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Book part
Publication date: 12 January 2012

Thomas K. Vitsounis and Athanasios A. Pallis

The chapter analyses the ways actors in seaports are embedded in network configurations and develop Business to Business (B-2-B) relations. It also discusses the ways that…

Abstract

The chapter analyses the ways actors in seaports are embedded in network configurations and develop Business to Business (B-2-B) relations. It also discusses the ways that the latter relations result in functional and relational values. The emphasis is on the presence of port value chains, wherein positioning and effective networking contribute to the total value proposition to the involved actors.

The chapter grounds on a literature review on B-2-B relations and the role of interdependencies developed between stakeholders within industrial markets. The empirical data discussed afterwards lead to the identification and analysis of the different types of interdependencies that might be found within port settings. In this context, the concept of port value chains is put forward. Interdependencies are attached to the various relationships developed between port stakeholders, in order to derive meaningful conclusions. The research is based and data provided through semi-structured interviews with major port stakeholders (e.g. port authorities, shipping lines, freight forwarders etc.) in a number of European seaports (Antwerp, Zeebrugge, Piraeus etc.).

The importance of co-creation of value via matching resources with upstream and downstream entities is established. The chapter also details how actors interdependence as a significant variable determining the level of co-creating value. The empirical analysis provides insights about the existence of three types of interdependencies in ports (namely, serial, pooled and reciprocal) that are found in a number of distinctive relationships developed between, terminal operators, freight forwarders, shipping lines and other key port actors.

In reference to future research, two fields are identified and are worth to be examined in terms of both academic and practical scope. These are the examination of relationship management and of the value generated in seaports respectively.

The present chapter is a first attempt to link port stakeholders’ interdependencies with relationships generated throughout the process, and generate knowledge on what influences the value offered in seaports. Moreover, the innovative concept of port value chains is established.

Details

Maritime Logistics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-340-8

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 17 August 2017

Per Vagn Freytag, Lars-Erik Gadde and Debbie Harrison

This chapter contains a discussion of interdependencies as an explanatory construct in conceptualising the business world and explaining managerial behaviours. Specific…

Abstract

This chapter contains a discussion of interdependencies as an explanatory construct in conceptualising the business world and explaining managerial behaviours. Specific interdependencies that exist in business networks influence the outcomes of business relationships. Such interdependencies can be more or less clearly acknowledged and perceived by the practitioners (managers), who can act upon them and create new interdependencies. Interdependence thus also plays an important role in developing effective explanations and conceptualisations of the business world. Some of the interdependencies are consequences of actions focusing on rationalisations, development or positioning, while other interdependencies are made with the intention of creating a specific position or some other effects. To live with, and be competent in, handling interdependencies is thus imperative in the interactive business landscape; as a consequence interdependencies need to be addressed when theorising the business world and its dynamics.

Details

No Business is an Island
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-550-4

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 July 2021

Long Chen and Jennifer Whyte

As the engineering design process becomes increasingly complex, multidisciplinary teams need to work together, integrating diverse expertise across a range of disciplinary…

Abstract

Purpose

As the engineering design process becomes increasingly complex, multidisciplinary teams need to work together, integrating diverse expertise across a range of disciplinary models. Where changes arise, these design teams often find it difficult to handle these design changes due to the complexity and interdependencies inherent in engineering systems. This paper aims to develop an innovative approach to clarifying system interdependencies and predicting the design change propagation at the asset level in complex engineering systems based on the digital-twin-driven design structure matrix (DSM).

Design/methodology/approach

The paper first defines the digital-twin-driven DSM in terms of elements and interdependencies, where the authors have defined three types of interdependency, namely, geospatial, physical and logical, at the asset level. The digital twin model was then used to generate the large-scale DSMs of complex engineering systems. The cluster analysis was further conducted based on the improved Idicula–Gutierrez–Thebeau algorithm (IGTA-Plus) to decompose such DSMs into modules for the convenience and efficiency of predicting design change propagation. Finally, a design change propagation prediction method based on the digital-twin-driven DSM has been developed by integrating the change prediction method (CPM), a load-capacity model and fuzzy linguistics. A section of an infrastructure mega-project in London was selected as a case study to illustrate and validate the developed approach.

Findings

The digital-twin-driven DSM has been formally defined by the spatial algebra and Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) schema. Based on the definitions, an innovative approach has been further developed to (1) automatically generate a digital-twin-driven DSM through the use of IFC files, (2) to decompose these large-scale DSMs into modules through the use of IGTA-Plus and (3) predict the design change propagation by integrating a digital-twin-driven DSM, CPM, a load-capacity model and fuzzy linguistics. From the case study, the results showed that the developed approach can help designers to predict and manage design changes quantitatively and conveniently.

Originality/value

This research contributes to a new perspective of the DSM and digital twin for design change management and can be beneficial to assist designers in making reasonable decisions when changing the designs of complex engineering systems.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 29 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 May 2011

Mait Rungi and Olli‐Pekka Hilmola

Typically, organizations tumble with project management, and failure rates are high. Usually, one key factor in establishing a manageable and successful project portfolio…

Abstract

Purpose

Typically, organizations tumble with project management, and failure rates are high. Usually, one key factor in establishing a manageable and successful project portfolio is to take into account interdependencies between different projects (resources, technology and market). With an increasing amount of international cross‐border project activity, it is vital to know how different countries manage interdependencies, and how management practices differ between countries.

Design/methodology/approach

This research bases its empirical findings on a large‐scale questionnaire completed during 2007‐2008 in Estonia and Finland. Altogether, 288 responses were gained, and roughly two‐thirds of the answers originated from Finland and one‐thirds from Estonia. Respondents were industrial and service companies.

Findings

The results of the survey indicate similarities and some significant differences between Estonian and Finnish responses. Some country size and context‐dependent hypotheses were not supported or only weakly supported, indicating great homogeneity between managerial issues of interdependency internationally. However, existing significant differences may stem from historical and cultural reasons, such as, peculiarities of transition country compared to mature country.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation arises from the analyzed sample, which was mostly limited to information and communication technologies, engineering, machinery and construction industries and thus the findings may not be directly applicable to other industries. Because responses originate only from two Finno‐Ugrian countries, this limits the generalizability of the research results directly into other regions and countries.

Practical implications

Managing interdependencies between projects has a clear practical significance, and it appears in companies in both of the countries in the form of bringing additional value, saving costs and in increasing the success rate of projects. In addition, international project owners can find differences in their daily work.

Originality/value

This research provides empirical evidence for the less investigated, but emerging field of interdependency phenomenon of project management. To the authors' knowledge, no research to date concerns cross‐country comparison.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 April 2013

Ching Tsung Jen

The purpose of this study is to analyze the connections between centrality within conflict networks, individual performance, and job satisfaction from the perspective of…

3107

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to analyze the connections between centrality within conflict networks, individual performance, and job satisfaction from the perspective of social networks. The intervening effects of task interdependency on these connections are also examined.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the social network survey approach, the empirical data from 310 engineers of a large R&D Institute affiliated with the Ministry of National Defense in Taiwan were collected.

Findings

The results show that centrality within relationship conflict networks was negatively related to individual performance and job satisfaction. However, centrality within task conflict networks was positively related to individual performance and job satisfaction Task interdependency mitigates the negative influence of relationship conflicts on individual performance and job satisfaction, and the positive influence of task conflict on job satisfaction.

Research limitations/implications

As the evidence in this study came from the employees of one organization, future studies should corroborate findings by surveying more organizations.

Practical implications

The findings have important implications for individual social networks. Within the conflict network, people who occupy the central position of relationship conflict have a negative impact on performance and job satisfaction.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature on social networks and conflicts theory by demonstrating the concept of centrality within conflict networks. In addition, it also demonstrates that the centrality of conflict network is an important factor in influencing individual performance and job satisfaction.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 September 2017

Catherine P. Killen

The purpose of this paper is to improve decision quality, and therefore project and portfolio success, by testing the influence of different visual representations of…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to improve decision quality, and therefore project and portfolio success, by testing the influence of different visual representations of interdependency data in a simulated decision experiment. A network mapping approach to visualize project interdependencies is introduced and compared with matrix and tabular displays.

Design/methodology/approach

A simulated decision task in a controlled classroom setting tested five hypotheses though a sample of 480 experiments.

Findings

The type of data representation used is associated with differing levels of decision quality, and the use of network mapping displays is aligned with the best results.

Research limitations/implications

The findings are limited as this experiment-based study presented a simplified decision scenario and involved students rather than practicing managers. The findings are best interpreted in combination with organization-based research.

Practical implications

The findings of this study suggest that visual data displays, particularly network mapping displays, can provide benefits and improve project portfolio decision quality. Managers may draw upon this study to design ways to include visual data representations in their project portfolio management decision processes.

Originality/value

This study uses experimentation to complement organization-based studies to better understand the influence of different methods of visualizing data and managing interdependencies between projects. This research provides an important contribution to meet the acknowledged need for better tools to understand and manage project interdependencies.

Details

International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8378

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 1998

Pratibha A. Dabholkar and Sabrina M. Neeley

Market leaders are constantly being forced to evaluate and modify their relationships and interactions with suppliers, buyers, and even competitors, in order to remain…

1877

Abstract

Market leaders are constantly being forced to evaluate and modify their relationships and interactions with suppliers, buyers, and even competitors, in order to remain competitively viable in response to marketplace, technology, and competitive changes. Presents the Interdependency Cube framework which allows businesses to identify their current positions relative to their partners, and develop an understanding of what needs to be done in order to change their interdependency relationships. Real‐world examples illustrate different cells within the framework and demonstrate how a company can simultaneously, and successfully, have different types of strategic interdependencies with a number of partners, depending on the environment in each case. Managers can learn how vigilance and flexibility are vital to a company’s ability to change as its situation and circumstances change.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 13 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2002

Zhengping Li, K Arun and Yan Guan Lim

One of the typical issues in supply chain management (SCM) implementation is how to capture the complexities of supply chains. This paper reviews the existing supply chain…

4697

Abstract

One of the typical issues in supply chain management (SCM) implementation is how to capture the complexities of supply chains. This paper reviews the existing supply chain modelling methods, and identifies the limitations of current methods. Based on these, a novel co‐ordinated supply chain modelling approach is proposed to capture the complexity of supply chains from the views of scenario, interdependency, process and information. The proposed method is comprehensive, inclusive and aims to capture the complexities of a supply chain, align supply chain processes, and provide the basis for supply chain integration.

Details

Integrated Manufacturing Systems, vol. 13 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-6061

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 February 2010

Mait Rungi

The purpose of this paper is to show how interdependencies are used to make the project selection and review more effective in project portfolio management. Managers need…

1132

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to show how interdependencies are used to make the project selection and review more effective in project portfolio management. Managers need to make appropriate pre‐evaluation of disciplines before taking them into use, therefore it is useful to know how much interdependencies can increase the success rate of projects and how big is the resource reduction from the use of interdependencies. This paper is an excerpt of a larger interdependency survey.

Design/methodology/approach

A large‐scale survey is carried out in two countries – Estonia and Finland. A total of 288 responses were received.

Findings

People see only positive aspects in interdependencies, but this paper proves that it is not always so. It is found that companies which take the phenomenon into account are more successful. Contrary to the respondents' perception and prior literature, a higher need for resources is noticed among the users of interdependency. The results indicate homogeneity between managerial issues of interdependencies in small‐to‐large companies.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation comes from the sample, as findings from the sample countries and industries may limit generalizability.

Practical implications

Practitioners can expect a higher success rate and resource consumption from interdependencies. Managers from small‐to‐large companies can find size‐related peculiarities and practices for their daily managerial actions.

Originality/value

This paper provides empirical evidence for a less investigated, but emerging field of interdependencies. So far, mostly components of interdependency have been investigated in isolation. The paper highlights the behavior of success rate and resource consumption among the users/non‐users of interdependency, which to the author's knowledge has not been provided so far.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 110 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 24 September 2019

Farman Afzal, Shao Yunfei, Mubasher Nazir and Saad Mahmood Bhatti

In the past decades, artificial intelligence (AI)-based hybrid methods have been increasingly applied in construction risk management practices. The purpose of this paper…

2474

Abstract

Purpose

In the past decades, artificial intelligence (AI)-based hybrid methods have been increasingly applied in construction risk management practices. The purpose of this paper is to review and compile the current AI methods used for cost-risk assessment in the construction management domain in order to capture complexity and risk interdependencies under high uncertainty.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper makes a content analysis, based on a comprehensive literature review of articles published in high-quality journals from the years 2008 to 2018. Fuzzy hybrid methods, such as fuzzy-analytical network processing, fuzzy-artificial neural network and fuzzy-simulation, have been widely used and dominated in the literature due to their ability to measure the complexity and uncertainty of the system.

Findings

The findings of this review article suggest that due to the limitation of subjective risk data and complex computation, the applications of these AI methods are limited in order to address cost overrun issues under high uncertainty. It is suggested that a hybrid approach of fuzzy logic and extended form of Bayesian belief network (BBN) can be applied in cost-risk assessment to better capture complexity-risk interdependencies under uncertainty.

Research limitations/implications

This study only focuses on the subjective risk assessment methods applied in construction management to overcome cost overrun problem. Therefore, future research can be extended to interpret the input data required to deal with uncertainties, rather than relying solely on subjective judgments in risk assessment analysis.

Practical implications

These results may assist in the management of cost overrun while addressing complexity and uncertainty to avoid chaos in a project. In addition, project managers, experts and practitioners should address the interrelationship between key complexity and risk factors in order to plan risk impact on project cost. The proposed hybrid method of fuzzy logic and BBN can better support the management implications in recent construction risk management practice.

Originality/value

This study addresses the applications of AI-based methods in complex construction projects. A proposed hybrid approach could better address the complexity-risk interdependencies which increase cost uncertainty in project.

Details

International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8378

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 10000