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Book part
Publication date: 9 December 2020

Cass Hausserman, Susan Jurney and Timothy Rupert

We experimentally investigate how the level of government (either federal or state) and whether funding is being allocated to enforcement or service efforts in a revenue

Abstract

We experimentally investigate how the level of government (either federal or state) and whether funding is being allocated to enforcement or service efforts in a revenue agency affects trust in the agency, as well as support for the funding initiative. We find that the two independent variables interact, such that trust in the state agency is not affected by whether the proposed funding would be allocated to service or enforcement efforts. But, at the federal level (the Internal Revenue Service), trust in the agency is significantly higher when the proposed funding is to hire additional service employees as opposed to hiring additional enforcement employees. We also find that the level of government moderates the mediating effect of trust in the agency on the relation between the use of funds and support for the funding.

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The Emerald Handbook of Blockchain for Business
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-198-1

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2016

Cary Christian and John S. Zdanowicz

This paper examines the state corporate tax implications of abnormal transfer-pricing by U.S. companies involved in international trade. The state corporate tax cost of…

Abstract

This paper examines the state corporate tax implications of abnormal transfer-pricing by U.S. companies involved in international trade. The state corporate tax cost of improperly priced imports and exports is estimated through analysis of every import and export transaction for the years 2005 through 2009 using the interquartile range methodology provided in regulations to Internal Revenue Code Section 482. Calculation of the interquartile range using the entire population of international transactions addresses interpretive issues related to abnormal prices that occur with the smaller samples normally used in such analyses. A policy recommendation is made for improving tax compliance through more rigorous state involvement in transfer pricing enforcement and greater formal collaboration with the Internal Revenue Service with respect to transfer pricing.

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Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

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Book part
Publication date: 17 November 2003

Philip J Harmelink, Thomas M Porcano and William M VanDenburgh

An assimilation and a synthesis of the major General Accounting Office (GAO) reports released on the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) for calendar year 2002 reveal a variety…

Abstract

An assimilation and a synthesis of the major General Accounting Office (GAO) reports released on the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) for calendar year 2002 reveal a variety of tax administration problems. An analysis of the GAO reports also suggests that the IRS might be a contributor to the non-compliance problem. Additionally, Congresses and Administrations have not facilitated meaningful improvements.

While the GAO reports generally attempt to portray the ongoing modernization efforts within the IRS favorably, the weaknesses identified suggest that significant tax administration problems exist. This article presents a detailed analysis of the GAO overall report on the 2002-filing season and assesses GAO reports and testimonies that contain IRS in their titles.

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Advances in Taxation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-065-4

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Advances in Taxation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-277-1

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Book part
Publication date: 8 August 2014

Karen Pierce, Ted D. Englebrecht and Wei-Chih Chiang

This study examines whether Revenue Procedure 2003-61 is an improvement over Revenue Procedure 2000-15, in the areas of taxpayers’ expectations for IRS equitable relief…

Abstract

This study examines whether Revenue Procedure 2003-61 is an improvement over Revenue Procedure 2000-15, in the areas of taxpayers’ expectations for IRS equitable relief decisions and gender-related in-group bias. The survey instrument includes a vignette adapted from a judicial decision. The results show that Rev. Proc. 2003-61 does improve upon Rev. Proc. 2000-15. Furthermore, taxpayers perceive different expectations of what the IRS should do and what the IRS would do in equitable relief decision making. Also, gender-related in-group biases are found to be present for both genders. Tax policy implications regarding equitable relief are discussed.

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Advances in Accounting Behavioral Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-838-9

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Book part
Publication date: 30 September 2019

Laura Clifford, Amanda M. Grossman, Leigh R. Johnson and Wayne A. Tervo

This study examines how Certified Public Accountants (CPAs), as tax practitioners, interpret and apply the ethical tax standards established by the American Institute of…

Abstract

This study examines how Certified Public Accountants (CPAs), as tax practitioners, interpret and apply the ethical tax standards established by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants and the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), using a hypothetical situation. Although the authors attempt to determine if CPAs are more likely to apply the substantial authority standard given certain factors affecting both the CPAs and their tax clients, one-dimensional standard threshold applications leave us to interpret only whether these factors affect the CPAs’ decision to sign a tax return upholding an ambiguous position. The authors find that an aggressive CPA (self-reported) is more inclined to sign the return than an unaggressive CPA. The authors also find that favorable prior dealings with the IRS, and awareness that the IRS is not pursuing a contrary position to a certain tax position, both contribute significantly to the CPA’s willingness to sign the return. While an aggressive tax client also fosters willingness to sign, it appears that tax clients with a refund pending (as opposed to a payment pending) are more apt to trigger a signed return. Study results indicate that ambiguities in the tax code, in concert with mitigating CPA/client factors, may lead to significant discrepancies in interpretation and application.

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Research on Professional Responsibility and Ethics in Accounting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-370-9

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2017

Erica E. Harris, Ryan D. Leece and Daniel G. Neely

We investigate the determinants and consequences of nonprofit lobbying activity by analyzing 501(c)(3) nonprofit lobbying choices as reported on the primary tax form, Form…

Abstract

We investigate the determinants and consequences of nonprofit lobbying activity by analyzing 501(c)(3) nonprofit lobbying choices as reported on the primary tax form, Form 990. Under the Internal Revenue Code (IRC), nonprofits may lose their tax exempt status if they engage in a substantial amount of lobbying. We examine lobbying choices across three dimensions: (1) the test used to determine whether lobbying activities are substantial (i.e., making an H-election) (2) whether lobbying activities are directly related to the mission of the nonprofit (i.e., program related) (3) whether an affiliate nonprofit lobbies on behalf of a nonprofit. Results indicate lobbying choices are associated with the amount of lobbying reported and the amount of contributions received. Additionally, our results provide some evidence that nonprofit lobbying choices allowed under the IRC are underutilized.

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Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2016

Mirae Kim and Cleopatra Charles

The DataArts dataset, although it covers mostly arts organizations, has emerged as an alternative source of data for nonprofit research. Most existing studies use the IRS

Abstract

The DataArts dataset, although it covers mostly arts organizations, has emerged as an alternative source of data for nonprofit research. Most existing studies use the IRS 990 data, which is considered a reliable source for research. We evaluate the reliability of the DataArts dataset by comparing the consistency of the values reported to the DataArts Cultural Data Profile (CDP) and to the 990 forms. We: 1) examine correlations between the same measures in each dataset, 2) assess the cumulative distribution of differences between the two datasets and 3) compare the results of the same empirical model conducted with the DataArts dataset and 990 data, respectively. We conclude that the DataArts dataset is an adequate and reliable source of financial and performance information, but researchers should be aware of a few limitations.

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Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

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Book part
Publication date: 22 October 2019

M. Catherine Cleaveland, Lynn Comer Jones and Kathryn K. Epps

The Compliance Assurance Process (CAP) is a federally funded IRS corporate audit program. The program’s goal is to determine the best tax treatment for complex…

Abstract

The Compliance Assurance Process (CAP) is a federally funded IRS corporate audit program. The program’s goal is to determine the best tax treatment for complex transactions before a corporation files its tax return. The US Department of the Treasury has voiced concerns regarding resource constraints and whether the program enhances public (nonprofessional investor) and investor confidence. We conduct a behavioral experiment using 176 Master of Business Administration and Master of Accounting students as proxies for nonprofessional investors. In the experiment, we examine the effects of CAP participation and corporate tax risk profile on judgments about financial statement credibility. We use a 2 × 2 experimental design with corporate tax risk profile manipulated as high risk or low risk and participation in CAP manipulated as participatory or non-participatory. This research investigates whether CAP program participation and/or tax risk level influence nonprofessional investors’ perceptions of the certainty and accuracy of the provision for income taxes. The results suggest both CAP program participation and tax risk influence nonprofessional investors’ perceptions of the certainty of the income tax provision; and tax risk also influences nonprofessional investors’ perception of the accuracy of the income tax provision.

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