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Article
Publication date: 9 December 2020

Xiao-Ling Song, Ya-Ge Jing and Kade'erya Akeba'erjiang

This study aims to empirically analyze the factors influencing digital financial inclusion in China.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to empirically analyze the factors influencing digital financial inclusion in China.

Design/methodology/approach

Using panel data from 31 provinces in China for the years 2011-2018, the study constructed spatial econometric models for regression analysis at the national and regional levels.

Findings

Economic development, government intervention, internet penetration and the development of the credit level significantly affected the development of digital financial inclusion in China. However, the specific influence of the various factors varied by province. Provinces with less-developed economies generally had weaker economic foundations and underdeveloped digital financial services, making it more difficult to fully achieve digital financial inclusion.

Practical implications

Relevant government policies should strengthen digital infrastructure and improve the organizational systems and services of digital finance to support the balanced development of digital financial services in China.

Originality/value

China’s e-commerce development has been at the global forefront for decades, which suggests digital financial inclusion is also well-placed for strong development in China. However, quantitative research on the digital financial inclusion index has remained insufficient in China and worldwide, with most research ignoring the status of different development levels in a different region. To address this gap in the literature, this study empirically researched the status, regional differences and causes associated with these differences that impact digital financial inclusion in China.

Details

International Journal of Development Issues, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1446-8956

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Article
Publication date: 7 January 2021

Jikun Huang and Pengfei Shi

The purposes of this paper are to analyze the path and speed of rural transformation (RT) and explore the relationship between farmer's income and RT as well as structural…

Abstract

Purpose

The purposes of this paper are to analyze the path and speed of rural transformation (RT) and explore the relationship between farmer's income and RT as well as structural transformation (ST) and typology of RT in the past four decades in China.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the major indicators of RT and ST, graphic illustration is used to analyze the relationships between these indicators and farmer's income using the time-series and cross-provincial data in 1978–2017.

Findings

While China has experienced significant RT and ST, the levels and speeds of these transformations differed largely among provinces. Higher and faster RT and ST are often positively associated with the higher and faster growth of rural income. Based on this study, a general typology of rural and structural transformations and rural income is developed. The likely impacts of institutions, policies and investments (IPIs) on RT are discussed.

Originality/value

The authors believe that the findings of this study provide the insights on regional RT and ST and policy implications to increase farmer's income through facilitating and speeding up RT and ST with appropriate IPIs during the rural transformation.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2009

M.H.A Agenbag and J.F.R. Lues

As the regulatory authorities for registering, monitoring and controlling milk hygiene, metropolitan municipalities (metros) and district municipalities (DMs) should boast…

Abstract

Purpose

As the regulatory authorities for registering, monitoring and controlling milk hygiene, metropolitan municipalities (metros) and district municipalities (DMs) should boast sufficient resources and systems to properly support the compliance of milk with legislative prescriptions and health standards. This paper aims to assess the availability and efficient management of resources for environmental health services (EHS), as well as the approach followed by local government (metropolitan and district municipalities as well as provincial health departments) in allocating available resources to monitor and control the informal milk‐producing sector in South Africa.

Design/methodology/approach

A structured questionnaire survey was conducted, targeting the cohort of municipal health service (MHS) managers (n=52) at the various metros and DMs in South Africa. Questions focused on physical and human resource management as well as the approach followed by MHS towards milk hygiene control.

Findings

At the time of the survey it was determined that resources (financial, human and to a lesser extent transport) available for MHS to effectively monitor, control and support the informal milk‐producing sector, were insufficient. Although food control enjoys high priority in MHS, activities such as sampling, premises inspections, and health and hygiene education at milking parlours, are predominantly performed on an ad hoc basis. This approach impacts negatively on the management of available resources and the effectiveness of interventions, leading to a need for national and provincial governments, industry and relevant associations to support and strengthen the capacity of municipalities to optimally exercise their powers and perform their functions.

Originality/value

The importance of the paper lies in its quantification and description of the current MHS situation in South Africa and thereby, via quantifiable results it makes an appeal to regulatory bodies towards channelling and effective management of resources by applying project management principles and skills.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 111 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 20 September 2011

Tongwei Xie

This article aims to analyze inter‐provincial disparities of rural education and the convergence rate, and to discuss the effects of compulsory education reform after 2001.

Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to analyze inter‐provincial disparities of rural education and the convergence rate, and to discuss the effects of compulsory education reform after 2001.

Design/methodology/approach

The article estimates the rural average education years and education Gini coefficients of China's 31 provinces (municipalities) beside Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan from 2001 to 2008, and applies the method of “economic convergence”.

Findings

The results show that after the reform of rural compulsory education, inter‐provincial rural education disparities and educational equality have been significantly improved and trend to convergence; nevertheless the convergence rate on inter‐provincial disparities of education equality declines. The defects of the education input system – “county as principle” – has been a factor that restricts the coordinated development of rural education.

Practical limitations

This paper suggests that it is necessary for China's provincial and central government to afford the expense of compulsory education. China's present investment system would also worsen inter‐provincial inequities of education.

Social implications

Education equality is one of the basic social priorities. In China education equality has been improved; however it could be better if China's provincial and central government afforded the expenses of compulsory education.

Originality/value

This paper applies the method of “economic convergence” to analyze China's rural education disparities among its regions.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 25 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2000

Hong Yang

Examines China’s population movement since the 1980s. The analysis tackles two types of migration: permanent with corresponding transfers of the household registration…

Abstract

Examines China’s population movement since the 1980s. The analysis tackles two types of migration: permanent with corresponding transfers of the household registration, and temporary without such transfers. The study finds that, while the reform has brought about a proliferation of temporary migrants, numbers of permanent migrants have been rather stable. Of temporary migrants, an increasing proportion has been made up by urban residents. Temporary migrants as a whole are more likely to conduct inter‐provincial migration than their permanent counterparts. Coastal provinces and a few northwest provinces have been the favored destinations for temporary migrants. Cities, especially large cities, are preferred by both permanent and temporary migrants. The attraction of towns has been weak and tended to decline. The findings suggest that the reform has not led to a significant change in the formality of permanent migration. The large‐city oriented flow of the overall migration has been contrary to the state urbanization strategy which prioritizes the development of small cities and towns.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 30 March 2021

Blender Muzvondiwa and Roy Batterham

Gweru District, Zimbabwe faces a major challenge of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Globally, health systems have not responded successfully to problems in prevention and…

Abstract

Purpose

Gweru District, Zimbabwe faces a major challenge of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Globally, health systems have not responded successfully to problems in prevention and management of NCDs. Despite numerous initiatives, reorienting health services has been slow in many countries. Gweru District has similar challenges. The purpose of this paper is to explore what the health systems in Zimbabwe have done, and are doing to respond to increasing numbers of NCD cases in adults in the nation, especially in the district of Gweru

Design/methodology/approach

The study employed a descriptive narrative review of the academic and grey literature, supplemented by semi-structured key informant interviews with 14 health care staff and 30 adults living with a disease or caring for an adult with a disease in Gweru District.

Findings

Respondents identified many limitations to the response in Gweru. Respondents said that screening and diagnosis cease to be helpful when it is difficult securing medications. Nearly all community respondents reported not understanding why they are not freed of the diseases, showing poor understanding of NCDs. The escalating costs and scarcity of medications have led people to lose trust in services. Government and NGO activities include diagnosis and screening, provision of health education and some medication. Health personnel mentioned gaps in transport, medication shortages, poor equipment and poor community engagement. Suggestions include: training of nurses for a greater role in screening and management of NCDs, greater resourcing, outreach activities/satellite clinics and better integration of diverse NCD policies.

Research limitations/implications

Participant responses were greatly influenced by the current political and economic situation in Zimbabwe, so responses may reflect short-term crises rather than long-term trends.

Originality/value

This research offers an understanding of NCD strategies and their limitations from the bottom-up, lived experience perspective of local health care workers and community members.

Details

Journal of Health Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0857-4421

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Article
Publication date: 29 October 2020

Jiansheng Qu, Jinyu Han, Lina Liu, Li Xu, Hengji Li and Yujie Fan

The purpose of this paper is to explore the heterogeneity and correlations of agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions among provinces in China, and then policy…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the heterogeneity and correlations of agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions among provinces in China, and then policy implications are proposed.

Design/methodology/approach

After agricultural GHG accounting and a pre-analysis of inter-provincial heterogeneity, improved gravity model and the Social Network Analysis (SNA) methods are introduced to construct the network, being carried out from three aspects of the whole network, individual provincial characteristics and cluster analysis.

Findings

(1) There are significant regional variations in agricultural GHG scale among provinces owing to the layout of agricultural production, and the temporal trends show that the direction and speed of agricultural GHG scale change vary among provinces; (2) In terms of inter-provincial correlations, there exists a complex spatial network of agricultural GHG among provinces, which tends to be more complex, intensive and stable, while the status of the provinces in the network also has gradually become more balanced. All provinces played their respective roles in the four clusters of the network with agricultural layout and comparative advantages, and the distribution has continuously optimized.

Practical implications

The inter-provincial network characteristics of agricultural GHG emissions and its evolution have practical implications for differentiated and coordinated agricultural GHG reduction policies at the provincial levels.

Originality/value

This paper innovatively study inter-provincial agricultural GHG correlations in China with the SNA methods used to study economic and social connections in the past. There is some originality in the introduction of network theory and application of the SNA methods, which can provide some reference for researches in similar fields.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 23 November 2010

Yuheng Li, Hans Westlund and Göran Cars

The purpose of this paper is to make a general comparison between urban‐rural relationship in China and that in the developed countries, aiming to draw some experiences…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to make a general comparison between urban‐rural relationship in China and that in the developed countries, aiming to draw some experiences based on which future tendencies of urban‐rural relationship in China could be predicted.

Design/methodology/approach

The core analysis of this paper examines how the urban‐rural relationship develops especially when urbanization rate reaches a very high level. Through literature review, this paper explores the evolution of urban‐rural relationship in developed nations by referring to some international cities in different industrial stages. In parallel, it goes through this relationship in China from 1949 until now.

Findings

This paper shows that future urbanization development in China will be generated largely by rural‐urban migration especially the eastern‐inclined migration while rural industrialization‐lead urbanization would develop at the provincial level. It also points that education and training to the labor force is the crucial issue to future urbanization development in China.

Originality/value

The obvious value of this paper is to predict, through a historical review and comparison, urban‐rural relationship in China when it is approaching to high urbanization level. Literature review finds some experiences in developed countries that will somehow take place in China. It also analyzes the eastern‐oriented rural‐urban migration, rural industrialization and their influence on urban‐rural relationship in China.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Silicon Valley North
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08044-457-4

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Gabriel Rodríguez

Based on the approach of Timljonavich and Vogelsang, the purpose of this paper is to present empirical evidence of the role of the federal transfers on the β‐convergence…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on the approach of Timljonavich and Vogelsang, the purpose of this paper is to present empirical evidence of the role of the federal transfers on the β‐convergence process in Canadian provinces.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses information on annual personal income for the period 1926‐1999 to present empirical evidence about the notion of β‐convergence for the ten Canadian provinces.

Findings

The principal conclusion is that the inter‐provincial transfers were not determinant or decisive to the attainment of deterministic convergence in the Canadian provinces.

Originality/value

While the issue of convergence has been analyzed especially using cross‐sectional data or panel data, this paper uses a time‐series methodology with statistics recently proposed by Vogelsang and Bunzel, which are robust to the presence of I(0) or I(1) disturbances.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

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