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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2007

Jeryl Whitelock and Fernando Fastoso

This paper's objectives are first to analyse the patterns of research on international brands and branding so far, secondly to provide a definition for international

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper's objectives are first to analyse the patterns of research on international brands and branding so far, secondly to provide a definition for international branding based on these previous studies in the field, and finally to suggest fruitful paths for future research in this area.

Design/methodology/approach

Content analysis of academic papers published in major marketing, advertising and international business journals.

Findings

The field of international branding is broad and has developed in the course of the last 30 years in different directions and with different understandings of what the term refers to. This paper gives an overview of these directions, of the different understandings of the term found in the literature, proposes a definition of international branding, and finally suggests paths for future research.

Research limitations/implications

As with all literature reviews, this paper is limited to analysing works in a selection of the top academic journals in the field. However, a careful choice of the most important journals has been made, providing a good reflection of the knowledge in the area.

Originality/value

This appears to be the first literature review in the field of international branding and also the first to discuss the different interpretations of the term international branding that have developed over time. The authors also believe it is the first to offer a definition of the term in itself as well as in relation to international marketing.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 December 2019

Keith Pyper, Anne Marie Doherty, Spiros Gounaris and Alan Wilson

Drawing on Resource-based Theory, the purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the effect of International Strategic Brand Management (SBM) on export performance…

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Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on Resource-based Theory, the purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the effect of International Strategic Brand Management (SBM) on export performance within the Business-to-Business (B2B) context. To be able to purposely assess the relationship, this paper also sets out to discover what antecedent international resources, (financial resources) and international capabilities (market information, branding and marketing planning) contribute to the ability of B2B exporters to effectively manage their brands abroad.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed method firm-level approach was employed. First, a qualitative study of 34 in-depth interviews explored the focal inter-relationships and constructs identified within the literature. A survey of 208 successful UK exporters was then conducted and the results were analysed using structured equation modelling.

Findings

The results confirm that certain marketing capabilities (branding and marketing planning) are advantageous antecedents to the employment of effective SBM in foreign markets which, in turn, leads to increased financial and market performance internationally.

Practical implications

This paper outlines practical brand management considerations managers need to account for to achieve effective exporting. Practitioners are advised to prioritise the development of robust international branding and marketing planning capabilities which can enable them to exploit their limited financial resources for optimal benefits. Furthermore, by developing these capabilities, firms can focus on the essence of their brand and communicate their brand image through the effective strategic management of their brand to business customers, evoking positive brand associations, enhanced perceived brand value and the achievement of increased export performance.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to focus on international SBM as the deterministic factor leading to improved B2B export performance. An innovative framework is offered which positions the pivotal role of International SBM as the central focus. The construct for international branding capabilities is extended specifically for use in the B2B domain.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 September 2011

Hsiu Ying Huang and Ming Huei Hsieh

The purpose of this study is to explore and conceptualize the process of how an emerging‐market firm develops a successful international brand.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore and conceptualize the process of how an emerging‐market firm develops a successful international brand.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative case study approach was employed in this study. Two rounds of data collection were conducted. Data sources include archival, interview and field notes. A total of 13 in‐depth interviews were conducted. Interviewees were drawn from across different functions and comprised top management to lower‐level employees. Collected data were analyzed in the iterate process, and emergent themes from the case form the basis of strategy conceptualizing.

Findings

An effective international branding process can be conceptualized as four sequential strategic steps: create a transcultural brand name; identify a universal appeal for its products; develop a global brand essence; and convey the brand essence through products. The case finding also shows that the ability to fuse three pairs of seemingly contrasting elements across geographical and temporal boundaries is essential in the strategic process. The three pairs of elements include Western and Eastern cultures, historical and modern elements and craftsmanship and mass‐production.

Research limitations/implications

This paper is rich in qualitative detail, but with all single case study research, its limitations regard applicability to other contexts. The applicability may suffer from the idiosyncratic characteristics of the case company as well as the difference between industries and products.

Practical implications

The finding provides insights into how an emerging‐market firm can craft its international brand both faster and more effectively. The identified international branding process has managerial implications for international marketers in both emerging‐market and non‐emerging‐market firms.

Originality/value

The study fills the void in the research of international branding strategy of emerging‐market firms. The conceptualization of an international branding provides a basis for further research on how to effectively craft an international brand.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 29 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 October 2013

Emma Björner

The aim of the present study is to add to the existing research on online city branding by studying how metropolitan cities are internationally positioned using the…

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Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the present study is to add to the existing research on online city branding by studying how metropolitan cities are internationally positioned using the internet and online branding. The focus is on objectives and strategies, method and expression (including five illustrations), and challenges in online city branding.

Design/methodology/approach

The article relies on a single-case study approach, using the Chinese city of Chengdu as a case and illustration. Methods used are interviews, observations and documentation (including online material).

Findings

The study illustrates how Chengdu uses online city branding in its international positioning. Chengdu's online branding is influenced by certain imagery, as well as challenges. Collaboration and endorsement crystalize as central elements in Chengdu's online city branding.

Research limitations/implications

This article and study can be seen as an important element in broadening the understanding for online city branding to international audiences.

Practical implications

The study offers insights to practitioners on how online city branding is carried out in a Chinese context and in the city of Chengdu.

Originality/value

The study can be regarded as an important contribution to an area of practice and research which still is fairly new and unexplored, and an area that hitherto has not been well covered in the international literature.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 July 2007

Ho Yin Wong and Bill Merrilees

The purpose of this study is to empirically examine the inter‐related relationships among various branding issues such as brand orientation, brand re‐positioning, brand

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to empirically examine the inter‐related relationships among various branding issues such as brand orientation, brand re‐positioning, brand performance and international marketing issues in terms of international marketing strategy, financial performance, control of international marketing activities, international commitment and macro‐marketing environment.

Design/methodology/approach

A mail survey with 315 useful samples drawn from the Austrade database was conducted. The steps suggested by Churchill, Cheng and Andersen and Gerbing were rigorously followed to purify the constructs and measurement models. Finally, structural equation modelling using partial disaggregation method was performed to test the whole structured model.

Findings

The results from structural equation modelling method confirm significant relationships between the constructs in the model. All major fit indices from structural equation modelling analysis show satisfactory results for both the measurement models and the structural model.

Research limitations/implications

The findings provide insight to international marketers with regard to deploying resources, establishing strategy and adapting the strategy to the culture within overseas markets. Judicious investments in finance and personnel are required for overseas expansion. International branding strategy can be used to enhance a firm's brand and financial performances abroad.

Originality/value

The major values of this study are the establishment of the role of branding in international business. Both brand orientation and brand repositioning have significant impacts on international marketing strategy, which in turn positively affects a firm's performance. Developments of new constructs such as brand orientation, brand repositioning, brand performance and cultural aspects are statistically validated.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 July 2022

José I. Rojas-Méndez and Mozhde Khoshnevis

This paper aims to provide an integrated model of nation branding, propose a comprehensive definition of this concept and differentiate between nation branding and other…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide an integrated model of nation branding, propose a comprehensive definition of this concept and differentiate between nation branding and other related constructs.

Design/methodology/approach

To analyze nation branding academic literature, this paper used a systematic literature review approach to investigate academic studies related to nation and country branding. All relevant studies on the nation and country branding between 1996 and mid-2021 were extracted from six selected databases, including Elsevier’s Science Direct, Emerald, Sage, Wiley, Springer and Jstor, by using a Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis process. The reviewed papers were coded and analyzed to extract themes and concepts.

Findings

The results of this paper show that nation branding is influenced by six main factors, namely, business and marketing, political, social and cultural, economic and labor, international and environmental factors; it comprises one key component, that is, nation branding; it results in five major consequences, including social, economic and financial, business, international and political consequences, and is moderated mainly by socio-demographic variables. Additional contributions of this paper are the proposal of a comprehensive definition of nation branding based on the extant literature and identifying nation branding differences with other constructs that sometimes have been previously used interchangeably with nation branding. This paper concludes with suggestions for future research in the field.

Originality/value

This paper uses the themes and concepts uncovered by the analysis to conceptualize nation branding, provides an integrated model of nation branding and distinguishes it from other related branding concepts. This paper also summarizes what nation branding is versus what it is not.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1989

Sak Onkvisit and John J. Shaw

This article examines the strategic, legal, and researchimplications of trademark decisions in an international context. Thefocus of the investigation is on the strengths…

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Abstract

This article examines the strategic, legal, and research implications of trademark decisions in an international context. The focus of the investigation is on the strengths and limitations of each branding strategy (e.g., brandless product, private brand, multiple brands for a single market and multiple markets etc.). The legal dimension of international branding, a topic usually ignored in the marketing literature in spite of its significance, is also covered.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 November 2016

Nicolas Papadopoulos, Leila Hamzaoui-Essoussi and Alia El Banna

This study aims to address a heretofore neglected area in research, nation branding, for the purpose of attracting foreign direct investment (FDI). It compares and…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to address a heretofore neglected area in research, nation branding, for the purpose of attracting foreign direct investment (FDI). It compares and contrasts the well-established literature on decision-making and location choice in FDI with studies in the nascent field of nation branding, with a view to developing directions for future research that result from the identification of research gaps at the intersection point between the two areas.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on a systematic and integrative review of several streams within the relevant literatures, from the theory of decision-making in FDI to the similarities and differences between advertising, promotion, branding and marketing for investment on the part of nations and sub- or supra-national places.

Findings

Each of the two areas is characterized by lack of consensus as to the principal factors that affect investor and nation decisions and actions, resulting in several knowledge gaps that need to be addressed by new research along the lines suggested in the study.

Research limitations/implications

A large number of avenues for potential future research are identified, from assessing the importance of target country image in location choice to the adverse effects arising from the emphasis on “promotion” rather than “marketing” on the part of places engaged in nation branding efforts.

Practical implications

The study examines several problems that affect the practice of nation branding for FDI and points to alternative approaches that may enhance place marketers’ effectiveness in their efforts to attract foreign capital.

Originality/value

Notwithstanding the global growth of FDI in volume and importance, and the omnipresence of nation branding campaigns to promote exports or attract tourism and investment, there has been virtually no research to date on the core issue, nation branding for FDI. The study uses a strategic perspective that highlights key nation branding issues related to FDI, and FDI issues related to nation branding, and suggests a comprehensive agenda for research in the future.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 25 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 August 2021

Zahra Sharifzadeh, Natasha T. Brison and Gregg Bennett

This study investigates the personal branding strategies utilized by Iranian professional athletes. It also examines the challenges these athletes face in attempting to…

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates the personal branding strategies utilized by Iranian professional athletes. It also examines the challenges these athletes face in attempting to create a personal brand. For example, unlike their global counterparts, Iranian athletes’ access to social media is limited to only Instagram, due to a ban in Iran on the use of Facebook and Twitter. This specific situation provides unique opportunities and interactions in the personal branding process.

Design/methodology/approach

Utilizing a criterion purposive sample of Iranian professional athletes, the authors conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews to understand the branding strategies and challenges of these athletes.

Findings

Two categories (branding strategies and cultural/societal challenges), along with Six themes emerged. The categories were derived based on the literature review and the subsequent research questions.

Originality/value

This paper provides valuable information on challenges and opportunities for athletes' personal branding from international perspectives. Also, the results of the study broaden our understanding of how athletes' personal branding can function in different countries and contexts. Findings will provide governing bodies and sport marketers have a better understanding of athletes' social media usage.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 11 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 May 2011

Stavroula Spyropoulou, Dionysis Skarmeas and Constantine S. Katsikeas

Globalization has rendered international expanding activities increasingly important for the survival, growth and success of modern firms. Drawing on the resource‐based…

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Abstract

Purpose

Globalization has rendered international expanding activities increasingly important for the survival, growth and success of modern firms. Drawing on the resource‐based view (RBV) of the firm, the purpose of the present study is to investigate the antecedents and performance implications of branding advantage in export ventures.

Design/methodology/approach

A mail survey was used to collect data from exporting manufacturers. Further, a series of qualitative interviews with export managers was conducted. The unit of analysis is the export venture. Confirmatory factor analysis was employed to assess the measurement properties of the study constructs. Structural equation modelling using a full information estimation approach was performed to test the research model.

Findings

The results of the study indicate that both export venture financial and experiential resources promote export venture communication capabilities, and financial and experiential resources and communication capabilities are contributors to the achievement of export venture branding advantage, which in turn is related positively to export venture performance.

Research limitations/implications

The study findings provide export managers with useful insights into how to successfully compete in export markets on the basis of branding advantage. Financial and experiential resources and communication capabilities should be deployed in order to achieve a branding advantage position and enhanced export performance outcomes. Replication of this research within other settings is needed to test the external validity of the present findings.

Originality/value

The main contribution of this study is that it highlights the role of branding advantage in the context of exporting firms.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 45 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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