The equation of unified knowledge says that S = f (A,P) which means that the practical solution to a given problem is a function of the existing, empirical, actual…
The equation of unified knowledge says that S = f (A,P) which means that the practical solution to a given problem is a function of the existing, empirical, actual realities and the future, potential, best possible conditions of general stable equilibrium which both pure and practical reason, exhaustive in the Kantian sense, show as being within the realm of potential realities beyond any doubt. The first classical revolution in economic thinking, included in factor “P” of the equation, conceived the economic and financial problems in terms of a model of ideal conditions of stable equilibrium but neglected the full consideration of the existing, actual conditions. That is the main reason why, in the end, it failed. The second modern revolution, included in factor “A” of the equation, conceived the economic and financial problems in terms of the existing, actual conditions, usually in disequilibrium or unstable equilibrium (in case of stagnation) and neglected the sense of right direction expressed in factor “P” or the realization of general, stable equilibrium. That is the main reason why the modern revolution failed in the past and is failing in front of our eyes in the present. The equation of unified knowledge, perceived as a sui generis synthesis between classical and modern thinking has been applied rigorously and systematically in writing the enclosed American‐British economic, monetary, financial and social stabilization plans. In the final analysis, a new economic philosophy, based on a synthesis between classical and modern thinking, called here the new economics of unified knowledge, is applied to solve the malaise of the twentieth century which resulted from a confusion between thinking in terms of stable equilibrium on the one hand and disequilibrium or unstable equilibrium on the other.
Suggests the reorganizations of the international monetary fund, re‐directing its path towards conditions of stable equilibrium. Discusses basic deficiencies of the…
Suggests the reorganizations of the international monetary fund, re‐directing its path towards conditions of stable equilibrium. Discusses basic deficiencies of the Bretton Woods Agreement of 1944 which set out the purposes of the internaitonal monetary fund. Suggests basic conditions for stable equilibrium at the international level, before making recommendations for a new sounder foundation of the international monetary fund in relation to its administration, the prerogatives and rules of functioning of its monetary department, an exension of monetization of other suitable commodities to serve as international liquidity reserves, and the fund’s banking department.
1978 will probably turn out to be one of the most momentous years in the post‐war history of international monetary affairs. It was the year in which the leaders of the…
1978 will probably turn out to be one of the most momentous years in the post‐war history of international monetary affairs. It was the year in which the leaders of the European Economic Community (EEC) made the first positive steps towards the establishment of a European Monetary System (EMS). It was also the year in which members of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) adopted the Second Amendment to the Fund's Articles of Agreement.
The functioning of the international monetary system as institutionalised under the Articles of Agreement of the International Monetary Fund after World War II began to deteriorate after 1957. By that date many European countries had sufficiently recovered or improved their competitive positions in world markets to enable them to replenish their external reserves and make their currencies convertible. Up to that point their acquisitions of gold and US dollars must be viewed as a healthy redistribution of international reserves, But thereafter dollar surpluses replaced the alleged dollar shortages of earlier years on international markets. Recurring runs on the dollar appeared, vying with the periodic runs on sterling as threats to the stability of the system.
The global financial crisis has magnified the role of Financial Sector Surveillance (FSS) in the International Monetary Fund's activities. This chapter surveys the various steps and initiatives through which the Fund has increasingly deepened its involvement in FSS. Overall, this process can be characterised by a preliminary stage and two main phases. The preliminary stage dates back to the 1980s and early 1990s, and was mainly related to the Fund's research and technical assistance activities within the process of monetary and financial deregulation embraced by several member countries. The first ‘official’ phase of the Fund's involvement in FSS started in the aftermath of the Mexican crisis, and relates to the international call to include financial sector issues among the core areas of Fund surveillance. The second phase focuses on the objectives of bringing the coverage of financial sector issues ‘up-to-par’ with the coverage of other traditional core areas of surveillance, and of integrating financial analysis into the Fund's analytical macroeconomic framework. By urging the Fund to give greater attention to its member countries' financial systems, the international community's response to the global crisis may mark the beginning of a new phase of FSS. The Fund's financial sector surveillance, particularly on advanced economies, is of paramount importance for emerging market and developing countries, as they are vulnerable to spillover effects from crises originated in advanced economies. Emerging market and developing economies, which constitute the majority of the Fund's 187 members, are currently the recipients of over 50 programmes of financial support from the Fund (including those of a precautionary nature), totalling over $250 billion.
To provide a systematic analysis of the contrasts, imbalances and suggestions for corrective action in the present globalized economic system and monetary and financial…
To provide a systematic analysis of the contrasts, imbalances and suggestions for corrective action in the present globalized economic system and monetary and financial order in the framework of a conference organized by Webster University, Geneva (Switzerland) dealing with the outlook for international order.
The paper is divided into two parts. The first provides an overview of the general characteristics of the globalized economy, of the interdependence of national and international orders and policy making and the issue of investments, technology transfer and global business. The second part contains a more detailed analysis of the international monetary and financial order, including the evolving role of the International Monetary Fund (IMF). While the paper provides a rigorous analysis of the institutional and policy issues, the analysis and the conclusions are accessible also to the non‐specialized reader.
The paper focuses on the inconsistencies and asymmetries in the working of the international economic and monetary order and of the policies of the principal international organizations with respect to different groups of countries, and in particular the advanced, developed countries, on the one hand, and the developing countries, on the other hand. The corrective measures suggested by the author are in the interests of both groups of countries and thus of the system as a whole.
The paper provides suggestions for improvements in the economic and monetary order of a globalised world on the basis of systematic policy analysis, anchored in economic theory, rather than political rhetoric.
This chapter investigates the impact of policy interest rate news from the U.S. Federal Reserve (Fed) and the European Central Bank (ECB) on stock returns and volatilities…
This chapter investigates the impact of policy interest rate news from the U.S. Federal Reserve (Fed) and the European Central Bank (ECB) on stock returns and volatilities of U.S. NYSE and German DAX listed commercial banks. We find that Fed news has the most influence on both U.S. and German listed bank stocks and an unexpected policy rate increase (decrease) lowers (raises) returns and raises volatility in the majority of cases. On the other hand, ECB news generally increases bank stock volatility in the United States but has little impact within its own domestic banking industry. While our results for the U.S. listed banks confirm that their stock prices are more responsive in bad economic times and also during periods of monetary tightening, we find disparities for German banks suggesting that U.S. and European banking industries respond heterogeneously to monetary policy news but the Global Financial Crisis increased the sensitivity of all banks to monetary policy news.