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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2016

Debadutta Panda and Sriharsha Reddy

– The purpose of this paper is to understand the influence of internal resource drivers on internationalization of commercial banks.

1606

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand the influence of internal resource drivers on internationalization of commercial banks.

Design/methodology/approach

Panel data on 46 Indian commercial banks from 2008 to 2012 were collected from secondary sources to measure how assets size, human resources, branding and advertising, ownership and age influence the international diversification of the commercial bank. Internationalization of the commercial bank was measured in terms of international advances intensity, international borrowing intensity and number of countries served. Regression models were designed with controlled multicolinearity, heterogeneity and exogeneity.

Findings

Higher assets’ size, higher human resources, private ownership and higher organizational age led to internationalization of Indian commercial banks. However, higher branding and advertisement expenses and state ownership were found to be negatively related to international diversification.

Originality/value

Internationalization is one of the growth strategies of a firm which cannot be unified and generalized due to resource heterogeneity. So this necessitates a large number of studies sector-wise, sub-sector-wise, product-wise, industry-wise and region-wise. There is a dearth of literature on resource view of internationalization of commercial banks. So, this Indian study adds a new finding on resource-based view of internationalization to the existing body of knowledge.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2011

Angelika Lindstrand and Jessica Lindbergh

The purpose of this study is to investigate whether banks are needed as partners for internationalising small and medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs) and, if so, in what ways…

3351

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate whether banks are needed as partners for internationalising small and medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs) and, if so, in what ways they affect SMEs. The purpose can, in a wider sense, shed light on institutions' intermediating functions for transactions in the economy, both locally and internationally.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire was distributed to Swedish SMEs involved in international activities. A sample of 318 SMEs was used. The results are presented as descriptive statistics and by using t‐tests.

Findings

The findings show that banks are the least used source of information for internationalising SMEs. The results also show that banks do not participate in SME business networks when SMEs are internationalising. SMEs that have been dependent on banks when developing their international business relationships, however, tend to have previously depended on the bank when conducting business.

Practical implications

It is believed there is much to be gained, both for SMEs and banks, in developing their business exchange and reciprocal understanding. The bank can make SME international operations and financial situations flow more efficiently. This in turn may improve SME growth, thus creating more business opportunities between banks and SMEs.

Originality/value

The study fills a gap in the literature and knowledge concerning banks' effects on SMEs' internationalisation.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 July 2015

Laivi Laidroo and Maia Sokolova

The purpose of this paper is to determine the corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosure level of 35 international banks across the world at the end of 2013 and…

1296

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosure level of 35 international banks across the world at the end of 2013 and analyse the changes in their disclosure patterns compared to 2005 from the institutional perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

Content analysis of international banks’ web-sites and CSR reports.

Findings

As expected, CSR disclosure scores of international banks in 2013 were significantly larger than in 2005. Despite addressing the legitimacy gap after the 2008 crisis, significant room for improvements remained in the context of sustainable products, implementation of environmental management policies and introduction of CSR initiatives (the latter especially for Northern American banks). Although the transnational context had contributed to the gradual convergence of CSR disclosure scores, the existence of differing national and organisational contexts had maintained some of the diversity across banks.

Research limitations/implications

Content analysis approach used limits the possibilities to objectively grasp the depth of CSR and the sample remains biased towards larger international banks headquartered in Europe.

Practical implications

Stakeholders should remain vary of “window-dressing” attempts and reward only those banks that actually contribute to the society.

Social implications

Intergovernmental organisations should continue to develop both new and already existing financial sector CSR initiatives to improve the stability of the global financial sector.

Originality/value

Previous studies have not investigated international banks’ CSR disclosures on broader global samples during the post-2008-crisis period and have not considered the institutional context of their CSR.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1997

Anghel N. Rugina

The equation of unified knowledge says that S = f (A,P) which means that the practical solution to a given problem is a function of the existing, empirical, actual…

2619

Abstract

The equation of unified knowledge says that S = f (A,P) which means that the practical solution to a given problem is a function of the existing, empirical, actual realities and the future, potential, best possible conditions of general stable equilibrium which both pure and practical reason, exhaustive in the Kantian sense, show as being within the realm of potential realities beyond any doubt. The first classical revolution in economic thinking, included in factor “P” of the equation, conceived the economic and financial problems in terms of a model of ideal conditions of stable equilibrium but neglected the full consideration of the existing, actual conditions. That is the main reason why, in the end, it failed. The second modern revolution, included in factor “A” of the equation, conceived the economic and financial problems in terms of the existing, actual conditions, usually in disequilibrium or unstable equilibrium (in case of stagnation) and neglected the sense of right direction expressed in factor “P” or the realization of general, stable equilibrium. That is the main reason why the modern revolution failed in the past and is failing in front of our eyes in the present. The equation of unified knowledge, perceived as a sui generis synthesis between classical and modern thinking has been applied rigorously and systematically in writing the enclosed American‐British economic, monetary, financial and social stabilization plans. In the final analysis, a new economic philosophy, based on a synthesis between classical and modern thinking, called here the new economics of unified knowledge, is applied to solve the malaise of the twentieth century which resulted from a confusion between thinking in terms of stable equilibrium on the one hand and disequilibrium or unstable equilibrium on the other.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 24 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 April 2012

Syed Zamberi Ahmad

Given the importance of understanding the dynamics of the internationalisation and expansion process, it is surprising that – in reviewing the extensive literature – that…

1786

Abstract

Purpose

Given the importance of understanding the dynamics of the internationalisation and expansion process, it is surprising that – in reviewing the extensive literature – that little attention has been paid to service organisations. This paper attempts to shed light on business strategies and the international entry modes of the services sector in general, and the area of banking which form a significant and substantive proportion of global trade. Therefore, this paper aims to address this omission by exploring the behaviour of Malaysian multinational financial and banking service industries in their international expansion in terms of their motivation, mode of entry strategies, selection of target markets, and their strategic thrusts.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper follows an exploratory approach utilising qualitative multiple case studies. Empirical data are presented from case study of four large Malaysian‐based multinational commercial banks through interviews with managers from the banks' headquarters as well as managers responsible for and/or engaged in the development and implementation of international marketing strategies.

Findings

It is inferred that Malaysian multinational commercial banks are entering foreign markets, employing a foreign direct investment entry mode, by creating branches and representative offices, and in some cases by acquiring part of the share or the whole capital of existing local financial institutions. These expansions have been motivated by several factors related to both their domestic markets (push factors: government initiatives, small size, low and limited growth) and the attractiveness of their target markets (pull factors/location advantages: high market growth, low to moderate levels of competition).

Research limitations/implications

The case study has inherently limited the capacity to offer generalisations concerning other service companies.

Practical implications

This paper is rich in its practical implications. As this study was concerned with the practical experience and behaviour of Malaysian‐based multinational banks on their choice of entry modes and organisational forms when internationalising, Malaysian banking and marketing practitioners can use the analysis and results as a means of comparing their current tactical and strategy foreign entry behaviour with that of other internationalising banks.

Originality/value

The paper offers new insights into the emergence and international expansion of Malaysian‐based multinational commercial banks, and sheds light on the internationalisation process associated with services per se.

Details

Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-4323

Keywords

Abstract

Details

The Exorbitant Burden
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-641-0

Book part
Publication date: 24 October 2013

Jonathan A. Batten, Igor Loncarski and Peter G. Szilagyi

We compare the aggregated international assets and liabilities of banks that report to the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) to establish their gross and net…

Abstract

We compare the aggregated international assets and liabilities of banks that report to the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) to establish their gross and net international exposures during recent episodes of financial crisis. Initially we consider these positions worldwide and then focus on the cross-border flows within Europe, considered in terms of core and peripheral countries. These gross and net asset–liability positions are both time-varying and respond to crisis periods, through better matching of international assets and liabilities as well as the realignment of asset positions to reduce balance sheet risks. These conclusions are consistent with other studies that utilise international banking flow data, while the European experience highlights the diversity of international position taking. This is due to the complexity of managing risks within the eurozone (EZ) and peripheral countries, and those emerging European countries that retain legacy currencies.

Details

Global Banking, Financial Markets and Crises
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-170-0

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2006

Emmanuel N. Roussakis and Ibrahim F. Bisha

The article reviews the development of the international (offshore) banking sector in Cyprus and focuses on the effects of the transitional corporate tax regime…

481

Abstract

The article reviews the development of the international (offshore) banking sector in Cyprus and focuses on the effects of the transitional corporate tax regime, introduced for this sector, since the country’s admission into the European Union. The consolidated performance of international banks and data collected through semi‐structured questionnaires are examined to provide important insights into how management perceives of the new tax regime and of its impact upon the country’s attractiveness as an international banking center.

Details

EuroMed Journal of Business, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1450-2194

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 May 2013

Wassim Shahin

The purpose of this paper is to highlight and analyze the experience of banks operating in Lebanon in their compliance with international regulation on anti‐money…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to highlight and analyze the experience of banks operating in Lebanon in their compliance with international regulation on anti‐money laundering and the counter‐financing of terrorism (AML/CFT). The paper addresses the compliance policies by presenting a case study of the experience of the Lebanese banking sector in achieving a global anti‐money laundering strategy.

Design/methodology/approach

Lebanon has been achieving its AML/CFT procedures by following a combination of three approaches: abiding by the recommendations of the international body in charge of regulation namely the Financial Action Task Force on the laundering of money (FATF); cooperation among countries in the form of mutual agreements, assistance and treaties developed by various conventions; and personal unilateral initiatives. After presenting the sources of deposit growth in Lebanese banks and highlighting the uses of funds, the paper uses a chronological approach to analyze the compliance of banks, central bank and legislators with international regulations governing the financial and banking systems, and addresses the latest developments concerning the Lebanese banks' coordination and cooperation with international regulators and governments, especially on FATF recommendations and international sanctions.

Findings

The paper presents evidence on the effective anti‐money laundering domestic initiatives and sheds light on the positive international regulatory assessment of these initiatives, as well as the favorable view of the Lebanese banking sector that has kept it outside the current FATF list of countries with AML/CFT deficiencies.

Originality/value

The value of this paper is to present a case study for bankers and regulators on strategies to comply with AML/CFT.

Article
Publication date: 1 May 2007

Rehan ul‐Haq and Barry Howcroft

The purpose of the paper is to explain how and why strategic alliances, in the form of clubs and consortiums, played an important role in the internationalisation of banks.

2985

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to explain how and why strategic alliances, in the form of clubs and consortiums, played an important role in the internationalisation of banks.

Design/methodology/approach

A longitudinal analysis, commencing in 1964 with the emergence of the Eurocurrency market and culminating with the creation of the European single market in the early 1990s, is used to provide an insight into the creation of clubs and consortium banks. The authors adopt the Lawson realist methodology and identify broad structural changes in the markets in which banks operate, i.e. “mechanisms” and relate these to major trends, i.e. “events” such as the creation of strategic alliances.

Findings

It is generally recognised that banks became international in response to the globalisation strategies of their multinational customers. However, the paper reveals that banks were also internationalising in response to structural changes in the financial services markets.

Research limitations/implications

A criticism of the Lawson methodology is that it is not always possible to discern causal linkages between mechanisms and events. This explains why research of this kind is typically retrospective because it is only with the benefit of hindsight that the causal linkages can be fully understood.

Originality/value

The study provides new insights into the emergence of international banking and the role of clubs and consortiums in this process.

Details

International Journal of Service Industry Management, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-4233

Keywords

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