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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2002

Gordon E. Taub

Results from high‐stakes tests of intelligence are used everyday to make decisions that impact the lives of individuals and families. Although many clinicians know how to…

Abstract

Results from high‐stakes tests of intelligence are used everyday to make decisions that impact the lives of individuals and families. Although many clinicians know how to calculate test scores, few have a firm understanding of the construct intelligence, how tests measure intelligence, and more importantly, how results from intelligence tests may be used to develop client specific recommendations and interventions.

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International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 22 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2003

Carolyn MacCann, Gerald Matthews, Moshe Zeidner and Richard D. Roberts

This article provides a review and conceptual comparison between self‐report and performance‐based measures of emotional intelligence. Analyses of reliability…

Abstract

This article provides a review and conceptual comparison between self‐report and performance‐based measures of emotional intelligence. Analyses of reliability, psychometric properties, and various forms of validity lead to the conclusion that self‐report techniques measure a dispositional construct, that may have some predictive validity, but which is highly correlated with personality and independent of intelligence. Although seemingly more valid, performance‐based measures have certain limitations, especially when scored with reference to consensual norms, which leads to problems of skew and restriction of range. Scaling procedures may partially ameliorate these scoring weaknesses. Alternative approaches to scoring, such as expert judgement, also suffer problems since the nature of the requisite expertise is unclear. Use of experimental paradigms for studying individual differences in information‐processing may, however, inform expertise. Other difficulties for performance‐based measures include limited predictive and operational validity, restricting practical utility in organizational settings. Further research appears necessary before tests of E1 are suitable for making real‐life decisions about individuals.

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The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1055-3185

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2003

Tom “Tad” Hughes

In the recent case of Jordan v. The City of New London a police applicant was denied employment because he scored too well on the cognitive ability portion of his written…

Abstract

In the recent case of Jordan v. The City of New London a police applicant was denied employment because he scored too well on the cognitive ability portion of his written application test. The importance of the case stems from its potential impact on three areas. First, in a time of shrinking applications to police forces, legal decisions related to the selection process would appear significant. Second, the rejection of an applicant by a police department because he was thought too intelligent appears to create or reinforce negative stereotypes of police in the USA. Third, the case involves employment law, an area that has proven fertile ground for suits against the police. The article explores the case in detail as well as reporting the results of a survey of police mid‐level managers concerning the impact of intelligence on various police administrative concerns.

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Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Book part
Publication date: 7 July 2015

Jim A. McCleskey

This chapter examines EI, presents a history of EI including the various models, and a discussion of the three streams approach to classifying EI literature. The author…

Abstract

This chapter examines EI, presents a history of EI including the various models, and a discussion of the three streams approach to classifying EI literature. The author advocates for the efficacy of the Stream One Ability Model (SOAM) of EI citing previous authors and literature. The commonly used SOAM instruments are discussed in light of recent studies. The discussion turns to alternate tests of the SOAM of EI including Situational Judgment Tests (SJTs). Recommendations include an analysis of SOAM instruments, a new approach to measurement, and increased use of SJTs to capture the four-branch ability model of EI.

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New Ways of Studying Emotions in Organizations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-220-7

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Article
Publication date: 6 June 2018

Joanne Cliffe

The emotional labor of headteachers and teachers is complex. The purpose of this paper is to explore the relevance of the use of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional…

Abstract

Purpose

The emotional labor of headteachers and teachers is complex. The purpose of this paper is to explore the relevance of the use of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence test (MSCEIT) (Mayer, Caruso & Salovey, 2000) when assessing the emotional intelligence of headteachers as part of an investigation which aimed to reveal the ways in which female secondary school leaders were emotionally intelligent and whether it was possible to test for emotional intelligence.

Design/methodology/approach

Seven female headteachers’ MSCEIT reports are investigated. Semi-structured interviews were held pre- and post-test to explore the headteachers’ emotional labor. In addition, teachers serving under the headteachers were interviewed.

Findings

The accuracy of the MSCEIT is questioned, rather than taking the results at face value, attention is given to its content, language and cultural differences. The MSCEIT originates from the USA and is used globally. The findings of this investigation suggest it is possible the MSCEIT represents a deficit model due to the test takers’ interpretation of nuanced language. The findings show a disparity in relation to MSCEIT scores and self-reported emotional responses.

Research limitations/implications

Although the sample size is small and therefore cannot claim generalization from the findings, the use of emotional intelligence tests should be used with caution. Emotional responses are best understood through life experience as the headteachers attach retrospective meaning to their leadership actions.

Originality/value

Headteachers’ work is multifaceted because emotion is integral to the processes of teaching and learning. The emotional labor of headteachers and teachers impacts and has relevance to their roles as educational landscapes continue to shift.

Details

Journal of Professional Capital and Community, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-9548

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2002

H.M. Hubey

The social sciences are really the “hard sciences” and the physical sciences are the “easy” sciences. One of the great contributors to making the job of the social…

Abstract

The social sciences are really the “hard sciences” and the physical sciences are the “easy” sciences. One of the great contributors to making the job of the social scientist very difficult is the lack of fundamental dimensions on the basis of which absolute (i.e. ratio) scales can be formulated and in which relationships could be realized as the [allegedly] coveted equations of physics. This deficiency leads directly to the uses of statistical methods of various types. However it is possible, as shown, to formulate equations and to use them to obtain ratio/absolute scales and relationships based on them. This paper uses differential/integral equations, fundamental ideas from the processing view of the brain‐mind, multiple scale approximation via Taylor series, and basic reasoning some of which may be formulated as infinite‐valued logic, and which is related to probability theory (the theoretical basis of statistics) to resolve some of the basic issues relating to learning theory, the roles of nature and nurture in intelligence, the measurement of intelligence itself, and leads to the correct formulation of the potential‐actual type behaviors (specifically intelligence) and dynamical‐temporal model of intelligence development. Specifically, it is shown that the: (1) basic model for intelligence in terms of genetics and environment has to be multiplicative, which corresponds to a logical‐AND, and is not additive; (2) related concept of “genetics” creating its own environment is simply another way of saying that the interaction of genetics and environment is multiplicative as in (1); (3) timing of environmental richness is critical and must be modeled dynamically, e.g. in the form of a differential equation; (4) path functions, not point functions, must be used to model such phenomena; (5) integral equation formulation shows that intelligence at any time t, is a a sum over time of the past interaction of intelligence with environmental and genetic factors; (6) intelligence is about 100 per cent inherited on a global absolute (ratio) scale which is the natural (dimensionless) scale for measuring variables in social science; (7) nature of the approximation assumptions implicit in statistical methods leads to “heritability” calculations in the neighborhood of 0.5. and that short of having controlled randomized experiments such as in animal studies these are expected sheerely due to the methods used; (8) concepts from AI, psychology, epistemology and physics coincide in many respects except for the terminology used, and these concepts can be modeled nonlinearly.

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Kybernetes, vol. 31 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Book part
Publication date: 2 July 2003

Jack A Naglieri

The chapter begins by presenting a case study of a 4th grade student, who has been referred by his teacher for an evaluation. However before this case can be completely…

Abstract

The chapter begins by presenting a case study of a 4th grade student, who has been referred by his teacher for an evaluation. However before this case can be completely understood, it is necessary to understand the limitations associated with the general intelligence approach of assessment. The chapter provides an overview of these limitations and suggests using a processing-based approach instead of a general intelligence approach. The second section outlines the Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive (PASS) theory and approach toward assessment, which is supported by neuropsychological research. The final section returns to the case study and demonstrates how the information gathered using the PASS theory and Cognitive Assessment System (CAS) can be used to guide interventions for various learning disabilities.

Details

Advances in Learning and Behavioral Disabilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-029-6

Content available
Article
Publication date: 5 June 2018

Wen Ji, Jing Liu, Zhiwen Pan, Jingce Xu, Bing Liang and Yiqiang Chen

With development of machine learning techniques, the artificial intelligence systems such as crowd networks are becoming more and more autonomous and smart. Therefore…

Abstract

Purpose

With development of machine learning techniques, the artificial intelligence systems such as crowd networks are becoming more and more autonomous and smart. Therefore, there is a growing demand to develop a universal intelligence measurement so that the intelligence of artificial intelligence systems can be evaluated. This paper aims to propose a more formalized and accurate machine intelligence measurement method.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper proposes a quality–time–complexity universal intelligence measurement method to measure the intelligence of agents.

Findings

By observing the interaction process between the agent and the environment, we abstract three major factors for intelligence measure as quality, time and complexity of environment.

Practical implications

In a crowd network, a number of intelligent agents are able to collaborate with each other to finish a certain kind of sophisticated tasks. The proposed approach can be used to allocate the tasks to the agents within a crowd network in an optimized manner.

Originality/value

This paper proposes a calculable universal intelligent measure method through considering more than two factors and the correlations between factors which are involved in an intelligent measurement.

Details

International Journal of Crowd Science, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-7294

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 16 October 2018

Jing Liu, Zhiwen Pan, Jingce Xu, Bing Liang, Yiqiang Chen and Wen Ji

With the development of machine learning techniques, the artificial intelligence systems such as crowd networks are becoming more autonomous and smart. Therefore, there is…

Abstract

Purpose

With the development of machine learning techniques, the artificial intelligence systems such as crowd networks are becoming more autonomous and smart. Therefore, there is a growing demand for developing a universal intelligence measurement so that the intelligence of artificial intelligence systems can be evaluated. This paper aims to propose a more formalized and accurate machine intelligence measurement method.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper proposes a quality–time–complexity universal intelligence measurement method to measure the intelligence of agents.

Findings

By observing the interaction process between the agent and the environment, we abstract three major factors for intelligence measure as quality, time and complexity of environment.

Originality/value

This paper proposes a calculable universal intelligent measure method through considering more than two factors and the correlations between factors which are involved in an intelligent measurement.

Details

International Journal of Crowd Science, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-7294

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2000

T.R. Addis

A strictly pragmatic stance is taken in asking the question “What features must be present that makes behaviour intelligent?” The Turing Test is shown to be insufficient…

Abstract

A strictly pragmatic stance is taken in asking the question “What features must be present that makes behaviour intelligent?” The Turing Test is shown to be insufficient to support any useful discussion; intelligence measures (IQ tests) suggest specialisation and little else. On the other hand, Discontinuity Theory identifies “insight” and Information Theory provides a means of measuring the practical consequence of “insight” as well as providing an argument for the need of “purpose” in intelligent behaviour. The Peircian trichotomy of inference into Induction, Deduction and Abduction supports a range of specialisation for the different aspects of reasoning. These aspects can be improved through experience leading to the notion of “wisdom” and a practical measure for the anthropomorphism of intelligence. The simplest kind of intelligence is constructed as a computer program demonstrating that intelligent machines as they are currently conceived are unlikely to be independent of their human context.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 29 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

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