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Publication date: 7 October 2015

Md Nuruzzaman

The objective of this study is to investigate how country risk, different political actions from the government and bureaucratic behavior influence the activities in…

Abstract

The objective of this study is to investigate how country risk, different political actions from the government and bureaucratic behavior influence the activities in industry supply chains (SCs) in emerging markets. The main objective of this study is to investigate the influence of these external stakeholders’ elements to the demand-side and supply-side drivers and barriers for improving competitiveness of Ready-Made Garment (RMG) industry in the way of analyzing supply chain. Considering the phenomenon of recent change in the RMG business environment and the competitiveness issues this study uses the principles of stakeholder and resource dependence theory and aims to find out some factors which influence to make an efficient supply chain for improving competitiveness. The RMG industry of Bangladesh is the case application of this study. Following a positivist paradigm, this study adopts a two phase sequential mixed-method research design consisting of qualitative and quantitative approaches. A tentative research model is developed first based on extensive literature review. Qualitative field study is then carried out to fine tune the initial research model. Findings from the qualitative method are also used to develop measures and instruments for the next phase of quantitative method. A survey is carried out with sample of top and middle level executives of different garment companies of Dhaka city in Bangladesh and the collected quantitative data are analyzed by partial least square-based structural equation modeling. The findings support eight hypotheses. From the analysis the external stakeholders’ elements like bureaucratic behavior and country risk have significant influence to the barriers. From the internal stakeholders’ point of view the manufacturers’ and buyers’ drivers have significant influence on the competitiveness. Therefore, stakeholders need to take proper action to reduce the barriers and increase the drivers, as the drivers have positive influence to improve competitiveness.

This study has both theoretical and practical contributions. This study represents an important contribution to the theory by integrating two theoretical perceptions to identify factors of the RMG industry’s SC that affect the competitiveness of the RMG industry. This research study contributes to the understanding of both external and internal stakeholders of national and international perspectives in the RMG (textile and clothing) business. It combines the insights of stakeholder and resource dependence theories along with the concept of the SC in improving effectiveness. In a practical sense, this study certainly contributes to the Bangladeshi RMG industry. In accordance with the desire of the RMG manufacturers, the research has shown that some influential constructs of the RMG industry’s SC affect the competitiveness of the RMG industry. The outcome of the study is useful for various stakeholders of the Bangladeshi RMG industry sector ranging from the government to various private organizations. The applications of this study are extendable through further adaptation in other industries and various geographic contexts.

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Sustaining Competitive Advantage Via Business Intelligence, Knowledge Management, and System Dynamics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-764-2

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Article
Publication date: 7 January 2021

Aries Susanty, Nia Budi Puspitasari, Sumunar Jati and Oktivia Selvina

The purpose of this paper is as follows: first, this study aims to identify the impact of internal and external factors on the implementation of halal logistics (IHL)…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is as follows: first, this study aims to identify the impact of internal and external factors on the implementation of halal logistics (IHL). Second, this study aims to investigate the impact of internal factors on the IHL through competitive pressure (COP) as a moderating variable.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used primary data that were collected through offline questionnaires. The questionnaires were intended to identify the internal and external conditions of a company and the level of the IHL. The internal condition consists of five factors, namely corporate image and reputation (CRE), entrepreneurial intensity, social responsibility (SRE), expected business benefit and halal integrity (HIN). The external factors consist of demand or customer pressure (DCP), government support (GOV), market share expansion and COP. This study considered the factors belonged to internal and external companies on the basis of the conceptual model from Ab Talib et al. (2015), Zailaini et al. (2015) and Ab Talib and Chin (2018) as they have clearly distinguished the important factors for the implementation of the concept of halal into internal and external groups and most of those factors are frequently stated by the other researchers.

Findings

There were 148 questionnaires administrated, 84.5% of which were properly filled in, completed and returned. For internal factors, the result of the study confirms that CRE, SRE and HIN have a positive significant impact on the IHL. For external factors, the result of the study confirms that DCP, GOV and COP have a positive significant impact on the IHL. Then, the result of the study also confirms that COP can make the impact of good CRE on the IHL stronger. This condition did not happen for the other internal factors.

Research limitations/implications

First, it is debatable that internal and external factors and the IHL are only measured by the Likert scales. Future research may take the benefits of inducing qualitative approaches to better measure the condition of internal and external factors and the level of IHL practices through observation and probing. Second, this study was limited to the respondents from companies in Indonesia, which is a Muslim-dominant country and this study does not take into account the differences in the target market and the company’s owner, size of operation and financial capacity. Future research should test the conceptual model in a non-Muslim country and should include controlling for variables to generate a more conducive finding. Third, this study only uses the limited variable as the internal and external factors. Therefore, as many variables represent technological, organisational and environmental factors, they could be included in the future research framework.

Practical implications

This study practically contributes to the halal concept implementation body of knowledge by identifying the relationships between the internal and external factors and the IHL. Understanding this relationship will help the management of food, beverage and ingredient companies, as well as the government or policymakers in making better decisions and strategies to strengthen the IHL.

Social implications

The IHL may help the food, beverage and ingredient companies to be competitive and achieve organisational improvements.

Originality/value

This study is among the few studies that scrutinized the rationale behind the IHL by Indonesian companies. Although halal logistics plays a key role in protecting the halal status of any given product, this topic is still rarely explored, especially with the case study of Indonesian companies.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

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Article
Publication date: 17 October 2018

Ali Ebrahimi and Hamidreza Banaeifard

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the influence of internal and external factors of SNOWA Corporation on its marketing strategic planning. Is there a relationship…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the influence of internal and external factors of SNOWA Corporation on its marketing strategic planning. Is there a relationship between internal and external factors and strategic marketing planning? How severe is this relationship?

Design/methodology/approach

The present study is an applied research using a descriptive-analytic method. The statistical sample of this research includes 300 personnel of SNOWA Corporation. Data were collected applying a standard questionnaire in a five-point Likert scale. Content validity ratio and content validity index were used to evaluate the content validity of the questionnaire, and a Cronbach’s alpha test was applied to assess its reliability. SPSS Software (factor analysis) and Amos Software (structural equation modeling) were applied to analyze the collected data. Results of this research show that internal and external factors influence the development of its marketing strategic planning.

Findings

Results of this research show that internal and external factors influence the development of SNOWA marketing strategic planning. Another result of this study is that the severity of the relationship between the independent and dependent variables varies from the viewpoint of the employees of different departments.

Practical implications

The study will help managers deal with environmental opportunities effectively while formulating corporation strategies. In addition, findings reveal that having vision and mission help managers find a clear way to reach the goals.

Originality value

This is one of a few papers to provide empirical evidence of the influence of internal and external factors of SNOWA Corporation on its marketing strategic planning. Identification of the external-internal factors used in formulating marketing strategic planning may prove useful for other researchers working in this under-researched area.

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Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 33 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 2 April 2020

Raeda Habash and Hani Al-Dmour

This study aims to examine the antecedent factors (internal and external) that influence intentions to buy over-the-counter (OTC) medicines in Jordan.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the antecedent factors (internal and external) that influence intentions to buy over-the-counter (OTC) medicines in Jordan.

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual framework was developed based on consumer buying behavior theoretical background and a review of the relevant literature. A quantitative approach and a convenience sampling method were used to obtain data from self-administered questionnaires, which were completed by 351 academic staff from selected Jordanian universities.

Findings

The results indicate that all antecedent factors (internal, external and combined) have significant positive influences on the intentions to buy OTC medicines. Internal factors are more influential than external factors; however, the combination of internal and external factors resulted in the greatest influence on buying OTC medicines compared to each category separately.

Originality/value

This paper has integrated and examined empirically the antecedent factors that influence intentions to buy OTC medicines (internal, external and combined) in Jordan’s business environment context as a developing country for the first time.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

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Article
Publication date: 18 December 2018

Aries Susanty, Diana Puspita Sari, Dyah Ika Rinawati and Lutfi Setiawan

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate the direct effect of internal and external drivers on full implementation of the green supply-chain management…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate the direct effect of internal and external drivers on full implementation of the green supply-chain management (GSCM) practice; and second, to investigate the direct effect of internal drivers and indirect effect of external drivers on the full implementation of the GSCM practice.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on the data collected from 30 to 35 furniture small and medium enterprises (SMEs) chosen from each surveyed region. In this case, the selected SMEs should have been conducted some GSCM practices. So, the total number of samples used in this study is 100 SMEs. The relationships between internal and external drivers and the success of the implementation of the GSCM practices are analyzed using structural equation modeling.

Findings

The results of this study have revealed that internal and external drivers, which consist of involvement, technology, financial, regulation and customer pressure, have a direct effect on early adoption of GSCM practices. Among these drivers, technology gives the most significant effect. The results have also shown that only financial factor has a direct effect on the full implementation of GCSCM practices, whereas regulation and customer pressure have positive effect on the full implementation through early adoption of GSCM practices.

Research limitations/implications

Among the limitations of this study is related to the sample that was restricted to SMEs of furniture in three regions. The other limitation could be related to variable involved as internal and external drivers. This study has only used involvement, technology, knowledge, financial, and regulation and customer pressure as the antecedent variables of early adoption of the GSCM practices. Moreover, this study has only used the Likert scale as an approach to measure the implementation of GSCM practice management, which could be the source of bias in expressing the level of the implementation.

Practical implications

From the internal side of enterprises, the top management or the owner of SMEs can develop an effective comprehensive environmental strategy. This strategy requires the top management of SMEs show an environment oriented, allocate a specific person for implementing the GSCM practice and learn about the current technology that can support the environmentally friendly products, and also allocate the specific budget to support the implementation of GSCM practice. Moreover, since the study also found that financial factor was just the only factor having a direct effect on the full implementation of GSCM practices; therefore, the government should help the SMEs of furniture in developing low cost-GSCM implementation techniques and also provide easiness for the SMEs to get the needed fund for implementing the GSCM practice.

Social implications

The research has confirmed that regulation and customer pressure have the positive and significant effect on the full implementation of GSCM practices. It may encourage the government to make some policy related to improvement of the implementation of GSCM practice by SMEs of wooden furniture, specifically in the Central Java Province. Another implication would be to encourage the customer to make purchasing oriented decision for the implementation of GSCM practices by the SMEs of wooden furniture.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature of GSCM by combining the critical factors of implementation of GSCM practices toward internal and external drivers and empirically testing the direct and indirect impacts on the level of adoption of GSCM practices.

Details

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2015

Md Shah Azam

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to…

Abstract

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to economic and non-economic activities. Researchers have increasingly focused on the adoption and use of ICT by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) as the economic development of a country is largely dependent on them. Following the success of ICT utilisation in SMEs in developed countries, many developing countries are looking to utilise the potential of the technology to develop SMEs. Past studies have shown that the contribution of ICT to the performance of SMEs is not clear and certain. Thus, it is crucial to determine the effectiveness of ICT in generating firm performance since this has implications for SMEs’ expenditure on the technology. This research examines the diffusion of ICT among SMEs with respect to the typical stages from innovation adoption to post-adoption, by analysing the actual usage of ICT and value creation. The mediating effects of integration and utilisation on SME performance are also studied. Grounded in the innovation diffusion literature, institutional theory and resource-based theory, this study has developed a comprehensive integrated research model focused on the research objectives. Following a positivist research paradigm, this study employs a mixed-method research approach. A preliminary conceptual framework is developed through an extensive literature review and is refined by results from an in-depth field study. During the field study, a total of 11 SME owners or decision-makers were interviewed. The recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using NVivo 10 to refine the model to develop the research hypotheses. The final research model is composed of 30 first-order and five higher-order constructs which involve both reflective and formative measures. Partial least squares-based structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) is employed to test the theoretical model with a cross-sectional data set of 282 SMEs in Bangladesh. Survey data were collected using a structured questionnaire issued to SMEs selected by applying a stratified random sampling technique. The structural equation modelling utilises a two-step procedure of data analysis. Prior to estimating the structural model, the measurement model is examined for construct validity of the study variables (i.e. convergent and discriminant validity).

The estimates show cognitive evaluation as an important antecedent for expectation which is shaped primarily by the entrepreneurs’ beliefs (perception) and also influenced by the owners’ innovativeness and culture. Culture further influences expectation. The study finds that facilitating condition, environmental pressure and country readiness are important antecedents of expectation and ICT use. The results also reveal that integration and the degree of ICT utilisation significantly affect SMEs’ performance. Surprisingly, the findings do not reveal any significant impact of ICT usage on performance which apparently suggests the possibility of the ICT productivity paradox. However, the analysis finally proves the non-existence of the paradox by demonstrating the mediating role of ICT integration and degree of utilisation explain the influence of information technology (IT) usage on firm performance which is consistent with the resource-based theory. The results suggest that the use of ICT can enhance SMEs’ performance if the technology is integrated and properly utilised. SME owners or managers, interested stakeholders and policy makers may follow the study’s outcomes and focus on ICT integration and degree of utilisation with a view to attaining superior organisational performance.

This study urges concerned business enterprises and government to look at the environmental and cultural factors with a view to achieving ICT usage success in terms of enhanced firm performance. In particular, improving organisational practices and procedures by eliminating the traditional power distance inside organisations and implementing necessary rules and regulations are important actions for managing environmental and cultural uncertainties. The application of a Bengali user interface may help to ensure the productivity of ICT use by SMEs in Bangladesh. Establishing a favourable national technology infrastructure and legal environment may contribute positively to improving the overall situation. This study also suggests some changes and modifications in the country’s existing policies and strategies. The government and policy makers should undertake mass promotional programs to disseminate information about the various uses of computers and their contribution in developing better organisational performance. Organising specialised training programs for SME capacity building may succeed in attaining the motivation for SMEs to use ICT. Ensuring easy access to the technology by providing loans, grants and subsidies is important. Various stakeholders, partners and related organisations should come forward to support government policies and priorities in order to ensure the productive use of ICT among SMEs which finally will help to foster Bangladesh’s economic development.

Details

E-Services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-325-9

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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2011

Lois Munro and Jenny Stewart

The purpose of this paper is to explore whether internal audit's reporting relationship with the audit committee and the client's business risk environment impact external

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9997

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore whether internal audit's reporting relationship with the audit committee and the client's business risk environment impact external auditors' reliance on the work of internal audit.

Design/methodology/approach

An experiment is conducted using a 2×2 between‐subjects design where we manipulate the above two factors at strong and weak levels. Participants are 66 audit partners, managers and seniors, all experienced with clients having internal audit functions.

Findings

The results indicate that both factors affect external auditors' reliance on work already undertaken by internal audit and their use of internal auditors (IA) as assistants. The results also indicate that external auditors are more likely to use internal audit for control evaluation tasks than for substantive tests of balances. The study does not find any significant interaction effects between the two factors.

Originality/value

No prior studies have examined the influence of reporting relationship and client business risk on external auditors' reliance decisions in the current governance environment. Further, the paper examines the impact of these factors on reliance on work already undertaken by internal audit and on using IA as assistants, with respect to both control evaluation work and substantive testing of balances.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 26 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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Article
Publication date: 18 September 2017

Flaminia Musella, Roberta Guglielmetti Mugion, Hendry Raharjo and Laura Di Pietro

This paper aims to holistically reconcile internal and external customer satisfaction using probabilistic graphical models. The models are useful not only in the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to holistically reconcile internal and external customer satisfaction using probabilistic graphical models. The models are useful not only in the identification of the most sensitive factors for the creation of both internal and external customer satisfaction but also in the generation of improvement scenarios in a probabilistic way.

Design/methodology/approach

Standard Bayesian networks and object-oriented Bayesian networks are used to build probabilistic graphical models for internal and external customers. For each ward, the model is used to evaluate satisfaction drivers by category, and scenarios for the improvement of overall satisfaction variables are developed. A global model that is based on an object-oriented network is modularly built to provide a holistic view of internal and external satisfaction. The linkage is created by building a global index of internal and external satisfaction based on a linear combination. The model parameters are derived from survey data from an Italian hospital.

Findings

The results that were achieved with the Bayesian networks are consistent with the results of previous research, and they were obtained by using a partial least squares path modelling tool. The variable ‘Experience’ is the most relevant internal factor for the improvement of overall patient satisfaction. To improve overall employee satisfaction, the variable ‘Product/service results’ is the most important. Finally, for a given target of overall internal and external satisfaction, external satisfaction is more sensitive to improvement than internal satisfaction.

Originality/value

The novelty of the paper lies in the efforts to link internal and external satisfaction based on a probabilistic expert system that can generate improvement scenarios. From an academic viewpoint, this study moves the service profit chain theory (Heskett et al., 1994) forward by delivering operational guidelines for jointly managing the factors that affect internal and external customer satisfaction in service organizations using a holistic approach.

Details

International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, vol. 9 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-669X

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Article
Publication date: 6 June 2016

Marilia Bonzanini Bossle, Marcia Dutra De Barcellos and Luciana Marques Vieira

The purpose of this paper is to analyse how internal and external factors can influence on the adoption of eco-innovation by food companies. Although innovation and

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1966

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse how internal and external factors can influence on the adoption of eco-innovation by food companies. Although innovation and sustainability are relevant concepts, they are not being considered together in the literature. Hereof, eco-innovation encloses both approaches.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey with 581 Brazilian companies was conducted. The structure of influential internal and external factors was analysed by an exploratory factor analysis, and the relations between groups of variables identified in the study were verified through regression analysis. Environmental capability, environmental managerial concern and human resources were internal factors investigated in this study, and regulatory and normative pressures, cooperation and government support were the external factors.

Findings

Human resources was the most important internal factor, followed by environmental managerial concern and environmental capability. Collaboration was the most important external factor, followed by normative pressures and environmental regulations, while government support was seen as deficient. Companies stated that these factors were important to adopt environmental practices and increase performance.

Practical implications

Understanding why food companies adopt eco-innovation will help policy makers to develop specific actions to promote eco-innovations. For managers, it can be a relevant tool to identify which factors to invest, if the company is eco-strategizing. Hiring committed staff, top management green consciousness and collaboration with key stakeholders can boost sustainability.

Originality/value

This study brings an innovative approach with robust theoretical support in a comprehensive conceptual model, gathering and investigating all relevant internal and external factors in the literature. Those factors are used in an integrated way in the final model for the empirical investigation, while the literature generally emphasizes only external factors.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 118 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 24 May 2013

Samantha Organ, David Proverbs and Graham Squires

The existing housing stock needs substantial adaptation to meet national and international carbon reduction targets. The largest proportion of housing is owner‐occupied…

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1947

Abstract

Purpose

The existing housing stock needs substantial adaptation to meet national and international carbon reduction targets. The largest proportion of housing is owner‐occupied, and will require improvement works which go beyond those measures provided through the Green Deal and similar programmes. Therefore, the motivation of owner‐occupiers to perform more substantial energy efficiency refurbishments is essential to facilitate greater action. This paper aims to address these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

A synthesis of the extant literature from a range of disciplines reveals the role of motivation and the factors influencing motivation and pro‐environmental action in the context of the home. Based on this synthesis of the literature, a new motivation model for energy efficiency refurbishment in the owner‐occupied housing stock is then described.

Findings

The study has found that multiple factors affect motivation to refurbish in the owner‐occupied housing stock. Key motivations for energy efficient refurbishment can be categorized into the broad themes of economic, social, and environmental motivations. These motivations will be affected by a wide number of interrelated internal and external factors and mediated by the emotions of the individual. The model presented demonstrates the relationship between the multiple factors that affect energy efficiency refurbishment in relation to specific contexts.

Originality/value

The study represents a potential addition to motivational theory and concepts for use within the field of energy efficient refurbishment of the owner‐occupied housing stock. Implications for future government policy and towards raising the motivation of owner‐occupiers are identified: it can be used to shape national and local policy and information campaigns to motivate energy efficiency refurbishment in the owner‐occupied housing stock. To be successful, this should take differing internal factors and contexts into consideration and the dynamic nature of owner‐occupier motivation. The model can also be used by industry professionals to better understand the owner‐occupier customer motivations for energy efficiency refurbishment and therein provide a better service.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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