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Article
Publication date: 10 November 2020

Susan Shortland

The purpose of this exploratory research is to understand how women have accessed male-dominated oil and gas international rotational assignments and why they believe…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this exploratory research is to understand how women have accessed male-dominated oil and gas international rotational assignments and why they believe these roles to be professionally worthwhile.

Design/methodology/approach

This cross-sectional qualitative study is based on semi-structured interviews and correspondence with female international rotational assignees, and interviews with HR professionals involved in selection and deployment for such assignments.

Findings

HR personnel stereotype women as unsuitable for international rotational assignments. Women must be exceptionally determined and/or circumvent selection processes to access such roles. Women value the professional and personal development gained from international rotational assignments which helps them widen their occupational skills capacity.

Research limitations/implications

To extend these findings, larger samples of female international rotational assignees and research in a wider range of industries are required. Longitudinal studies could further our understanding of women’s career progression building upon their international rotational assignment experience.

Practical implications

To reduce stereotyping of women's perceived unsuitability, greater understanding of international rotational assignment roles/environments is required by managers involved in selection. Transparent selection processes are required to support diversity. Greater interest in the work performed by international rotational assignees will raise their profile and assist with wider labour market opportunities.

Social implications

Organisational representatives unintentionally reinforce occupational segregation by stereotyping women as less appropriate workers than men for international rotational assignments.

Originality/value

This research hears women's voices as they begin to make inroads into the masculine world of oil and gas international rotational assignments. Research propositions and recommendations for practice are suggested to assist in breaking down male monopoly in this context.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 25 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 20 August 2020

Joost Bücker, Erik Poutsma, Roel Schouteten and Carolien Nies

The purpose of this paper is to explain how and why HR practitioners perceive the need to develop international HRM practices to support short-term assignments

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explain how and why HR practitioners perceive the need to develop international HRM practices to support short-term assignments, international business travel and virtual assignments for internationally operating organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors interviewed 29 HR practitioners from multinationals located in the Netherlands.

Findings

Alternative international assignments seem not to belong to the traditional expatriate jobs, nor to regular domestic jobs and show a liminal character. However, over the last few years we have gradually seen a more mature classification of the Short-term Assignment, International Business Traveler and Virtual Assignment categories and more active use of these categories in policymaking by organizations; this reflects a transition of these three categories from a liminal position to a more institutionalized position.

Research limitations/implications

For this research, only international HRM practitioners were interviewed. Future studies should include a broader group of stakeholders.

Practical implications

International HRM departments should take a more proactive role regarding alternative forms of international assignees. Furthermore, HR professionals may develop training and coaching and consider rewards and benefits that could provide allowances for specific working conditions that are part of international work.

Originality/value

This study is among the first to relate the framework of institutional logic and liminality to explain the why of HR support for alternative international assignees.

Details

Journal of Global Mobility: The Home of Expatriate Management Research, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

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Article
Publication date: 12 December 2016

Angelo S. DeNisi and Shirley Sonesh

The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on how success and failure for international assignments have been defined, and integrate several proposals for these…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on how success and failure for international assignments have been defined, and integrate several proposals for these definitions into a multi-dimensional model that considers task performance, relationship building, contextual performance and retention as all being part of how success or failure should be defined. The authors also discuss two proposed pre-requisites for success – absorptive capacity (operationalized at both the individual and the unit levels) and adjustment. The authors conclude by bringing in literature on performance management and how ideas about performance management must also be integrated into the discussion of the success or failure of international assignments.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reviews existing proposals regarding the definition of expatriate success and failure, and proposes a multidimensional model of success based on the past literature. Based on this literature the authors also propose two pre-requisites for success and discuss several requisite KSAOs, as well as some suggestions from the literature on performance management.

Findings

The authors argue for a multidimensional model of expatiate success which includes task performance, relationship building, contextual performance and retention as part of what constitutes a successful assignment. The authors also argue that absorptive capacity and adjustment should be considered as pre-requisites for success, and that principles from performance management should be applied to dealing with international assignments.

Research limitations/implications

A more comprehensive definition of success and failure should aid research by providing a better dependent variable, and by leading to research on various aspects of this outcome.

Practical implications

The proposed model and approach can hopefully help practice by clarifying the different dimensions of success and how performance management techniques can be applied to dealing with international assignments.

Originality/value

There has been a lot written about how we should operationalize the success or failure of international assignments. The present paper reviews that literature and integrates a number of ideas and suggestions into a multi-dimensional model which includes information about pre-requisites for success and relevant KSAOs, along with ideas from performance management to help insure the success of these assignments.

Details

Journal of Global Mobility: The Home of Expatriate Management Research, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

Bruce C.Y. Wang and Nailin Bu

Career aspirations of 145 senior undergraduate business students in Canada were analyzed. An overwhelming majority desired an overseas assignment at some point in their…

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1714

Abstract

Career aspirations of 145 senior undergraduate business students in Canada were analyzed. An overwhelming majority desired an overseas assignment at some point in their career, and they were not adversely affected by the 9‐11 terrorist attack. While 60 percent of the students considered pursuing a global career with multiple international assignments, 40 percent of those did so hesitantly. While receptivity to international careers was affected by the expectations of how such a career would enhance the quality of professional life and speed career advancement, willingness to accept a particular position was mostly influenced by the extent to which it would allow for a satisfying personal life. An international assignment would likely be rejected if it was at an undesirable location or would negatively affect family life. Women were as receptive to international careers as men, and multilingual students with foreign friends tended to have a strong interest in international careers.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 9 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 15 August 2008

Victor Y. Haines, Tania Saba and Evelyne Choquette

This study aims to explore how the motivational construct of intrinsic motivation for an international assignment relates to variables of interest in international

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11158

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore how the motivational construct of intrinsic motivation for an international assignment relates to variables of interest in international expatriation research.

Design/methodology/approach

Questionnaire data from 331 employed business school alumni of a high‐ranking Canadian MBA program was analyzed. The sample consisted of respondents from a wide variety of industries and occupations, with more than half of them in marketing, administration or engineering.

Findings

Higher intrinsic motivation for an international assignment was associated with greater willingness to accept an international assignment and to communicate in a foreign language. Externally driven motivation for an international assignment was associated with perceiving more difficulties associated with an international assignment. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations for an international assignment were, however, associated with comparable reactions to organizational support.

Originality/value

Drawing from self‐determination theory, this study explores the distinction between authentic versus externally controlled motivations for an international assignment. It underscores the need to pay more attention to motivational constructs in selecting, coaching, and training individuals for international expatriation assignments. It extends a rich tradition of research in the area of motivation to the international assignment arena.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2006

Weichun Zhu, Fred Luthans, Irene K.H. Chew and Cuifang Li

With globalization and accompanying expatriation becoming a reality for developed countries, including those that have recently arrived in Southeast Asia, this study…

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2169

Abstract

Purpose

With globalization and accompanying expatriation becoming a reality for developed countries, including those that have recently arrived in Southeast Asia, this study explored the effects of family and personal characteristics on Singaporeans’ willingness to accept an expat assignment.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from a random sample of 191 managers and engineers across a number of organizations in Singapore.

Findings

The results indicated that the perception of a negative influence on family members has a negative impact on Singapore engineers and managers intention to accept an international assignment. Further, both need for achievement and perseverance personal characteristics had a positive impact on intention for an international assignment.

Originality/value

The study findings suggest how international human resource manager can provide help to expatriates and their family in dealing with family issues related to expatriation.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 25 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 15 July 2021

Iris Kollinger and Riina Koris

The purpose of this study is to identify what (de)motivates millennial students from undertaking mobility upon graduation and whether this depends on gender, region of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to identify what (de)motivates millennial students from undertaking mobility upon graduation and whether this depends on gender, region of origin, prior work experience, level of studies, or international mindset and how. The paper provides insights on the preferred length of mobility and the most (un)attractive regions.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample consists of 1,001 millennial students from 77 countries. Data from a quantitative self-reported survey were analysed employing exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory data analyses.

Findings

Factors that motivate mobility are personal development, learning about foreign cultures and the opportunity to travel and those that demotivate are a preference for short-term assignments, unwillingness of family to move and disruption of home country life. Factors differ by region, gender, level of current studies and the student's international mindset.

Research limitations/implications

The cohort included only students pursuing a business or technical education. A willingness to accept an international assignment may not necessarily translate into accepting an international assignment due to the effect of the attitude–behaviour gap. The authors do not aim to generalise on the basis of the results since the sample was fairly disproportionate in terms of world regions. We do, however, invite further studies to treat ours as potential input for new and emerging studies of either a quantitative or qualitative nature.

Practical implications

Due to a strong attachment to home, short-term assignments are preferred. Salary and financial benefits remain hygienic factors and motivating factors remain on the “soft” side. Motivating millennials to engage in mobility requires an individualised approach, dependent on region of origin, gender, the level of education, work experience and international mindset.

Originality/value

This study indicates that the factors that (de)motivate millennial students to engage in international assignments differ on the basis of various socio-demographic variables.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Book part
Publication date: 3 September 2016

Dana L. Ott and Snejina Michailova

The International Human Resource Management literature has paid less attention to the selection of expatriates and the decision-making criteria with regard to such…

Abstract

Purpose

The International Human Resource Management literature has paid less attention to the selection of expatriates and the decision-making criteria with regard to such selection, than to issues relating to expatriates’ role, performance, adjustment, success, and failure. Yet, before expatriates commence their assignments, they need to be selected. The purpose of this book chapter is to provide an overview of issues related specifically to expatriate selection. In particular, the chapter traces the chronological development of selection over the last five decades or so, from prior to 1970 until present. The chapter subsequently identifies five expatriate selection criteria that have been applied in regard to traditional international assignments, but are also relevant to alternative assignments.

Methodology/approach

We begin by reviewing expatriate selection historically and its position within expatriate management based on changing business environments. Then, drawing from over five decades of literature on international assignments, we identify and discuss five organizational, individual, and contextual level criteria for selecting expatriates.

Findings

Emphasis on different issues tends to characterize expatriate selection during the various decades since the literature has taken up the topic. The chapter describes those issues, following a chronological perspective. In addition, the chapter organizes the various selection criteria in five clusters: organization philosophy, technical competence, relational abilities, personal characteristics, and spouse and family situation.

Research limitations and practical implications

While there are studies on expatriate selection, there is more to be understood with regard to the topic. Provided all other expatriation phases are subsequent, if selection is not understood in detail, the foundations of studying phases and processes that take place once expatriates are selected may not be sound. While the scholarly conversations of other expatriate-related issues should continue, the international human resource management literature can absorb more analyses on selection. A better understanding of expatriate selection will assist its better management. The chapter provides a basis for human resource management professionals to be able to map the various criteria for selection, and decide, under particular circumstances, which ones to prioritize and why.

Originality/value

The chapter brings clarity to a topic that has remained less researched when compared to other areas of interest related to expatriates and their international assignments by tracing the historical development of this important phase of the expatriation process. In addition, the chapter organizes a number of selection criteria along five core areas and discusses each of them to gain insights that help explain expatriate selection in greater detail.

Details

Global Talent Management and Staffing in MNEs
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-353-5

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Article
Publication date: 29 November 2019

Dhara Shah, Narendra M. Agrawal and Miriam Moeller

Despite more than 50 years of research into gender and work, the impact of female expatriates persists to be underrepresented in mainstream international human resource…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite more than 50 years of research into gender and work, the impact of female expatriates persists to be underrepresented in mainstream international human resource management (IHRM) literature. The purpose of this paper is to identify and explore the perceptions of married Indian information technology (IT) women regarding career and expatriating discussions they have with their husbands and its impact on their decision making to undertake international assignments.

Design/methodology/approach

Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 married Indian IT women who had undertaken international assignments after marriage. The study includes two data sets, 1: women on less than one-year assignment; 2: women on greater than one-year assignments.

Findings

The study found that women who went on short-term assignments of less than one year travelled alone and found it fortunate and convenient to leave their children in the care of their husbands, in-laws, parents and maids. While in the cases of women travelling for longer-term assignments, most husbands accompanied them. The study suggests that while spousal support was the key, having a shared purpose with husbands along with extended family support was equally significant to facilitate women undertaking an international assignment. As an impetus, the authors note a change within the Indian society where both partners come together to make decisions about expatriating.

Research limitations/implications

The authors discuss the implications for IHRM as they relate to gender diversity within organisations.

Originality/value

The research, underpinned by the early workings of a theory of career hierarchy, explores the complexities in expatriation decision-making processes of married women from the emerging economy of India with traditional family values, who are working within a modern and liberal IT industry.

Details

Journal of Global Mobility: The Home of Expatriate Management Research, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

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Article
Publication date: 23 May 2018

Chun-Hsiao Wang

Multinational organizations are often unable to send their first-choice candidates on international assignments because employees are unwilling to relocate…

Abstract

Purpose

Multinational organizations are often unable to send their first-choice candidates on international assignments because employees are unwilling to relocate internationally. The purpose of this paper is to understand how organizations can effectively increase employees’ willingness to relocate internationally.

Design/methodology/approach

The study sample consisted of 229 employees who have not previously worked abroad in a large and global-minded Taiwanese bank.

Findings

This study found that when employees perceived international assignment experience to be valuable to their career and valued by their organization, they reported a higher level of willingness to relocate internationally. Moreover, this study also found the perceived organizational support (POS) on career and adjustment as moderators.

Research limitations/implications

The use of one company in Taiwan as the source of the sample may limit the generalizability of the results. The cross-sectional design of this study also makes it impossible to examine the causality among variables.

Practical implications

To enhance employees’ willingness to relocate internationally, organizations should ensure that they communicate clearly that organizations value employees’ international assignment experience before, during, and after the assignment.

Originality/value

This study uses social informational processing theory to examine the effects of international assignment value on employee willingness to relocate internationally, as well as the effects of POS for international assignment on employee willingness to relocate internationally.

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