers’ and buyers’ drivers have significant influence on the competitiveness. Therefore, stakeholders need to take proper action to reduce the barriers and increase the drivers, as the drivers have positive influence to improve competitiveness.

This study has both theoretical and practical contributions. This study represents an important contribution to the theory by integrating two theoretical perceptions to identify factors of the RMG industry’s SC that affect the competitiveness of the RMG industry. This research study contributes to the understanding of both external and internal stakeholders of national and international perspectives in the RMG (textile and clothing) business. It combines the insights of stakeholder and resource dependence theories along with the concept of the SC in improving effectiveness. In a practical sense, this study certainly contributes to the Bangladeshi RMG industry. In accordance with the desire of the RMG manufacturers, the research has shown that some influential constructs of the RMG industry’s SC affect the competitiveness of the RMG industry. The outcome of the study is useful for various stakeholders of the Bangladeshi RMG industry sector ranging from the government to various private organizations. The applications of this study are extendable through further adaptation in other industries and various geographic contexts.

Details

Sustaining Competitive Advantage Via Business Intelligence, Knowledge Management, and System Dynamics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-764-2

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 October 2014

Jesús C. Peña-Vinces, Francisco J. Acedo and José L. Roldán

The purpose of this paper is to develop a theoretical model for evaluating the international competitiveness of small and medium multinational enterprises (SMNEs) located…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a theoretical model for evaluating the international competitiveness of small and medium multinational enterprises (SMNEs) located in Latin American developing countries.

Design/methodology/approach

Industrial economics and international business theories were linked for establishing the firm international competitiveness model. Literature on each variable determining of firm competitiveness is reviewed and the linkages between them are discussed.

Findings

The use of a global strategy is one of the most important factors to compete abroad. Domestic environment and national industry might help its use. Human resources background of staff working within the SMNEs affects the global strategy as well.

Practical implications

SMNEs should be more taken into account as they are the main generators of the economic development of countries and, consequently, foster the progress of underdeveloped countries through creating jobs.

Originality/value

This study is one of the pioneers in developed a model for evaluating the international competitiveness of firms based on developing countries of Latin America. Researchers and professionals will count on a theoretical tool for evaluating the Latin American international competitiveness in global contexts. Additionally we include the full survey for testing the competitiveness model.

Article
Publication date: 11 November 2011

Daniele Cerrato and Donatella Depperu

The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for positioning the research contributions on the analysis of firm‐level international competitiveness and addressing…

1112

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for positioning the research contributions on the analysis of firm‐level international competitiveness and addressing the key issues on this topic.

Design/methodology/approach

Linking the concepts of internationalization, performance, and firm‐level competitiveness, the paper proposes a framework for identifying the different dimensions of international competitiveness. Literature on each dimension is reviewed and the linkages between them are discussed.

Findings

The paper unbundles the construct of international competitiveness into three dimensions: “ex ante” competitiveness, relating to firm‐ and location‐specific advantages as drivers of competitiveness; firm internationalization profile, resulting from the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of a firm's presence abroad; “ex post” competitiveness, relating to market, financial and nonfinancial performance of a firm in foreign markets.

Originality/value

Although the analysis of international competitiveness benefits from contributions from different research streams such as international business, marketing, and strategic management, the lack of an organizing framework makes it difficult to “handle” within a potentially huge body of literature. This paper contributes to fill this gap. In addition, it provides the basis for a new research agenda about the analysis of the internationalization‐performance relationship.

Article
Publication date: 14 October 2021

Konrad Rojek

This study aims to present the issue of the international systemic competitiveness of the Polish economy. The essence of this concept was shown, as well as the measures…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to present the issue of the international systemic competitiveness of the Polish economy. The essence of this concept was shown, as well as the measures and methods of analysis used. The aim of the research was to identify the factors that had the greatest impact on the formation of the international systemic competitiveness of the Polish economy.

Design/methodology/approach

An econometric model was constructed to explain the shaping of the value of the dependent variable (gross domestic product [GDP] per capita) in the years 2004–2019. For this purpose, explanatory variables were used selected from among the measures of the international systemic competitiveness of the Polish economy. The developed econometric model was verified to check its practical usefulness. This process was performed using the Gretl program. The research also used the Pentagon Model of Macroeconomic Stabilization, which was used to examine the general economic development of Poland because of which it is possible to conclude about the international systemic competitiveness of the economy.

Findings

In the analyzed period (2004–2019), the international systemic competitiveness of the Polish economy was to the greatest extent conditioned by such factors as government integrity, tax burdens and investment freedom. It is significant that the integrity of the government had a negative impact on the value of GDP per capita.

Practical implications

The results of the conducted research may be particularly useful for the institutional sphere. They indicate systemic factors that had the greatest impact on the prosperity of Polish society in the analyzed period. This enables the weakest elements of the policy to be identified and improved. Proper applications and appropriate corrective actions will have a positive economic effect.

Originality/value

So far, it has not been possible to develop/indicate a uniform and generally accepted measure and method of analyzing international systemic competitiveness. Therefore, all attempts to assess and measure systemic competitiveness have a high research value. The vast majority of studies on the international competitiveness of the economy focus only on assessing its level (growth, decline and comparison with other countries). When building an econometric model (based on the 2004–2019 time series), the author also checks the impact of its individual components, not only its level. On this basis, it can be deduced, which factors influenced the competitiveness in a given period to a greater extent, positively or negatively.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1996

A.N.M. Waheeduzzaman and John K. Ryans

Competitiveness is one of the most misunderstood concepts of the 1990s. It has drawn substantial attention from the government and business communities during the last 25…

1542

Abstract

Competitiveness is one of the most misunderstood concepts of the 1990s. It has drawn substantial attention from the government and business communities during the last 25 years. Morrisson et al. (1988) noted that between 1983 and 1987, the term competitiveness appeared more than 5700 times in the titles of newspapers and magazine articles. The growth of importance and interest can also be observed from the increase in the bibliographical entries in ABI/Inform database. From 1981 to 1986, the topic “international competitiveness” increased by about 26 listings per year (a total of 159 in 6 years) and the rate increased to 45 listings per year from 1987 to 1993. Academic interest in the area has also increased and as a result, new developments contemplating conceptualization and understanding of competitiveness are taking place. However, to no one's surprise, writers from different disciplines offer a variation in perspective when describing the concept, understanding, and postulation of competitiveness.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

Article
Publication date: 3 April 2009

Ning Li

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of cross‐border diffusion of technology as a contributor to national economic performance at both aggregate and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of cross‐border diffusion of technology as a contributor to national economic performance at both aggregate and sectoral levels. Specifically, it aims to explore: the relationship between inflows of foreign technology and home country knowledge base; and the impact of international technology diffusion on indigenous productivity and international competitiveness.

Design/methodology/approach

Values of international trade in manufactured sectors as well as other data sources of economic and scientific performance are used to measure inflows of foreign technology, indigenous knowledge base, or international competitiveness at the aggregate and/or sectoral levels. This paper employs correlation and regression models for data analysis. Sectoral patterns are revealed based on various taxonomies for industrial systems.

Findings

At the aggregate level, it is found that there is a positive relationship between a nation's domestic knowledge base and inflows of foreign technology; and technology inflows, as well as home country knowledge base, significantly contribute to a nation's labor productivity (LP) and its international competitiveness. At the sectoral level, it is found that patterns of contribution from technology inflows to international competitiveness differ from industry to industry. There is a general trend of increase in the contributions from international technology inflows to a nation's international competitiveness over time and from lower to higher technology industries. However, for complex system technologies where tacit knowledge prevails, the diffusion of technology could be a significant challenge.

Originality/value

Empirical findings of this paper have significant public policy implications. National industrial policies should be sector‐specific to reflect the particular features of each industry. In the meantime, a proper balance must be kept between enhancing home country knowledge base and promoting inflows of foreign technology.

Details

Journal of Knowledge-based Innovation in China, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-1418

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 November 2018

Zhijie Guan, Yan Xu, Hong Jiang and Guogang Jiang

The purpose of this paper is to analyze raw materials, labor, capital, demand, related industries, strategies and policies influencing international competitiveness of…

1337

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze raw materials, labor, capital, demand, related industries, strategies and policies influencing international competitiveness of Chinese textile and clothing industry.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis is conducted using “Diamond Model”, in which raw materials, labor, capital, demand, related industries, strategies and policies are included as explanatory variables, and the impacts of international competitiveness on market share (MS), trade competitiveness(TC) and revealed comparative advantage(RCA) are examined based on the estimated coefficients of these variables.

Findings

These factors have different effects on TC, MS and RCA. While their effects on TC and MS are similar in sign even though their degree of significance differs, their effects on RCA are opposite to TC and MS except for capital. Raw materials and capital have negative effects on TC and MS, while the other factors have positive ones. Raw materials have positive effects on RCA, but all other factors have negative ones.

Practical/implications

The results from this study imply that it is necessary to increase investment in fixed assets of Chinese textile and clothing industry, speed up the pace of upgrading equipment, improve the level of industrialization, while strengthening the supply of textile raw materials, and lowering raw material prices, thereby reducing the cost of textile and clothing enterprises.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first empirical research made using econometric model about the impact of the main factors of trade competitiveness in Chinese textile and clothing industry based on the “Diamond Model”.

Details

Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-4408

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2003

Georgios I. Zekos

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination…

60880

Abstract

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination of some legal aspects concerning MNEs, cyberspace and e‐commerce as the means of expression of the digital economy. The whole effort of the author is focused on the examination of various aspects of MNEs and their impact upon globalisation and vice versa and how and if we are moving towards a global digital economy.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 45 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 26 April 2014

Nikolaos Giannellis and Georgios P. Kouretas

The aim of this study is to examine whether China’s exchange rate follows an equilibrium process and consequently to answer the question of whether or not China’s…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to examine whether China’s exchange rate follows an equilibrium process and consequently to answer the question of whether or not China’s international competitiveness fluctuates in consistency with equilibrium.

Design/methodology/approach

The theoretical background of the paper relies on the Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) hypothesis, while the econometric methodology is mainly based on a nonlinear two-regime Threshold Autoregressive (TAR) unit root test.

Findings

The main finding is that China’s price competitiveness was not constantly following a disequilibrium process. The two-regime threshold model shows that PPP equilibrium was confirmed in periods of relatively high – compared to the estimated threshold – rate of real yuan appreciation. Moreover, it is implied that the fixed exchange rate regime cannot ensure external balance since it can neither establish equilibrium in the foreign exchange market, nor confirm that China’s international competitiveness adjustment follows an equilibrium process.

Practical implications

The results do not imply that China acts as a currency manipulator. However, a main policy implication of the paper is that China should continue appreciating the yuan to establish external balance.

Originality/value

This paper is the first which accounts for a nonlinear two-regime process toward a threshold, which is defined to be the rate of change in China’s international competitiveness. Consequently, the paper draws attention to the role of China’s international competiveness in accepting the PPP hypothesis.

Details

Macroeconomic Analysis and International Finance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-756-6

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 January 2017

Segundo J. Castro-Gonzales, Maritza I. Espina and Raquel M. Tinoco-Egas

The purpose of this paper is to assess the strategies for improving the competitiveness of Ecuador (ECU), Colombia (COL) and Peru (PER). It is one of the first studies…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the strategies for improving the competitiveness of Ecuador (ECU), Colombia (COL) and Peru (PER). It is one of the first studies using 36 indicators within the context of three South-American countries. It fulfills the lack of knowledge at the scientific work and its practical objective by identifying the factors that public policy may take into consideration urgently to improve the global competitiveness level of the countries for a sustainable development and considerations for a long-term integration.

Design/methodology/approach

It analyzes data of four-year average of international sources such as: The International Monetary Fund, The World Bank, The United Nations, among others. The factors were selected after a careful literature review, the final selection and the weight of each determinant was calculated using partial least squares-structural equation modeling. The calculation of the national and international competitiveness indexes used the double diamond for competitiveness theoretical frame.

Findings

From a national perspective, it was found that COL is the most competitive country followed by PER in the second place and ECU is in third. Internationally, the authors have found also that COL is the most competitive economy, PER in second place and ECU is in third.

Research limitations/implications

This study has found that in order to improve the level of national competitiveness, ECU has to concentrate on improving and strengthening formal and non-formal institutions, which are reflected in: four factors, PER four, and COL three. To reach international competitiveness, ECU should improve four factors, PER five, and COL five formal and non-formal institutions.

Practical implications

This research is the first one on its field, it uses 36 competitiveness indexes and the PLS-SEM statistic methodology to assign the weight of competitive indicators and the DD theoretical frame to determine the relevance of its factors and it is oriented to advise decision-makers and provides the appropriate police guidelines for the national competitiveness strategy and improve their quality of life of its residents from: ECU-COL-PER. On the other hand, the academic implications of these results appear when calculating the weight-load competitiveness indexes using inferential multivariate analysis; it provides researchers and practitioners an analysis tool for comparing competitive factors of emerging countries from the DD approach without any weaknesses, as a framework to assist in formulating economic policy at the national and regional level.

Social implications

Due to the difficulty of competitiveness operationalization, this research uses PLS-SEM to correlate its factors as the statistical methodology and the DD as the tool for the identification of theoretical indicators. This work may be taken into consideration for an immediate and sustainable improvement in order to win competitiveness than its neighbors.

Originality/value

This study is unique because the factors were selected after a careful literature review; the final selection and the weight of each determinant was calculated using PLS-SEM. The calculation of the national and international competitiveness indexes used the DD for competitiveness theoretical framework applied for the first time in a research for South America with 36 determinants. The result of this analysis compares the weak and strong determinants of these three member countries of UNASUR for the development of their complementarities and therefore the recommendations of public policy.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

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