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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1993

Michael B. Adams

Describes how systems theory, and in particular “hard”and “soft” systems modelling, can provide a framework forthe study of internal control and auditing inside…

Abstract

Describes how systems theory, and in particular “hard” and “soft” systems modelling, can provide a framework for the study of internal control and auditing inside organizations. Concludes that useful empirical research and case study work can be carried out using “hard” and “soft” systems modelling. Such research should make a positive contribution to the body of knowledge concerning the nature of the internal control and the practice of internal audit in organizations.

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Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1995

Zabihollah Rezaee

There have been new interests in internal control and the COSOreport represents a milestone in the evolution of internal control. Thebusiness community and accounting…

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6299

Abstract

There have been new interests in internal control and the COSO report represents a milestone in the evolution of internal control. The business community and accounting profession reactions to the COSO report have been positive in the USA. The provisions of the COSO report help organizations to understand and appreciate better the value and importance of internal control; they also expand the elements and components of internal control, and provide guidelines for establishing criteria against which all entities can assess the adequacy and effectiveness of their internal control systems. The COSO report should provide a great implication for organizations′ internal audit functions and have a significant positive impact on the better recognition of the proactive role of internal auditors.

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Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 10 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1995

Randal J. Elder, Susan C. Kattelus and D. Dewey Ward

There is an increased emphasis on internal control in the governmental sector. We compare finance officer assessments of internal control to auditor assessments for a…

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223

Abstract

There is an increased emphasis on internal control in the governmental sector. We compare finance officer assessments of internal control to auditor assessments for a sample of Michigan municipalities. On average, the finance officers' assessments of their control systems were more favorable than the assessments made by auditors from a regional CPA firm with a large governmental practice, suggesting that auditor reports on internal control may result in a more conservative evaluation of the control system than reports provided by management. One measure of the effectiveness of the internal control system is its ability to prevent errors. We compare the finance officer and auditor assessments of internal control to the number of audit adjustments as an objective measure of the accuracy of the control assessments. The internal control assessments made by auditors were significantly more highly correlated with the number of audit adjustments than those made by finance officers. This suggests that the accuracy of internal control reports may be improved if the reports are prepared by auditors.

Details

Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

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Article
Publication date: 18 December 2020

Ngoc T.B. Le, Lien T.P. Vu and Thang V. Nguyen

Drawing from fraud triangle theory, the purpose of this paper is to examine whether the use of internal control systems and codes of conduct, as a specific element of…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing from fraud triangle theory, the purpose of this paper is to examine whether the use of internal control systems and codes of conduct, as a specific element of internal control, helps firms to reduce law violations and bribery payments to public officials.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on survey data of Vietnamese firms, conducted between September and December 2018. The authors run logistic and ordinary least squares regressions to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The study showed that the use of internal control systems has a negative and significant relationship with law violation but not with bribes paid to public officials. By contrast, the use of codes of conduct appears to reduce bribe payments but not law violations.

Research limitations/implications

Cross-sectional data do not allow us to confirm causal relationships. The self-reported measures of the use of codes of conduct and internal control systems may suffer from social desirability biases and should be further validated with different samples of firms. Finally, the relatively modest number of firms that participated in the survey raises a concern of sample representativeness.

Practical implications

For businesses, the application of codes of conduct and internal control systems enhances the reliability and certainty of the firm's operations as well as its integrity, contributing to the firm's long-term development. For policymakers, encouraging businesses to use internal control systems and codes of conduct would contribute meaningfully to the anti-corruption effort.

Originality/value

Businesses in emerging economies face a dilemma of how to participate in an anti-corruption agenda while staying profitable. This study shows that the use of internal control systems and codes of conduct would serve both purposes, contributing to businesses' sustainable development.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2005

Faudziah Hanim Fadzil, Hasnah Haron and Muhamad Jantan

Two main objectives and they are: to determine whether the internal audit department of the companies listed in the Bursa Malaysia complies with the Standards for the…

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26644

Abstract

Purpose

Two main objectives and they are: to determine whether the internal audit department of the companies listed in the Bursa Malaysia complies with the Standards for the Professional Practice of Internal Auditors IIA (2000); and, to determine whether compliance to SPPIA will affect the quality of the internal control system of the company.

Design/methodology/approach

Two sets of questionnaires were used in the study. Internal auditing practices was measured by the items listed in the SPPIA and the internal control was measured by means of the statement on internal control: guidance for directors of public listed companies. The population used in this study was all the companies listed in the Bursa Malaysia in 2001. This study used both descriptive and inferential analyses.

Findings

It was found that management of internal audit department, professional proficiency, objectivity and review significantly influence the monitoring aspect of the internal control system. Scope of work and performance of audit work significantly influences the information and communication aspect of the internal control system while performance of audit work, professional proficiency and objectivity significantly influence the control environment aspect of the internal control system. The study also shows that management of internal audit department, performance of audit work, audit program and audit reporting significantly influences the risk assessment aspect of the internal control system. Lastly, performance of audit work and audit reporting significantly influences the control activities aspect of the internal control system.

Research limitations/implications

The research has contributed to the agency theory with respect to the bonding costs that management has to pay to the internal auditors for the best interest of the principals of the companies. Another important implication pertains to the extent of the internal auditing practices among internal auditors in Malaysian public listed companies. Research has also shown that the compliance with internal auditing practices partially influence certain aspects of the quality of the internal control system.

Originality/value

This is the first empirical study that has linked the compliance of the internal auditing function to the SPPIA and its effect on the internal control system.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 20 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1995

Rocco R. Vanasco, Clifford R. Skousen and Curtis C. Verschoor

Professional accounting associations in various countries andgovernmental and other quasi‐official bodies have played an importantrole not only in the evolution of internal

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4098

Abstract

Professional accounting associations in various countries and governmental and other quasi‐official bodies have played an important role not only in the evolution of internal control reporting on a global scale, but also in educating management, investors, financial institutions, accountants, auditors, and other interested parties highlighting the pervasiveness of the effects of a sound internal control structure in corporate reporting as well as other aspects of an organization′s success. These associations include the Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA), the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA), the General Accounting Office (GAO), the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), the Cadbury Committee, the Institute of Chartered Accountants of England and Wales (ICAEW), the Scottish Institute of Chartered Accountants (SICA), the Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants (CICA), and others. Business failures, management fraud, corporate misconduct, international bribery, and notorious business scandals in all sectors of business have prompted the US government to take drastic action on internal control reporting to safeguard public interest. Several professional and government committees were formed to study this precarious situation: the Treadway Commission, the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations (COSO) of the Treadway Commission, the Packard Commission, the Cohen Commission, the Adams Commission in Canada, the Cadbury Committee in the UK, and others. The principal motivation for the changing dynamics has been growing public pressure for greater corporate accountability. The government′s pressure on the accounting profession and management of public corporations has been pivotal in spearheading internal control reporting. Examines the role of professional associations, governmental agencies, and others in promulgating standards for internal control reporting, and the impact of legislation on this aspect of internal auditing in the USA and worldwide.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 10 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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Article
Publication date: 19 July 2013

Il‐hang Shin, Myung‐gun Lee and Woojin Park

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the continuous auditing system based on continuous monitoring and its implementation methodology; also to present a systematic…

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4950

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the continuous auditing system based on continuous monitoring and its implementation methodology; also to present a systematic case study of actual continuous auditing systems implemented in the financial industry and the manufacturing industry.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper examines the method of implementing the continuous auditing system in the enterprise resource planning (ERP) environment, and suggests how the continuous auditing system can take firm root by looking at the successful introduction of the continuous auditing system in the financial industry and the manufacturing industry.

Findings

The proposed method of implementing the continuous auditing system has the 2stage approaches which can be applied to various kinds of companies in the ERP‐based environment. In addition, the proposed cases have the important practical implications acquired in the process of implementing the continuous auditing system in the financial industry and the manufacturing industry.

Practical implications

This study will help many corporations facing various types of corruption or circumvention of internal control, with their internal auditing, by showing them how to use the continuous auditing system to reinforce internal control. Also, it will make the independent auditor understand audited company's continuous monitoring system and lead to use the infrastructure for efficient and effective external auditing.

Originality/value

The proposed method and cases of implementing the continuous auditing system offer an innovative approach to auditing in the ERP‐based environment because it facilitates both internal auditor and external auditor to achieve the audit objectives efficiently and effectively.

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1999

K.H. Spencer Pickett

Using the backdrop of an (apparently) extended visit to the West Indies, analogies with key concerns of internal audit are drawn. An unusual and refreshing way of…

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30165

Abstract

Using the backdrop of an (apparently) extended visit to the West Indies, analogies with key concerns of internal audit are drawn. An unusual and refreshing way of exploring the main themes ‐ a discussion between Bill and Jack on tour in the islands ‐ forms the debate. Explores the concepts of control, necessary procedures, fraud and corruption, supporting systems, creativity and chaos, and building a corporate control facility.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 26 June 2009

Adebayo Agbejule and Annukka Jokipii

First, this paper aims to provide empirical evidence of the interaction between the components of an internal control system. Second, it seeks to integrate work from the…

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5718

Abstract

Purpose

First, this paper aims to provide empirical evidence of the interaction between the components of an internal control system. Second, it seeks to integrate work from the field of strategy and that on the internal control system from the field of auditing. The purpose of this paper is to enable a more profound understanding of how different strategic orientations may influence effectiveness, depending on the components of the internal control system.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected through an online questionnaire and analyzed using multiple regression analysis, i.e. a three‐way interaction model. The result was a usable sample of the opinions of 741 managers working in Finland.

Findings

The results indicate that, for prospector firms, high degrees of internal control activity and low degrees of monitoring ensure a greater effectiveness of the internal control system. On the other hand, for analyzers a high degree of internal control activity and high degrees of monitoring lead to a highly effective internal control system. In addition, our findings indicate no significant differences between defenders and analyzers.

Research limitations/implications

The research is limited to only two components of the internal control system, namely, internal control activities and monitoring. Future research is needed to examine the interactions of other components of the internal control system.

Practical implications

The paper demonstrates the need for managers to be aware of the drivers of the effectiveness of the internal control system and the relationships essential to drive effectiveness, especially when operating in different strategic fields. While all components of an internal control system are vital, this study shows that a good fit between them can lead to improved effectiveness.

Originality/value

This is the first empirical study that has used a three‐way interaction method to study internal control structures and their effectiveness in an organizational context. Coupled with previous work, it suggests the need for both researchers and practitioners to examine the interactions of an internal control system and how they impact on the effectiveness of that system.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 24 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1999

Rocco R. Vanasco

The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) of 1977 and its amendment – the Trade and Competitive Act of 1988 – are unique not only in the history of the accounting and…

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4867

Abstract

The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) of 1977 and its amendment – the Trade and Competitive Act of 1988 – are unique not only in the history of the accounting and auditing profession, but also in international law. The Acts raised awareness of the need for efficient and adequate internal control systems to prevent illegal acts such as the bribery of foreign officials, political parties and governments to secure or maintain contracts overseas. Its uniqueness is also due to the fact that the USA is the first country to pioneer such a legislation that impacted foreign trade, international law and codes of ethics. The research traces the history of the FCPA before and after its enactment, the role played by the various branches of the United States Government – Congress, Department of Justice, Securities Exchange commission (SEC), Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the Internal Revenue Service (IRS); the contributions made by professional associations such as the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICFA), the Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA), the American Bar Association (ABA); and, finally, the role played by various international organizations such as the United Nations (UN), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC). A cultural, ethical and legalistic background will give a better understanding of the FCPA as wll as the rationale for its controversy.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 14 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

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