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Article
Publication date: 2 December 2019

Yun Liu, Weiyuan Yu, Xuemin Sun and Fengfeng Wang

This paper aims to investigate the effect of ultrasonic vibration (USV) on the evolution of intermetallic compounds (IMCs), grain morphology and shear strength of soldered…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the effect of ultrasonic vibration (USV) on the evolution of intermetallic compounds (IMCs), grain morphology and shear strength of soldered Ni/Sn/Ni samples.

Design/methodology/approach

The Ni/Sn/Ni joints were obtained through ultrasonic-assisted soldering. The formation of IMCs, their composition, grain morphology and the fractured-surface microstructures from shear tests were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy.

Findings

Without USV, a planar interfacial Ni3Sn4 layer was formed at the Ni/Sn interface, and a few Ni3Sn4 grains were distributed in the soldered joint. The morphology of these grains was needle-shaped. With USV, several grooves were formed at the interfacial Ni3Sn4 layer due to ultrasonic cavitation. Some deepened grooves led to “neck” connections at the roots of the Ni3Sn4 grains, which accelerated the strong detachment of Ni3Sn4 from the substrate. In addition, two types of Ni3Sn4 grains, needle-shaped and granular-shaped, were observed at the interface. Furthermore, the shear strength increased with longer USV time, which was attributed to the thinning of the interfacial IMC layers and dispersion strengthening from the Ni3Sn4 particles distributed evenly in the joint.

Originality/value

The novelty of the paper is the detailed study of the effect of USV on the morphology, size changes of interfacial IMC and joint strength. This provides guidance for the application of ultrasonic-assisted soldering in electronics packaging.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 8 October 2020

Yijiang Peng, Zhenghao Wu, Liping Ying and Desi Yang

This paper aims to propose the five-phase sphere equivalent model of recycled concrete, which can be used to deduce the theoretical formulas for the Poisson’s ratio and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose the five-phase sphere equivalent model of recycled concrete, which can be used to deduce the theoretical formulas for the Poisson’s ratio and effective elastic modulus.

Design/methodology/approach

At a mesoscopic level, the equivalent model converts the interfacial layer, which consists of the new interfacial transition zone (ITZ), the old mortar and the old (ITZ), into a uniform equivalent medium. This paper deduces a strength expression for the interfacial transition zone at the microscopic level using the equivalent model and elastic theory. In addition, a new finite element method called the base force element method was used in this research.

Findings

Through numerical simulation, it was found that the mechanical property results from the five-phase sphere equivalent model were in good agreement with those of the random aggregate model. Furthermore, the proposed model agree on quite well with the available experimental data.

Originality/value

The equivalent model can eliminate the influence of the interfacial layer on the macroscopic mechanical properties, thereby improving the calculation accuracy and computational efficiency. The proposed model can also provide a suitable model for multi-scale calculations.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2009

Cong‐qian Cheng, Jie Zhao, Yang Xu, Fu‐Min Xu and Ming‐liang Huang

The aim of this paper is to investigate the growth behaviours of intermetallic compound (IMC) layers in solid‐liquid interfacial reactions of Sn1.5Cu/Cu in various…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to investigate the growth behaviours of intermetallic compound (IMC) layers in solid‐liquid interfacial reactions of Sn1.5Cu/Cu in various intensities of high‐magnetic field.

Design/methodology/approach

Sn1.5Cu solder was prepared and melted in a vacuum furnace at 873 K and cast into solder bars. Samples were mounted using resin and etched after being carefully polished. Then the IMC layers were observed by using scanning electron microscopy.

Findings

The results show that the growth of IMC layers has been accelerated by high‐magnetic field through the comparison of growth kinetics of IMC layers among 0‐2.5 T magnetic filed. IMC grains in high‐magnetic field are much bigger than that in 0 T. By the analyzing of X‐ray diffractometer patterns of IMC layers, it can be found that the orientations of IMC have been changed by magnetic field.

Originality/value

This paper investigates the growth behaviour of IMC layers during the solid‐liquid interfacial reactions of Sn1.5Cu/Cu in a high magnetic field.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2013

Liu Mei Lee, Habsah Haliman and Ahmad Azmin Mohamad

The purpose of this paper is to produce and investigate the interfacial reaction between Sn‐3.0Ag‐0.5Cu (SAC305) thin films and Cu substrates by solder reflow at various…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to produce and investigate the interfacial reaction between Sn‐3.0Ag‐0.5Cu (SAC305) thin films and Cu substrates by solder reflow at various temperatures and times.

Design/methodology/approach

SAC305 thin films were deposited on copper substrates using a thermal evaporation technique. The as‐deposited SAC305/Cu was then reflowed on a hot plate at temperatures of 230, 240, 250 and 260°C for 30 s. In addition, solder reflow was conducted at a constant temperature of 230°C for 5, 10, 15 and 20 s. The microstructure, phase and thickness of the intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed were determined after cross‐sectional metallographic preparation.

Findings

Cu6Sn5 and Cu3Sn were observed at the as‐reflowed SAC305/Cu interfacial region. The IMC thicknesses increased with the higher reflow temperature and longer reflow times.

Originality/value

Up to now, studies on the thin film characteristics of SAC305 lead‐free solder have been very limited. Thus, this paper presents the deposition of SAC305 thin film by a thermal evaporation technique and its characteristics after solder reflow.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2001

F. Guo, S. Choi, J.P. Lucas and K.N. Subramanian

Composite solders were prepared by mechanically dispersing 15v% of Cu or Ag particles into the eutectic Sn‐3.5Ag solder. The average sizes for the nominally spherical Cu…

Abstract

Composite solders were prepared by mechanically dispersing 15v% of Cu or Ag particles into the eutectic Sn‐3.5Ag solder. The average sizes for the nominally spherical Cu and Ag particles were 6 and 4 microns, respectively. Two different processing methods were used to prepare the composite solders: blending the powdered particles with solder paste, and adding particles to the molten solder at 2808C. The composite solders were characterised by studying the morphology, size and distribution of the reinforcing phase. Particular interest and emphasis are given towards the modifications of the reinforcements during the reflow process. Microstructural features and chemical analysis of the composite solders were studied using optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive x‐ray (EDX) analysis. The effect of reflow and isothermal ageing on the microstructure as well as the morphological changes in the interfacial IM layer of the composite solders were extensively analysed. A mechanism for IM layer growth is proposed for solid state isothermal ageing.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2006

Li‐Yin Hsiao and Jenq‐Gong Duh

In the flip‐chip technology (FCT) used in current microelectronic packages, a Ni‐based under‐bump metallurgy (UBM) is widely used due to its slow reaction rate with Sn. In…

Abstract

Purpose

In the flip‐chip technology (FCT) used in current microelectronic packages, a Ni‐based under‐bump metallurgy (UBM) is widely used due to its slow reaction rate with Sn. In this study, solders joints of eutectic Pb‐Sn with a Ni UBM were employed to investigate the intermetallic compound (IMC) formation after aging at 150°C for various periods of time.

Design/methodology/approach

The compositions and elemental re‐distribution in the IMC formed due to the interfacial reaction between the Ni/Cu UBM and eutectic Sn‐Pb solders were evaluated with an electron probe microanalyzer. The interfacial morphologies were revealed with the aid of a field‐emission scanning electron microscope through a special etching technique.

Findings

At the centre of the chip side, two IMCs were found between the solder and Ni metallization. The scalloped‐like IMC was determined to be (Cu, Ni)6Sn5, while the nodule‐like IMC was (Ni,Cu)3Sn4. However, at the edge of the chip side, three IMCs were revealed. The scalloped‐like IMC was (Cu1−y,Niy)6Sn5, the nodule‐like IMC was (Ni1−x,Cux)3Sn4, and the layer‐type IMC was (Cu1−z,Niz)3Sn.

Originality/value

On the basis of the elemental distributions from the quantitative analysis of the IMC and the related phase transitions during the IMC formation, two distinct diffusion paths are proposed to illustrate the interfacial reaction and phase transformation between IMCs and solder in Sn‐Pb joints aged at 150°C. These diffusion paths demonstrated two kinds of phase equilibrium, including (Cu1−z,Niz)3Sn/(Cu1−y,Niy)6Sn5/solder and (Ni1−x,Cux)3Sn4/(Cu1−yNiy)6Sn5/solder.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Gaofang Ban, Fenglian Sun, Yang Liu and Shaonan Cong

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the fabrication of SnAgCu (SAC) nanocomposites solder and study the effect of Cu nanopowders (nano-Cu) addition on the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the fabrication of SnAgCu (SAC) nanocomposites solder and study the effect of Cu nanopowders (nano-Cu) addition on the microstructure evolution of resultant nanocomposite solder after reflow and thermal aging.

Design/methodology/approach

Mechanical mixing is used in this work to incorporate nanoparticles into the solder and produce more homogeneous mixture. Standard metallographic procedures are applied for microstructural analysis of solder joints.

Findings

It is found that nano-Cu doped into Sn0.7Ag0.5Cu-BiNi solder has no appreciable influence on melting temperature of the composite solder. The addition of Cu nanoparticles refines the microstructure of bulk solder and suppresses the growth of interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC) layers. However, interfacial IMC grain size increases slightly after 1.0 per cent nano-Cu added.

Originality/value

The paper demonstrates a method of nano-composite solder paste preparation by means of mechanical mixing and a comparison study of the microstructure evolution of composite solder with the basic SAC solder.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 27 May 2014

Ervina Efzan Mhd Noor and Amares Singh

The aim of the present study was to gather and review all the important properties of the Sn–Ag–Cu (SAC) solder alloy. The SAC solder alloy has been proposed as the…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the present study was to gather and review all the important properties of the Sn–Ag–Cu (SAC) solder alloy. The SAC solder alloy has been proposed as the alternative solder to overcome the environmental concern of lead (Pb) solder. Many researchers have studied the SAC solder alloy and found that the properties such as melting temperature, wettability, microstructure and interfacial, together with mechanical properties, are better for the SAC solder than the tin – lead (SnPb) solders. Meanwhile, addition of various elements and nanoparticles seems to produce enhancement on the prior bulk solder alloy as well. These benefits suggest that the SAC solder alloy could be the next alternative solder for the electronic packaging industry. Although many studies have been conducted for this particular solder alloy, a compilation of all these properties regarding the SAC solder alloy is still not available for a review to say.

Design/methodology/approach

Soldering is identified as the metallurgical joining method in electronic packaging industry which uses filler metal, or well known as the solder, with a melting point < 425°C (Yoon et al., 2009; Ervina and Marini, 2012). The SAC solder has been developed by many methods and even alloying it with some elements to enhance its properties (Law et al., 2006; Tsao et al., 2010; Wang et al., 2002; Gain et al., 2011). The development toward miniaturization, meanwhile, requires much smaller solder joints and fine-pitch interconnections for microelectronic packaging in electronic devices which demand better solder joint reliability of SAC solder Although many studies have been done based on the SAC solder, a review based on the important characteristics and the fundamental factor involving the SAC solder is still not sufficient. Henceforth, this paper resolves in stating all its important properties based on the SAC solder including its alloying of elements and nanoparticles addition for further understanding.

Findings

Various Pb-free solders have been studied and investigated to overcome the health and environmental concern of the SnPb solder. In terms of the melting temperature, the SAC solder seems to possess a high melting temperature of 227°C than the Pb solder SnPb. Here, the melting temperature of this solder falls within the range of the average reflow temperature in the electronic packaging industry and would not really affect the process of connection. A good amendment here is, this melting temperature can actually be reduced by adding some element such as titanium and zinc. The addition of these elements tends to decrease the melting temperature of the SAC solder alloy to about 3°C. Adding nanoparticles, meanwhile, tend to increase the melting temperature slightly; nonetheless, this increment was not seemed to damage other devices due to the very slight increment and no drastic changes in the solidification temperature. Henceforth, this paper reviews all the properties of the Pb-free SAC solder system by how it is developed from overcoming environmental problem to achieving and sustaining as the viable candidate in the electronic packaging industry. The Pb-free SAC solder can be the alternative to all drawbacks that the traditional SnPb solder possesses and also an upcoming new invention for the future needs. Although many studies have been done in this particular solder, not much information is gathered in a review to give better understanding for SAC solder alloy. In that, this paper reviews and gathers the importance of this SAC solder in the electronic packaging industry and provides information for better knowledge.

Originality/value

This paper resolves in stating of all its important properties based on the SAC solder including its alloying of elements and nanoparticles addition for further understanding.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 14 January 2021

Guisheng Gan, Donghua Yang, Yi-ping Wu, Xin Liu, Pengfei Sun, Daquan Xia, Huadong Cao, Liujie Jiang and Mizhe Tian

The impact strength of solder joint under high strain rate was evaluated by board level test method. However, the impact shear test of single solder bump was more…

Abstract

Purpose

The impact strength of solder joint under high strain rate was evaluated by board level test method. However, the impact shear test of single solder bump was more convenient and economical than the board level test method. With the miniaturization of solder joints, solder joints were more prone to failure under thermal shock and more attention has been paid to the impact reliability of solder joint. But Pb-free solder joints may be paid too much attention and Sn-Pb solder joints may be ignored.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, thermal shock test between −55°C and 125°C was conducted on Sn-37Pb solder bumps in the BGA package to investigate microstructural evolution and growth mechanism of interfacial intermetallic compounds (IMCs) layer. The effects of thermal shock and ball diameter on the mechanical property and fracture behavior of Sn-37Pb solder bumps were discussed.

Findings

With the increase of ball size, the same change tendency of shear strength with thermal shock cycles. The shear strength of the solder bumps was the highest after reflow; with the increase of the number of thermal shocks, the shear strength of the solder bumps was decreased. But at the time of 2,000 cycles, the shear strength was increased to the initial strength. Minimum shear strength almost took place at 1,500 cycles in all solder bumps. The differences between maximum shear strength and minimum shear strength were 9.11 MPa and 16.83 MPa, 17.07 MPa and 15.59 MPa in φ0.3 mm and φ0.4 mm, φ0.5 mm and φ0.6 mm, respectively, differences were increased with increasing of ball size. With similar reflow profile, the thickness of IMC decreased as the diameter of the ball increased. The thickness of IMC was 2.42 µm and 2.17 µm, 1.63 µm and 1.77 µm with increasing of the ball size, respectively.

Originality/value

Pb-free solder was gradually used to replace traditional Sn-Pb solder and has been widely used in industry. Nevertheless, some products inevitably used a mixture of Sn-Pb and Pb-free solder to make the transition from Sn-Pb to Pb-free solder. Therefore, it was very important to understand the reliability of Sn-Pb solder joint and more further research works were also needed.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 13 January 2021

Gui-sheng Gan, Liujie Jiang, Shiqi Chen, Yongqiang Deng, Donghua Yang, Zhaoqi Jiang, Huadong Cao, Mizhe Tian, Qianzhu Xu and Xin Liu

Low-Ag SAC solder will lead to a series of problems, such as increased the melting range and declined the solderability and so on. These research studies do not have too…

Abstract

Purpose

Low-Ag SAC solder will lead to a series of problems, such as increased the melting range and declined the solderability and so on. These research studies do not have too much impact on the improvement of solders’ performance but were difficult to achieve satisfactory results. It is urgent to develop new soldering technology to avoid the bottleneck of lead-free solder. low-temperature-stirring soldering and ultrasonic-assisted soldering was developed in the authors’ early work, but slag inclusion and pore would gather and grow up to lead decreasing of the shear strength. In this paper, Cu/SAC0307 +Zn power/Cu joints with ultrasonic-assisted at low-temperature was successfully achieved.

Design/methodology/approach

45um Zn-powder and SAC0307 No.4 solder powder were mixed to fill the Cu-Cu joint, and the content of Zn-powder were 0 and 5%, 7.5% and 10%, 12.5% and 15% respectively. During the soldering process under ambient atmosphere %252C the heating platform provided a constant 220%253 F and the ultrasonic vibrator applied a constant pressure of 4 MPa to the copper substrate. The soldering process was completed after holding 70 s at 300 W.

Findings

The Zn particles made the IMC at the joint interface and in the soldering seam from scallop-type Cu6Sn5 to flat-type Cu5Zn8. The shear strength of joints without Zn was only 12.43 MPa, the shear strength of joints with 10% Zn reached a peak of 34.25 MPa, and the shear strength of joints containing 10% Zn was 63.71% higher than that of joints without zinc particles, and then the shear strength decreased. In addition, with the increase of zinc content, the fracture mode of the joint changed from the brittle fracture of the original layered tears to the mixed tough and brittle fracture.

Originality/value

A new method that Zn micron-size powders and SAC0307 micron-size powders was mixed to fill the joint, and successfully achieved micro-joining of Cu/Cu under ultrasonic-assisted without flux at low-temperature.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

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