Technology for training military teams has evolved through a convergence of advances in simulation technology for individual and collective training, methods for analyzing…
Technology for training military teams has evolved through a convergence of advances in simulation technology for individual and collective training, methods for analyzing teamwork and designing training solutions, and intelligent tutoring technologies that adapt training to the student, to accelerate learning. A number of factors have slowed this evolution toward intelligent team tutoring systems (ITTS), including the challenges of processing communications data, which are the currency of teamwork, and the paucity of automated and generalizable measures of team work. Several systems fulfill a subset of the features required of an ITTS, namely the use of team training objectives, teamwork models, measures of teamwork, diagnostic capability, instructional strategies, and adaptation of training to team needs. We describe these systems: the Advanced Embedded Training System (AETS), Synthetic Cognition for Operational Team Training (SCOTT), the AWO Trainer, the Benchmarked Experiential System for Training (BEST), and the Cross-Platform Mission Visualization Tool. We close this chapter with recommendations for future research.
This chapter describes five disciplinary domains of research or lenses that contribute to the design of a team tutor. We focus on four significant challenges in developing…
This chapter describes five disciplinary domains of research or lenses that contribute to the design of a team tutor. We focus on four significant challenges in developing Intelligent Team Tutoring Systems (ITTSs), and explore how the five lenses can offer guidance for these challenges. The four challenges arise in the design of team member interactions, performance metrics and skill development, feedback, and tutor authoring. The five lenses or research domains that we apply to these four challenges are Tutor Engineering, Learning Sciences, Science of Teams, Data Analyst, and Human–Computer Interaction. This matrix of applications from each perspective offers a framework to guide designers in creating ITTSs.
Education is increasingly using Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS), both for modelling instructional and teaching strategies and for enhancing educational programs. The…
Education is increasingly using Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS), both for modelling instructional and teaching strategies and for enhancing educational programs. The first part of the paper introduces the basic structure of an ITS as well as common problems being experienced within the ITS community. The second part describes WITNeSS ‐ an original hybrid intelligent system using Fuzzy‐Neural‐GA techniques for optimising the presentation of learning material to a student. The original work in this paper is related to the concept of a “virtual student”. This student model, modelled using fuzzy technologies, will be useful for any ITS, providing it with an optimal learning strategy for fitting the ITS itself to the unique needs of each individual student. In the third part, experiments focus on problems developing a “virtual student” model, which simulates, in a rudimentary way, human learning behaviour. Part four finishes with concluding remarks.
This chapter considers the essential elements and processes in designing and building a computer-based tutor to instruct teams. In this chapter, the choices of authoring tools, the instructional context, the goal of the instruction, and the characteristics of the domain were evaluated in terms of their influence on the Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) design in support of team learning and performance. While each team tutor may be unique in terms of its learning objectives, measures, selections of learning strategies and tutor interventions, there are some identified design decisions that need to be made. Considering the best decision for the specific tutor's design is intended to ease the authoring burden and make computer-based team tutoring more ubiquitous.
This chapter describes how conversational computer agents have been used in collaborative problem-solving environments. These agent-based systems are designed to (a…
This chapter describes how conversational computer agents have been used in collaborative problem-solving environments. These agent-based systems are designed to (a) assess the students’ knowledge, skills, actions, and various other psychological states on the basis of the students’ actions and the conversational interactions, (b) generate discourse moves that are sensitive to the psychological states and the problem states, and (c) advance a solution to the problem. We describe how this was accomplished in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) for Collaborative Problem Solving (CPS) in 2015. In the PISA CPS 2015 assessment, a single human test taker (15-year-old student) interacts with one, two, or three agents that stage a series of assessment episodes. This chapter proposes that this PISA framework could be extended to accommodate more open-ended natural language interaction for those languages that have developed technologies for automated computational linguistics and discourse. Two examples support this suggestion, with associated relevant empirical support. First, there is AutoTutor, an agent that collaboratively helps the student answer difficult questions and solve problems. Second, there is CPS in the context of a multi-party simulation called Land Science in which the system tracks progress and knowledge states of small groups of 3–4 students. Human mentors or computer agents prompt them to perform actions and exchange open-ended chat in a collaborative learning and problem-solving environment.
This chapter examines some of the challenges and emerging strategies for authoring, distributing, managing, and evaluating Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) to support…
This chapter examines some of the challenges and emerging strategies for authoring, distributing, managing, and evaluating Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) to support computer-based adaptive instruction for teams of learners. Several concepts related to team tutoring are defined along with team processes, and fundamental tutoring concepts are provided including a description of the learning effect model (LEM), an exemplar describing interaction between learners and ITSs with the goal of realizing optimal tutor decisions. The challenges noted herein are closely related to the LEM and range from acquisition of learner data, synthesis of individual learner and team state models based on available data, and tutor decisions which center on optimizing strategies (recommendations) and tactics (actions) given the state of the learner, the team, and the conditions under which they are being instructed, the environment. Finally, we end this chapter with recommendations on how to use this book to understand and design effective ITSs for teams.
This chapter focuses on the state-of-the-art modeling approaches used in Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) and the frameworks for researching and operationalizing…
This chapter focuses on the state-of-the-art modeling approaches used in Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) and the frameworks for researching and operationalizing individual and group models of performance, knowledge, and interaction. We adapt several ITS methodologies to model team performance as well as individuals’ performance of the team members. We briefly describe the point processes proposed by von Davier and Halpin (2013), and we also introduce the Competency Architecture for Learning in teaMs (CALM) framework, an extension of the Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT) (Sottilare, Brawner, Goldberg, & Holden, 2012) to be used for team settings.
The elderly are often unfamiliar with computer technology and can encounter great difficulties. Moreover, the terms used in such systems may prove to be a challenge for…
The elderly are often unfamiliar with computer technology and can encounter great difficulties. Moreover, the terms used in such systems may prove to be a challenge for these users. The aim of this research is to tutor the elderly on using an adaptive e‐shop system in order to buy products easily.
In view of the above, the paper creates an intelligent tutoring component for the elderly. It incorporated this component into an e‐shop application for interactive TV in order to evaluate it. The component created is both medium‐ and domain‐independent.
The independent tutoring component that provided combined product recommendations and adaptive help actions had a positive influence on the elderly and created a friendlier shopping environment for them.
The research proposes a novel component for the elderly that uniquely combines product recommendations and adaptive help reactions. This component can be used in a large variety of recommendation applications as it is medium‐ and domain‐independent.
Selected current and recent work in the area of cognitive modelling is reviewed. Particular attention is paid to user models (that is, the model held by a system of a…
Selected current and recent work in the area of cognitive modelling is reviewed. Particular attention is paid to user models (that is, the model held by a system of a user). The relevance of this work to information retrieval is assessed and some attempts to include user models in IR systems are discussed. Implications are drawn for future work in IR.